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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recruitment of Gr1(+)CD11b (+)F4/80 (+) Population in the Bone Marrow and Spleen by Irradiation-Induced Pulmonary Damage.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Radiation-induced lung injury is a kind of sterile inflammation, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation activate the immune system is not well understood. In the present study, we have investigated the immunological responses induced by local irradiation-induced damage in mouse lung. The left lungs of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated at a high dose of 100 Gy. The histology of the lungs and spleen showed evidences of alveolar inflammation and congestion at 2 weeks after X-ray treatment. Also, prominent increase in cells expressing the cell surface markers, Gr(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) and Ly6C(+) Ly6G(+) were observed 2 weeks after X-ray treatment (100 Gy). Gr1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cell depletion by clodronate treatment reversed the histological effects and also failed to recruit Gr(+)CD11b(+) cells or F4/80(+) cells caused by irradiation. The origin of recruited Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells was found to be a mixed resident and recruited phenotype.
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Negative regulation of GADD34 on myofibroblasts during cutaneous wound healing.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein, GADD34, has been proved to be involved in TGF-? signaling pathway and correlates with cell death, which are two important mechanisms in regulating myofibroblast differentiation and apoptosis during tissue repair. But roles of GADD34 in myofibroblasts differentiation and apoptosis remain unknown. To investigate the function of GADD34 in these processes, we subjected WT and GADD34(-/-) mice to dermal wound healing. Here we show that GADD34(-/-) mice exhibited accelerated wound closure compared with WT mice. In addition, GADD34(-/-) mice showed increased number of myofibroblasts, elevated collagen production, and decreased cell apoptosis during wound healing. Moreover, we found that GADD34(-/-) mice showed increased phosphorylation of Smad3 and lower level of cleaved caspase-3. Thus these results indicate that GADD34 appears to suppress myofibroblast differentiation through inhibiting Smad3-dependent TGF? signal pathway and promote its apoptosis by activating caspase-3 pathway.
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Acrolein induced both pulmonary inflammation and the death of lung epithelial cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Acrolein, a compound found in cigarette smoke, is a major risk factor for respiratory diseases. Previous research determined that both acrolein and cigarette smoke produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). As many types of pulmonary injuries are associated with inflammation, this study sought to ascertain the extent to which exposure to acrolein advanced inflammatory state in the lungs. Our results showed that intranasal exposure of mice to acrolein increased CD11c(+)F4/80(high) macrophages in the lungs and increased ROS formation via induction of NF-?B signaling. Treatment with acrolein activated macrophages and led to their increased production of ROS and expression of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. In in vitro studies, acrolein treatment of bone marrow-derived GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages (GM-IMs), activated the cells and led to their increased production of ROS and expression of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acrolein treatment of macrophages induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Inclusion of an inhibitor of ROS formation markedly decreased acrolein-mediated macrophage activation and reduced the extent of epithelial cell death. These results indicate that acrolein can cause lung damage, in great part by mediating the increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/factors by macrophages.
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iPSCs, aging and age-related diseases.
N Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Human histocompatibility antigens are quite heterogeneous and promote the rejection of transplanted tissue. Recent advances in stem cell research that enable the use of a patient's own stem cells for transplantation are very important because rejection could be avoided. In particular, Yamanaka's group in Japan gave new hope to patients with incurable diseases when they developed induced murine pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 and human iPSCs in 2007. Whereas embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass and are supported in culture by LIF, iPSCs are derived from fetal or adult somatic cells. Through the application of iPSC technology, adult somatic cells can develop a pluripotent state. One advantage of using iPSCs instead of ESCs in regenerative medicine is that (theoretically) immune rejection could be avoided, although there is some debate about immune rejection of a patient's own iPSCs. Many diseases occur in elderly patients. In order to use regenerative medicine with the elderly, it is important to demonstrate that iPSCs can indeed be generated from older patients. Recent findings have shown that iPSCs can be established from aged mice and aged humans. These iPSCs can differentiate to cells from all three germ layers. However, it is not known whether iPSCs from aged mice or humans show early senescence. Before clinical use of iPSCs, issues related to copy number variation, tumorigenicity and immunogenicity must be resolved. It is particularly important that researchers have succeeded in generating iPSCs that have differentiated to somatic cells related to specific diseases of the elderly, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These efforts will facilitate the use of personalized stem cell transplantation therapy for currently incurable diseases.
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Loss of GADD34 induces early age-dependent deviation to the myeloid lineage.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate all known hematopoietic lineages and are capable of self-renewal. Upon aging, myeloid-biased HSCs are maintained, whereas lymphoid-biased HSCs are lost. GADD34 protein is expressed in myeloid-lineage cells and has been cloned from them. However, the function of GADD34 in the myeloid lineage has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that early age-dependent deviation to the myeloid lineage occurs in GADD34-deficient mice. Early increases of GR-1(int)CD11b(+) and GR-1(high)CD11b(+) neutrophils were observed in the spleen, bone marrow (BM) and blood of GADD34-deficient mice. We found that BM Lin(-) c-Kit(+) Sca1(+) and Lin(-) c-Kit(+) Sca1(-)cells expressed GADD34 protein without stimulation and increased GADD34 expression following intravenous injection of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). These cell populations were high in GADD34-deficient BM and were increased by the injection of S. aureus. Because of the increase in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced by S. aureus injection, we examined the signaling pathway from the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR). We found that phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 was highly increased in GADD34-deficient Lin(-) BM cells by the stimulation of G-CSF. These results indicate that GADD34 binds to Lyn and inhibit G-CSFR signaling. We show here that GADD34 works to inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of HSCs or myeloid precursor cells and maintains homeostatic differentiation of neutrophil-lineage cells to avoid early immunological senescence.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 19 November 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.78.
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No immunogenicity of IPS cells in syngeneic host studied by in vivo injection and 3D scaffold experiments.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs) open the great possibility to employ patients own tissue to the previously incurable diseases. However these cells can be used in cell therapy only if they are not rejected when transplanted back into the syngeneic host. We found that the injection of iPSCs derived from different ages of mice into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice produced teratoma and was not rejected. Then we cultured iPSCs and myeloid differentiated iPSCs in three-dimensional porous scaffold and transplanted to C57BL/6 mice and BALB/C mice. After transplantation, we could observe the cell density inside the scaffold increased rapidly in syngeneic mice compared to the allogeneic mice indicating the favorable conditions supporting the growth of iPSCs in vivo. Unlike the allogeneic counterpart, we could not observe few infiltrating T cells inside the scaffold of syngeneic mice. These results contribute to the optimistic view of iPSCs for regenerative medicine in near future.
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Preoperative radiographic and histopathologic evaluation of central chondrosarcoma.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Distinguishing grade 1 chondrosarcoma from grade 2 chondrosarcoma is critical both for planning the surgical procedure and for predicting the outcome. We aimed to review the preoperative radiographic and histologic findings, and to evaluate the reliability of preoperative grading.
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Characteristics of cardiac aging in C57BL/6 mice.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The specific processes that cause aging of the cardiac tissue remain elusive. C57BL/6 (B6) mice are commonly used for investigating age-related diseases in mammals. We thus sought to evaluate the cardiac aging process in B6 mice. Cardiac tissues from the newborn (B6 NB), 2month-old (B6 2M) and 21-27month-old B6 mice (B6 aged) were used for the investigation. Several age-related cellular processes were evaluated, including telomere shortening, changes in p53 and p16 expression, changes in mitochondria DNA expression and DNA deletion, and alteration of mitochondria. We found that the aging of the B6 mice cardiac tissue is associated with the maintenance of telomere length, increased expression of p53 and p16, mild changes in mitochondrial DNA expression but widespread DNA deletion, and significant alterations of the mitochondrial ultrastructure within the cardiac tissue. The results of our studies suggest that mitochondrial DNA deletions, which affect the mitochondrial ultrastructure, cytochrome C oxidase activity, and p53 expression, are significantly associated with cardiac aging and may be a source of age-related heart failure.
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Establishment of self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages in vitro from murine bone marrow.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Macrophages play a key role in the innate immune system. Macrophages are thought to originate from hematopoietic precursors or the yolk sac. Here, we describe the in vitro establishment of self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages (GM-IMs) from murine bone marrow (BM). GM-IMs grow continuously in vitro in conditioned medium containing GM-CSF. The immunophenotype of GM-IMs is F4/80(high) CD11b(high) CD11c(low) Ly6C(low). By comparing gene expression in GM-IMs and BM dendritic cells, we found that GM-IMs expressed lower levels of chemokines, cytokines and their receptors. GM-IMs are round in shape, attach loosely to non-coated culture dishes and have a marked phagocytic capacity. These results indicate that GM-IMs are macrophage precursor cells. Following stimulation with LPS, monocyte-like GM-IMs converted to flat macrophage-like cells that tightly adhered to non-coated culture dishes and produced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF?, IL-6 and IL-1?. These results indicated that GM-IMs differentiated to M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages. This was confirmed by stimulation of GM-IMs with IFN?, an inducer of M1 markers. GM-IMs showed enhanced expression of M2 macrophage markers such as Arg1 and Retnla following stimulation by Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. When GM-IMs were injected into mice at sites of wounding, wound repair was enhanced. These results indicate that GM-IMs can differentiate to M2 macrophages. When GM-IMs were injected into clodronate-treated mice, they induced resident macrophage proliferation by producing M-CSF. In conclusion we have established self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages in vitro from murine BM, which differentiate to M1 or M2 macrophages.
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Efficient and reproducible myogenic differentiation from human iPS cells: prospects for modeling Miyoshi Myopathy in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has enabled the production of in vitro, patient-specific cell models of human disease. In vitro recreation of disease pathology from patient-derived hiPSCs depends on efficient differentiation protocols producing relevant adult cell types. However, myogenic differentiation of hiPSCs has faced obstacles, namely, low efficiency and/or poor reproducibility. Here, we report the rapid, efficient, and reproducible differentiation of hiPSCs into mature myocytes. We demonstrated that inducible expression of myogenic differentiation1 (MYOD1) in immature hiPSCs for at least 5 days drives cells along the myogenic lineage, with efficiencies reaching 70-90%. Myogenic differentiation driven by MYOD1 occurred even in immature, almost completely undifferentiated hiPSCs, without mesodermal transition. Myocytes induced in this manner reach maturity within 2 weeks of differentiation as assessed by marker gene expression and functional properties, including in vitro and in vivo cell fusion and twitching in response to electrical stimulation. Miyoshi Myopathy (MM) is a congenital distal myopathy caused by defective muscle membrane repair due to mutations in DYSFERLIN. Using our induced differentiation technique, we successfully recreated the pathological condition of MM in vitro, demonstrating defective membrane repair in hiPSC-derived myotubes from an MM patient and phenotypic rescue by expression of full-length DYSFERLIN (DYSF). These findings not only facilitate the pathological investigation of MM, but could potentially be applied in modeling of other human muscular diseases by using patient-derived hiPSCs.
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Up-regulation of Gr1+CD11b+ population in spleen of dextran sulfate sodium administered mice works to repair colitis.
Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is commonly used in rodent IBD models to chemically induce acute intestinal inflammation. The acute course of colitis includes colon tissue damages and recovery from wounded tissues. As skin wound repair was delayed by splenectomy, we asked whether splenectomy would induce the delay of colonic wound healing. In splenectomized mice, body weight recovery, disease score and colon length were delayed. Surprisingly we found a great increase of Gr1+CD11b+ cells in spleen and bone marrow of DSS-administered mice. Anti-Gr-1 antibody treatment worsened the DSS- administered colitis. These results indicate that Gr1+CD11b+ cells induced by DSS worked to repair colon wound healing and repair colitis.
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Gadd34 induces autophagy through the suppression of the mTOR pathway during starvation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Several types of cellular stress induce expression of growth arrest and DNA damage protein 34 (Gadd34). Autophagy occurs under both basal conditions and conditions of stress, such as starvation. Gadd34 and autophagy are both induced under starvation conditions. In this study we found that starvation induced the expression of Gadd34, reduced mTOR activity, and induced autophagy in wild type mice, but not Gadd34 KO mice. Gadd34 bound to and dephosphorylated pTSC2 at Thr1462. Dephosphorylation of TSC2 during the starvation time period leads to the suppression of mTOR, which is a potent inhibitor of autophagy. We concluded that starvation-induced Gadd34 suppresses mTOR and, thereby, induces autophagy.
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Autophagic activity in thymus and liver during aging.
Age (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Impaired or deficient autophagy is believed to cause or contribute to aging, as well as several age-related pathologies. Thymic epithelial cells had a high constitutive level of autophagy. The autophagic process may play a supporting role or even a crucial role in the presentation of self-Ags in the thymus to shape the T-cell repertoires. Autophagic activity in the liver is important for the balance of energy and nutrients for basic cell functions. The abundance of autophagic structure in both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells and liver with mouse age has not been examined in detail. Here, we demonstrated that the architecture of mouse thymus and liver markedly changed with age. We found that the expression of LC3 detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was greatly decreased in thymus and liver of 12-month-old mice. The same level of reduction was observed in thymus and liver of 24-month-old mice. Ultrastructure analysis by an electron microscope revealed that the number of autophagic structure/vacuole in total thymic epithelial cells and hepatocytes decrease with age. The age-related decrease of autophagic structure in thymic epithelial cells may cause the reduction of immunocompetent T-cell pool in aged mice. The age-related decrease of autophagy in liver may induce accumulation of cellular materials in liver of aged mice.
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Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from aged mice using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells.
J Mol Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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If induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are to be used to treat damaged tissues or repair organs in elderly patients, it will be necessary to establish iPS cells from their tissues. To determine the feasibility of using this technology with elderly patients, we asked if it was indeed possible to establish iPS cells from the bone marrow (BM) of aged mice. BM cells from aged C57BL/6 mice carrying the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene were cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 4 days. Four factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) were introduced into the BM-derived myeloid (BM-M) cells. The efficiency of generating iPS cells from aged BM cultured in GM-CSF was low. However, we succeeded in obtaining BM-M-iPS cells from aged C57BL/6 mice, which carried GFP. Our BM-M-iPS cells expressed SSEA-1 and Pou5f1 and were positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. The iPS cells did make teratoma with three germ layers following injection into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, and can be differentiated to three germ layers in vitro. By co-culturing with OP9, the BM-M-iPS cells can be differentiated to the myeloid lineage. The differentiated BM-M-iPS cells proliferated well in the presence of GM-CSF, and lost expression of Nanog and Pou5f1, at least in part, due to methylation of their promoters. On the contrary, Tnf and Il1b gene expression was upregulated and their promoters were hypomethylated.
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CD8+CD122+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4+ Tregs cooperatively prevent and cure CD4+ cell-induced colitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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We identified CD8(+)CD122(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and demonstrated their importance in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and in the recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this paper, we show that CD8(+)CD122(+) Tregs effectively prevent and cure colitis in a mouse model. In our experiments, colitis was induced in lymphocyte-deficient RAG-2(-/-) mice by transferring CD4(+)CD45RB(high) cells that were excluded with CD4(+) Tregs. Cotransfer of CD8(+)CD122(+) cells clearly suppressed the development of colitis, and this suppressive effect was similar to that of CD4(+)CD45RB(low) cells that were mostly CD4(+) Tregs. CD8(+)CD122(+) cells obtained from IL-10(-/-) mice were unable to suppress colitis, indicating that IL-10 is an important effect-transmitting factor in the suppression of colitis. CD8(+)CD122(+) cells showed a suppressive effect when they were transferred 4 wk after CD4(+)CD45RB(high) cells, indicating the therapeutic potential of CD8(+)CD122(+) cells. A mixture of CD8(+)CD122(+) cells and CD4(+)CD45RB(low) cells was far more effective than single Tregs, indicating the synergistic effect of these Tregs. These overall findings demonstrate the potential role of CD8(+) Tregs, and possibly together with CD4(+) Tregs, in the medical care of inflammatory bowel disease patients.
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Metastatic carcinoma to subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle: clinicopathological features in 11 cases.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Metastatic carcinoma to subcutaneous tissue or skeletal muscle is relatively rare. The present study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological features for confirming the diagnosis as soft tissue metastasis and determining the primary site.
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Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells to thymic epithelial cells by phenotype.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are present in both cortical and medullary thymic areas, and have crucial roles in functional T-cell development. In this study, we studied the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to TEC. When iPSC were cultured for 4 days in collagen IV-coated dishes in the presence of both activin A and lithium chloride (LiCl), the cells differentiated to definitive endoderm through mesendoderm. Further treatment with Fgf8 followed by Fgf7, Fgf10 and BMP4 differentiated iPSC to thymic epithelial progenitor cells (TEPCs) by phenotype. Gene expression of Hoxa3, Pax1 and Pax9 was observed and cell surface proteins EpCAM1 and MTS24 were detected at day 14 of iPSC differentiation. TEPCs differentiated to medullary TECs (mTECs) by phenotype following the addition of receptor activator nuclear factor B ligand with LiCl. Thus, we successfully induced efficient differentiation from mouse iPSC to TEPCs and mTEC by phenotype using chemically defined conditions.
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Multifocal periosteal chondromas in the ring finger of an adolescent boy: case report.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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We describe an unusual case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a loss of motion in the ring finger caused by 2 separate periosteal chondromas involving the proximal and middle phalanges. Range of motion improved and recurrence did not occur at the 5-year follow-up after marginal excision of both lesions.
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Toxic effects of D-galactose on thymus and spleen that resemble aging.
J Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Continuous low-dose injection of d-galactose induces changes in mice that resemble accelerated aging. As such, these mice have been used as models to study mechanisms of aging. Here, we examined whether repeated (daily, for 60 days) subcutaneous injections (at 50 mg D-galactose/kg) into young adult (i.e., 2-month-old) mice induced changes in key immune system organs that were on par with those associated with aging. The results showed that galactose-treated mice develop histologic changes in their thymic cortical and medullary regions; immunohistochemical analysis revealed unorganized distributions of keratin-5 and keratin-8 proteins in the thymus of these hosts. These histological changes in the thymus of D-galactose-treated mice were also observed in the organs of aged (i.e., 24-month-old control mice); however, in this latter group, these changes were accompanied by a strong infiltration of adipose cells. Galactose-treated mice also evinced alterations within their splenic white and red pulp. Further, ultrastructural analyses of the thymus and spleen of the treated mice revealed increases in irregularly shaped lymphocytes bearing visible pyknosis. It was also seen that levels of autophagy within thymic epithelial cells were greatly decreased in the tissues of the galactose-treated mice, an outcome also seen in aged mice. Lastly, the level of memory T-lymphocytes and percentage of IgM-B220-B-lymphocytes in spleens of the galactose-treated mice were both increased (albeit insignificantly so) relative to values among splenocytes of age-matched control; however, these levels were not clearly as elevated as would be expected in "elderly" mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that d-galactose treatment can induce structural changes in the thymus and spleen, and some changes in organ-associated cell phenotypes, that are similar to several effects seen with aging. However, the fact that many endpoints do not appear to be truly reflective of what should be seen in immune system organs/cells of "elderly" mice now calls into question the appropriateness of the use of d-galactose (i.e., is it histologically/immunotoxicologically-proper?) to create age-mimicry in mice.
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Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation rejuvenates the B-cell lineage in aged mice.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Age-related reductions in the frequency and absolute number of early B lineage precursors in the bone marrow of aged mice have been reported. Reversal of B-cell lineage senescence has not been achieved. Age-related impairment of the B-cell lineage is caused by the decreasing functionality of hematopoietic and B lineage precursors, and reduced efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells that constitute the bone marrow microenvironment. To induce rejuvenation of aged B cells, we injected whole bone marrow from young donors to irradiated aged recipients through the tibia and analyzed B-cell development and immune responsiveness. In aged mice, we found significant reductions in the frequencies and absolute numbers of pro-B cells (B220(+)CD43(+)CD24(+)BP-1(-) and B220(+)CD43(+)CD24(int)BP-1(+)) and pre-B cells (B220(+)CD43(+)CD24(high)BP-1(+) and B220(+)CD43(-)IgM(-)IgD(-)). Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) of young marrow cells including both hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells reversed the reduction of pro-B cells and pre-B cells. In the periphery, the frequency and absolute number of marginal zone-B cell were not significantly different between young, old and IBM-BMT group. The frequency of follicular-B cells in the IBM-BMT group was significantly increased compared to old group. The frequency of B1a B cells in the peritoneal cavity was significantly decreased in the IBM-BMT group. Antibody production against T-independent antigens was not different among the young, the aged and IBM-BMT groups.
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Hemoglobin induces the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in dendritic cells through the activation of PI3K, PKC, and NF-kappaB and the generation of reactive oxygen species.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. IDO is immunosuppressive and is induced by inflammation in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Previous studies have shown the serum Kyn/Trp levels in patients with hemolytic anemia to be notably high. In the present study, we demonstrated that hemoglobin (Hb), but not hemin or heme-free globin (Apo Hb), induced IDO expression in bone marrow-derived myeloid DCs (BMDCs). Hb induced the phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha. Hb-induced IDO expression was inhibited by inhibitors of PI3-kinase (PI3K), PKC and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Hb translocated both RelA and p52 from the cytosol to the nucleus and induced the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hb-induced IDO expression was inhibited by anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or mixtures of SOD and catalase, however, IDO expression was enhanced by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, an inhibitor of catalase, suggesting that the generation of ROS such as O(2) (-), H(2)O(2), and hydroxyl radical is required for the induction of IDO expression. The generation of ROS was inhibited by a PKC inhibitor, and this action was further enhanced by addition of a PI3K inhibitor. Hb induced Akt phosphorylation, which was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor and enhanced by a PKC inhibitor. These results suggest that the activation of NF-kappaB through the PI3K-PKC-ROS and PI3K-Akt pathways is required for the Hb-induced IDO expression in BMDCs.
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GADD34 suppresses wound healing by upregulating expression of myosin IIA.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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Wound healing consists of sequential steps of tissue repair, and cell migration is particularly important. In order to analyze the potential function of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 34 (GADD34) in tissue repair, we performed in vitro and in vivo wound healing experiments. In an in vitro scratch assay, GADD34 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had higher migration rates than did wild type (WT) MEFs. Furthermore, the rate of wound closure was faster in GADD34 KO MEFs than in WT MEFs. Using in vivo punch biopsy assays, GADD34 KO mice had accelerated wound healing compared to WT mice. WT mice expressed higher amounts of myosin IIA in migrating macrophages and myofibroblasts than did GADD34 KO mice. These results indicate that GADD34 negatively regulates cell migration in wound healing via expression of myosin IIA.
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Bidirectional induction toward paraxial mesodermal derivatives from mouse ES cells in chemically defined medium.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a renewable cell source of tissue for regenerative therapies. The addition of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) to serum-free ESC cultures can induce primitive streak-like mesodermal cells. In differentiated mouse ESCs, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-alpha) and E-cadherin (ECD) are useful markers to distinguish between paraxial mesodermal progenitor cells and undifferentiated and endodermal cells, respectively. Here, we demonstrate methods for BMP4-mediated induction of paraxial mesodermal progenitors using PDGFR-alpha and ECD as markers for purification and characterization. Serum-free monolayers of ESCs cultured with BMP4 could efficiently promote paraxial mesodermal differentiation akin to embryonic mesodermal development. BMP4 treatment alone induced paraxial mesodermal progenitors that could differentiate into osteochondrogenic cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, early removal of BMP4 followed by lithium chloride (LiCl) promoted the differentiation to myogenic progenitor cells. These myogenic progenitors were able to differentiate further in vitro into mature skeletal muscle cells. Thus, we successfully induced the efficient bidirectional differentiation of mouse ESCs toward osteochondrogenic and myogenic cell types using chemically defined conditions.
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Human CD8+CXCR3+ T cells have the same function as murine CD8+CD122+ Treg.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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The importance of CD8(+)CD122(+) Treg in the maintenance of immune homeostasis has been previously demonstrated in mice. Because the expression pattern of CD8 and CD122 in humans is different from that in mice, human CD8(+) Treg that correspond to the murine CD8(+)CD122(+) Treg have not been identified. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analyses to compare the gene expression profiles of CD8(+)CD122(+) cells and CD8(+)CD122(-) cells in mice and found that CXCR3 was preferentially expressed in CD8(+)CD122(+) cells. When we analyzed the expression of CD122 and CXCR3 in murine CD8(+) cells, we observed a definite population of CD122(+)CXCR3(+) cells. CD8(+)CXCR3(+) cells in mice showed similar regulatory activities to CD8(+)CD122(+) cells by in vivo and in vitro assays. While CD8(+)CD122(+)CXCR3(+) cells are present in mice, CD8(+)CXCR3(+) cells, but not CD8(+)CD122(+) cells, are present in humans. In the in vitro assay, human CD8(+)CXCR3(+) cells showed the regulatory activity of producing IL-10 and suppressing IFN-gamma production from CD8(+)CXCR3(-) cells. These results suggest that human CD8(+)CXCR3(+) T cells are the counterparts of murine CD8(+)CD122(+) Treg.
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[Age-related decline of immune function and age-related diseases].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Effects of aging on immune system are widespread. The development of T and B cells declines with age. The functions of matured T and B cell also decline with age. Consequently, infections present major clinical problems for elderly patients. Many of age-related diseases are related to innate immunity. For example, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer disease are related to macrophages (microglia). The Ox-LDL or A-beta induces macrophages or microglia to produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Recently neutrophils have been shown to be an important immune cells in atherosclerosis. Neutrophils secrete inflammatory cytokines. In wound healing neutrophils also work as first important immune cells, which affect age-related decline of wound repair.
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Peptide array-based analysis of the specific IgE and IgG4 in cows milk allergens and its use in allergy evaluation.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Cows milk (CM) is one of the major causes of food allergies in children. We constructed a peptide array consisting of a linear 16-mer peptide library with an offset of 3-mer, which corresponds to the primary sequences of six major CM allergens. The immune reactivity to cows milk proteins diminishes with age and clinical tolerance commonly occurs. Although the central role of IgE in allergy is well established, the role of other specific antibody classes in obtaining immunotolerance is not well known. The hypothesis that patients become tolerant when they develop immunological changes particularly with the IgG4 isotype has been proposed. In this study, the binding pattern of the CM protein-specific IgE and IgG4 epitopes was measured using the peptide array with sera of 12 patients with persistent CM allergy (CMA), sera of 5 children who outgrew CMA, and sera of 7 CM-sensitized children without allergy symptoms. In CMA patients the IgG4/IgE fluorescence intensity ratios varied greatly from peptide to peptide, and the scatter plots of IgE versus IgG4 signals using significant IgE-binding peptides showed different distribution patterns. When setting the boundary line based on the IgG4/IgE ratio (IgG4/IgE=2), patients with persistent CMA and CM-sensitized children can be distinguished by the plot pattern of peptides. Furthermore, the number of peptide plots in these regions was less in children who outgrew CMA. The approach employed in this study will allow for the distinction between CMA and CM-sensitization, and will enable the estimation of CMA outgrow by monitoring the time elapsed data.
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Development of peptide arrays for detection of IgE-binding epitopes in cows milk allergens.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Peptide arrays have become versatile tools for high throughput screening assays in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. In this study, we constructed a peptide array that contained linear peptide fragments reported as IgE-binding epitopes for cows milk allergy (CMA). Various peptides with different solubility in aqueous solutions were dissolved in the buffer solutions containing sodium dodecyl sulfate, and we achieved a consistent spotting of peptide solutions using a piezoelectric ceramic micropump. The IgE-binding patterns were successfully detected by observing the binding of Alexa 647-labeled anti-human IgE using sera from CMA patients. Our technique in this study will provide a potent capability for the development of a peptide array for mapping IgE-epitopes in milk proteins, and it will help researchers better understand the IgE-epitopes associated with the clinical outcome of CMA.
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Injection of bleomycin in newborn mice induces autoimmune sialitis that is transferred by CD4 T cells.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Bleomycin (BLM) induces cellular apoptosis or necrosis by producing reactive oxygen species, and has been used to induce scleroderma in adult mice. We wondered whether BLM induces the same pathological phenotype in newborn mice as in adult mice. BLM was subcutaneously administrated to newborn BALB/c mice. At 1 month of age, BLM-treated mice showed severe destruction of salivary glands with enlargement of nearby lymph nodes. These nodes contained CD4(+) T cells and B220(+)cells with high expression of MHC class II molecules. In addition, autoantibodies were detected by HEp-2 staining and western blotting. The cell transfer experiments were performed to evaluate the role of autoimmune phenomena in these pathological changes. Following the transfer of enriched CD4(+) T cells to 1-month-old BALB/c nude mice, the salivary glands were severely damaged with CD4(+) T cell and B220(+) cells infiltrations. The number of T-cell antigen receptor Vbeta 8.3(+) CD4(+) T cells was significantly increased in BLM-treated murine spleen. These findings will provide new insights into the causal factors of environment in autoimmunity and the relationship between autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and autoantibodies.
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Induction of autoimmunity in a bleomycin-induced murine model of experimental systemic sclerosis: an important role for CD4+ T cells.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in the skin or other organs and the production of specific antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). Recently, bleomycin (BLM)-induced experimental scleroderma was reported in a murine model. Here, we present further development of this model and suggest that it is appropriate for the analysis of human diffuse type SSc. BLM was injected into the shaved backs of C3H or BALB/c mice (100 microg/mouse) 5 days per week for 3 weeks. Skin fibrosis was confirmed and pathological changes were seen in the lower part of the esophagus and stomach similar to those seen in SSc. The sera from these mice had autoantibodies specific to the damaged tissues and ANAs. Transfer of CD4(+) T cells from BLM-treated BALB/c mice induced the same pathological changes and antibody production in untreated-BALB/c nude mice. Hence, tissue fibrosis and the production of ANAs are probably associated with CD4(+) T-cell activity in this model. In conclusion, this model will be valuable for investigating the relationship between tissue fibrosis and abnormalities of the immune system.
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Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in patients with malignant lymphoma of bone.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2009
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The reliability of selected serum markers and radiological features for distinguishing malignant lymphoma of the bone from other osteolytic bone lesions was examined in an effort to improve the differential diagnosis.
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Antibodies to wounded tissue enhance cutaneous wound healing.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
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The wound repair process is a highly ordered sequence of events that encompasses haemostasis, inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue regrowth and remodelling. Wound healing follows tissue destruction so we hypothesized that antibodies might bind to wounded tissues, which would facilitate the engulfment of damaged tissues by macrophages. Here, we show that B cells, which produce antibodies to damaged tissues, are engaged in the process of wound healing. Splenectomy delayed wound healing, and transfer of spleen cells into splenectomized mice recovered the delay in wound healing. Furthermore, wound healing in splenectomized nude mice was also delayed. Transfer of enriched B220(+) cells by magnetic beads accelerated wound healing in splenectomized mice. We detected immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) binding to wounded tissues by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled anti-IgG1 6-24 hr after wounding. Splenectomy reduced the amount of IgG1 binding to wounded tissues. Immunoblotting studies revealed several bands, which were reduced by splenectomy. Using immunoprecipitation with anti-IgG bound to protein G we found that the intensity of several bands was lower in the serum from splenectomized mice than in that from sham-operated mice. These bands were matched to myosin IIA, carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, argininosuccinate synthase, actin and alpha-actinin-4 by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.
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Age-dependent changes in dopaminergic neuron firing patterns in substantia nigra pars compacta.
J. Neural Transm. Suppl.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta modulate complex motor control. Nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibit three different firing patterns in vivo: a pacemaker mode, a random mode, and a burst mode. These firing patterns are closely related to motor control. However, the changes in the proportion of the firing patterns with respect to age have not been fully established. To clarify the age-dependent changes in the proportion of dopaminergic firing patterns, we used single unit extracellular recordings in male F344/N rats. We observed that, with age, the distribution of the spikes fired by dopaminergic neurons shifts from pacemaker to random mode, and then from random to burst mode. These results suggest that the age-dependent changes in the proportion of nigral dopaminergic firing patterns may have an effect on motor function.
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Transplantation of neural crest-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells improves diabetic polyneuropathy in mice.
Cell Transplant
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Impaired vascularity and nerve degeneration are the most important pathophysiological abnormalities of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Therefore, regeneration of both the vascular and nervous systems is required for the treatment of DPN. The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic structure in vertebrates that differentiates into a vast range of cells, including peripheral neurons, Schwann cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we investigated the ability of transplantation of NC-like (NCL) cells derived from aged mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in the treatment of DPN. iPS cells were induced to differentiate into neural cells by stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) and subsequently supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4 to promote differentiation of NC lineage. After the induction, p75 neurotrophin receptor-positive NCL cells were purified using magnetic-activated cell sorting. Sorted NCL cells differentiated to peripheral neurons, glial cells, and smooth muscle cells by additional SDIA. NCL cells were transplanted into hind limb skeletal muscles of 16-week streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Nerve conduction velocity, current perception threshold, intraepidermal nerve fiber density, sensitivity to thermal stimuli, sciatic nerve blood flow, plantar skin blood flow, and capillary number-to-muscle fiber ratio were evaluated. Four weeks after transplantation, the engrafted cells produced growth factors: nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. It was also confirmed that some engrafted cells differentiated into vascular smooth muscle cells or Schwann cell-like cells at each intrinsic site. The transplantation improved the impaired nerve and vascular functions. These results suggest that transplantation of NCL cells derived from iPS cells could have therapeutic effects on DPN through paracrine actions of growth factors and differentiation into Schwann cell-like cells and vascular smooth muscle cells.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Aging in the mouse and perspectives of rejuvenation through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
Results Probl Cell Differ
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The mouse is a perfect model to study aging in mammals. It has a relatively short life span and genetic manipulations in this species are well established. Most interestingly, the mouse is a fantastic tool to produce stem cells. Forced expression of only four transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) in murine and human somatic cells resets the expression of genes that are characteristic of differentiated cells and consequently induces the formation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This technology opens new and exciting possibilities in medical research, especially personalized cell therapies for treating human disease. To treat damaged tissues or repair organs in elderly patients, it will be necessary to establish iPSCs from their tissues. To determine the feasibility of using this technology with elderly patients, we asked whether it was indeed possible to establish iPSCs from the tissues of aged mice and to differentiate them to tissue cells. We succeeded in establishing iPSC clones using bone marrow (BM) from 21-month-old EGFP-C57BL/6 mice, which had been cultured for 4 days in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Our iPSCs from aged mice (aged iPSCs) and those from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly expressed SSEA-1 and Pou5f1, and showed strong alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Our aged iPSCs made teratomas when injected into the back skin of syngeneic mice, and differentiated to tissue cells of three germ lines in vitro. Further experiments to make chimeric mice and germ line cells will determine whether the aged iPSCs possess the properties of much younger cells and are capable of regenerating aged mice.
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Comparative angiogenic activities of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from young and old mice.
PLoS ONE
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Advanced age is associated with decreased stem cell activity. However, the effect of aging on the differentiation capacity of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cardiovascular cells has not been fully clarified. We investigated whether iPS cells derived from young and old mice are equally capable of differentiating into vascular progenitor cells, and whether these cells regulate vascular responses in vivo. iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (young) or 21 month-old mouse bone marrow (old) were used. Fetal liver kinase-1 positive (Flk-1(+)) cells, as a vascular progenitor marker, were induced after 3 to 4 days of culture from iPS cells derived from young and old mice. These Flk-1(+) cells were sorted and shown to differentiate into VE-cadherin(+) endothelial cells and ?-SMA(+) smooth muscle cells. Tube-like formation was also successfully induced in both young and old murine Flk-1(+) cells. Next, hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced, and purified Flk-1(+) cells were directly injected into ischemic hindlimbs of nude mice. Revascularization of the ischemic hindlimb was significantly accelerated in mice transplanted with Flk-1(+) cells derived from iPS cells from either young or old mice, as compared to control mice as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. The degree of revascularization was similar in the two groups of ischemic mice injected with iPS cell-derived Flk-1(+) cells from young or old mice. Transplantation of Flk-1(+) cells from both young and old murine iPS cells also increased the expression of VEGF, HGF and IGF mRNA in ischemic tissue as compared to controls. iPS cell-derived Flk-1(+) cells differentiated into vascular progenitor cells, and regulated angiogenic vascular responses both in vitro and in vivo. These properties of iPS cells derived from old mice are essentially the same as those of iPS cells from young mice, suggesting the functionality of generated iPS cells themselves to be unaffected by aging.
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