We herein describe a case of a benign pulmonary tumor with distinctive histopathological features. A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a well-demarcated tumor in the left upper lobe of his lung, which gradually increased in size from 18 to 21?mm over 24 months. The resected tumor consisted of an epithelial component of compact irregular glands and mesenchymal component of fascicles between the glands. The differentiation of pneumocytes and smooth muscle cells was immunohistochemically detected in the epithelial component and the mesenchymal component, respectively. No mitosis, necrosis, bleeding, or invasion was observed. A histopathologic diagnosis of fibroleiomyomatous hamartoma was made. We also review previously reported tumors with similar histopathological features and discuss their differential diagnosis and histogenesis.
The aim of this study was to explore prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases (BM) on the basis of EGFR mutation status. Among 779 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent EGFR mutation screening, all 197 patients with BM were divided according to the EGFR mutation status. The prognostic factors, including patient characteristics at the time of BM diagnosis, treatment history, and radiologic features, were analyzed. Of 197 patients with BM, 108 had wild-type EGFR and 89 had EGFR mutation. The patients with EGFR mutation presented longer overall survival after BM diagnosis (OS) than those with wild-type EGFR, regardless of whether BM was synchronous or metachronous. For the patients with EGFR mutation, favorable prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were age<65 (p=0.037), good performance status (PS) (p<0.0001), cranial radiotherapy (p=0.020), previous chemotherapy?1 regimen (p=0.009), stable extracranial disease at BM diagnosis (p=0.022), and erlotinib therapy after BM diagnosis (p=0.0015). On the other hand, favorable prognostic factors for the patients with wild-type EGFR were only good PS (p=0.0037) and cranial radiotherapy (p=0.0005). Among patients treated with erlotinib after BM diagnosis, the patients with exon 19 deletion showed longer OS than those with exon 21 point mutation (p=0.019). The prognostic factors for NSCLC patients with BM were different according to the EGFR mutation status. Particularly in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and stable extracranial disease, regular cranial evaluation for detecting asymptomatic BM would lead to good prognosis. In addition, erlotinib therapy would be preferable in NSCLC patients with BM and EGFR mutation, especially those with exon 19 deletion.
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis is a vasculitis affecting the glomerular capillaries and small renal arteries. Although crescent formation has been reported to be characteristic of this condition, the significance of coexisting vasculitis affecting the small renal arteries has not been investigated.
A 14-year-old Japanese girl was admitted to our institution for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. Her serum creatinine was 1.1 mg/dL, proteinuria was 1.5 g/day, the urine sediment contained numerous erythrocytes per high-power field, and she was positive for myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). Proteinuria was first noted at the age of 12 years. Renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis with slight immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposition. A diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis was made. Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated, including steroid pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy, but hemodialysis was required after 6 years. Eight months after the patient became anuric and her MPO-ANCA titer became negative, living-related donor kidney transplantation was done from her mother. ANCA became slightly positive 2 years later, but the patient remains stable without proteinuria or hematuria at 4 years after surgery. This case suggests that kidney transplantation can be performed successfully for a patient with refractory childhood-onset ANCA-associated vasculitis, and that remission of vasculitis associated with ANCA negativity at transplantation may contribute to a better renal prognosis in this patient.
Small non-protein coding RNAs that regulate messenger RNA levels, namely microRNAs (miRNAs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify essential miRNAs involved in lung carcinogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS could be used as a strategy to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer; therefore, we examined the expression profiles of mRNAs modulated by oncogenic KRAS in the present study. We focused on miR-31 from the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, and evaluated its potential role in the development of lung cancer. miR-31 was upregulated not only by oncogenic KRAS, but also by oncogenic EGFR. The expression of miR-31 was markedly attenuated in some lung cancer cell lines by deleting its host gene locus. The restoration of miR-31 in lung cancer cell lines that lost its expression attenuated their growth activities. The knockdown of miR-31 expression in lung cancer cell lines retaining its expression enhanced anchorage-independent growth activity. These results suggest that miR-31 may be a suppressor that regulates an essential oncogenic pathway, the loss of which may promote lung carcinogenesis.
Morphological detection of cancer cells in the rabbit VX2 allograft transplantation model is often difficult in a certain region such as serosal cavity where reactive mesothelial cells mimic cancer cells and both cells share common markers such as cytokeratins. Therefore, tagging VX2 cells with a specific and sensitive marker that easily distinguishes them from other cells would be advantageous. Thus, we tried to establish a successively transplantable, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing VX2 model. Cancer cells obtained from a conventional VX2-bearing rabbit were cultured in vitro and transfected with an EGFP-encoding vector, and then successively transplanted in Healthy Japanese White rabbits (HJWRs) (n = 8). Besides, conventional VX2 cells were transplanted in other HJWRs (n = 8). Clinicopathological comparison analyses were performed between the two groups. The success rate of transplantation was 100 % for both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of EGFP for immunohistochemical detection of VX2 cells were 84.3 and 100 %, respectively. No significant differences in cancer cell morphology, tumor size (P = 0.742), Ki-67 labeling index (P = 0.878), or survival rate (P = 0.592) were observed between the two. VX2 cells can be genetically altered, visualized by EGFP, and successively transplanted without significant alteration of morphological and biological properties compared to those of the conventional model.
Small non-protein coding RNA, microRNA (miR), which regulate messenger RNA levels, have recently been identified, and may play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The present study focused on miR-31 and investigated its potential involvement in lung carcinogenesis. The expression of miR-31 was altered in lung cancer cells through either the amplification or loss of the host gene locus. The strong expression of miR-31 in large cell carcinomas was attributed to the gene amplification. Meanwhile, the loss of miR-31 expression was more frequently observed in aggressive adenocarcinomas. Thus, miR-31 may play a pleiotropic role in the development of lung cancers among different histological types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show the potential causative mechanism of the altered expression of miR-31 and suggest its potentially diverse significance in the different histological types of lung cancers.
Uterine tumors with sex cord-like elements are divided in two groups; uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT), and endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE). UTROSCT is currently defined as the neoplasm predominantly or exclusively composed of sex cord-like elements, and generally behaves in a benign fashion. We studied two unusual cases of UTROSCT with metastasis. One case was a 38-year-old multiparous woman presented with hypermenorrhea. The tumor grew as an intramural mass, and metastasized to a pelvic lymph node. Another case was a 57-year-old woman presented with genital bleeding. The tumor grew as a submucosal exophytic mass, and metastasized to the epiploic appendix. Microscopic examination of the 2 cases revealed that they were composed of sex cord-like cells, epithelioid cells and spindle cells. They exhibited solid pattern in predominance. Both solid and sex cord-like elements showed similar immunoreactivities for more than 3 sex cord markers, but simultaneously showed different staining patterns for some other markers. Characteristic features of endometrial stroma such as tongue-like infiltration and spiral arteries-like arterioles were not observed. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the absence of JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion, supporting the histopathological diagnosis of UTROSCT rather than ESTSCLE. The current cases warned the potential risk of UTROSCT whose biological behavior is still uncertain. We discuss histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of UTROSCT with metastasis.
This study investigated the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS in immortalized airway epithelial cells. Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4), S100 proteins (S100A2 and S100A11), tropomyosin 2, cathepsin L1, integrins?3, eukaryotic elongation factor 1, vimentin, and others were discriminated. We here focused on CLIC4 to investigate its potential involvement in carcinogenesis in the lung because previous studies suggested that some chloride channels and chloride channel regulators could function as tumor suppressors. CILC4 protein levels were reduced in some lung cancer cell lines. The restoration of CLIC4 in lung cancer cell lines in which CLIC4 expression was reduced attenuated their growth activity. The immunohistochemical expression of the CLIC4 protein was weaker in primary lung cancer cells than in non-tumorous airway epithelial cells and was occasionally undetectable in some tumors. CLIC4 protein levels were significantly lower in a subtype of mucinous ADC than in others, and were also significantly lower in KRAS-mutated ADC than in EGFR-mutated ADC. These results suggest that the alteration in CLIC4 could be involved in restrictedly the development of a specific fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. The potential benefit of the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS to lung cancer research has been demonstrated.
Our previous studies identified important molecules involved in lung carcinogenesis through a comprehensive search for the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, and these findings suggested that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS might represent a useful strategy for elucidating the common molecular bases of lung cancer. Among the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, a focus was placed on HDAC9, a member of the histone deacetylase family, in the present study because epigenetic modification of DNA or the histone proteins is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The immunohistochemical expression of HDAC9 was examined in surgically resected primary lung cancers (130 adenocarcinoma, 49 squamous cell carcinomas, one large cell carcinoma, and 6 small cell carcinomas) and potential associations between its expression level and pathologic factors were analyzed. The results showed that HDAC9 expression levels were lower in lung cancer cells than in non-tumor epithelial cells, and were also significantly lower in adenocarcinomas among the histological types. Moreover, HDAC9 expression levels were significantly lower in adenocarcinomas with lymphatic canal involvement. The restoration of HDAC9 in lung cancer cells losing its expression severely attenuated their growth activity in vitro. These results suggest that HDAC9 may be a suppressor and its downregulation might promote the progression process, especially in lung adenocarcinomas.
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) have been recognized recently as a heterogeneous group, and are subclassified according to genotype as well as morphological characteristics. We report a case of a 35-year-old Japanese woman who exhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1?-inactivated HCA in the background of the congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV). On a dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT) scan, the hypovascular tumor enlarged from 1 cm to 3 cm and another tumor emerged in the course of 7 years. Because the possibility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple metastases was not excluded, partial hepatectomy was performed. On a cut section, two well-demarcated tumors were observed and one tumor had a central fibrous scar. The histological features of these tumors were similar to those of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with a central scar and HCA; however, these tumors were diagnosed as HNF-1?-inactivated HCA by immunohistochemistry according to the criteria of the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In non-tumorous liver tissue, an abnormal architecture of the vessels and a vague nodular appearance of lobuli were observed, which were likely to be those of nodular regenerated hyperplasia (NRH). We discuss its pathogenesis and relationship with CAPV.
Previous studies on membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and cryoglobulinemic glomerulopathy (CG) were based upon case series that were performed before hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was routinely investigated. Therefore, it remains unknown how far HCV contributes to MPGN or CG, and there have only been a few reports about HCV-negative idiopathic MPGN.
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/day, and ADPKD is rarely associated with nephrotic syndrome or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). To date, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) has not been reported in a patient with ADPKD.Case presentations: We report two cases of MPO-ANCA positive ADPKD. A 60-year-old Japanese woman (case 1) and a 54-year-old Japanese woman (case 2) presented with RPGN featuring severe proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. In both patients percutaneous needle biopsy of the kidney revealed MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin staining. Each patient received intravenous methylprednisolone for 3 days, followed by oral prednisolone. Case 1 showed gradual improvement and has not progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but case 2 developed ESRD requiring hemodialysis within one month despite treatment. CONCLUSION: These are the first two reported cases of MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN in patients with ADPKD. Our experience suggests that serial measurement of the ANCA titer and renal biopsy should be considered for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of ADPKD patients who present with proteinuria, hematuria, and rapid decline of renal function.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is frequently associated with renal abnormalities, but there have been few reports about renal abnormalities in patients with hereditary TTP. In particular, little is known about the long-term prognosis of patients with childhood-onset congenital TTP.
Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, they are very rare. This study evaluated clinical and histopathological characteristics of duodenal GISTs to identify factors useful in predicting prognosis for patients with these tumors.
The present study evaluated the potential clinicopathologic significance of elevated microsatellite alteration at selected tetra-nucleotide (EMAST) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty-five NSCLCs (19 squamous cell carcinomas, 39 adenocarcinomas, one adenosquamous cell carcinoma, and 6 large cell carcinomas) were examined for EMAST in the ten selected tetra-nucleotide markers. Traditional microsatellite instability (MSI) in the five mono- or di-nucleotide markers of the Bethesda panel was also examined, and compared with EMAST. The incidence of EMAST was higher than that of traditional MSI, as 64.6% (42/65) and 12.3% (8/65) tumors respectively exhibited EMAST and traditional MSI in at least one marker. EMAST and traditional MSI appear to occur independently, as no significant association in their incidence was found (Fishers exact test, P = 0.146). Subjects who exhibited EMAST in two or more markers had a significantly higher incidence of history of other malignant neoplasms (42.9% [9/21]), compared to those with less than two markers (16.3% [7/43] (Chi-square test, P = 0.021)). Taken together, impairment of molecular machinery for maintaining stable replication of the tetra-nucleotide-repeating regions, which would differ from machinery for mono- or di-nucleotide-repeating regions, may elevate susceptibility to NSCLCs and certain neoplastic diseases. Elucidation of the potential molecular mechanism of EMAST is expected to lead to a discovery of a novel genetic background determining susceptibility to NSCLC and other multiple neoplasms. This is the first report describing a clinicopathologic significance of EMAST in NSCLC.
A 62-year-old woman presented with a mass on the left side of the neck. Biochemical testing revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. Further, a prolactinoma was detected, and the patients son and daughter also had primary hyperparathyroidism, indicating that the patient had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Neck ultrasonography revealed several cystic nodules (? 30 mm) that appeared to be adenomatous. After parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation, the largest cystic mass, in the left lower thyroid lobe, was pathologically diagnosed as a functioning parathyroid cyst, and all laboratory data returned to normal. On genetic analysis of blood, we found a novel single base insertion (duplication) in exon 10 codon 552 of the MEN1 gene (c1659dupT) that creates an early stop codon. This is the first case report of a parathyroid cyst resulting from parathyroid hyperplasia in a MEN1 patient.
The juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare renal tumor characterized by excessive renin secretion causing intractable hypertension and hypokalemia. However, asymptomatic nonfunctioning JGCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of nonfunctioning JGCT in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a left renal tumor without hypertension or hypokalemia. Under a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was located in the middle portion adjacent to the renal pelvis, measuring 2?cm in size. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells forming a solid arrangement, immunohistochemically positive for renin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as JGCT. In cases with hyperreninism, preoperative diagnosis of JGCT is straightforward but difficult in nonfunctioning case. Generally, JGCT presents a benign biological behavior. Therefore, we should take nonfunctioning JGCT into the differential diagnoses for renal tumors, especially in younger patients to avoid excessive surgery.
A retroperitoneal hemangioma is a rare disease. We report on the diagnosis and treatment of a retroperitoneal hemangioma which had uncommonly invaded into both the pancreas and duodenum, thus requiring a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PpPD). A 36-year-old man presented to our hospital with abdominal pain. An enhanced computed tomography scan without contrast enhancement revealed a 12 cm × 9 cm mass between the pancreas head and right kidney. Given the high rate of malignancy associated with retroperitoneal tumors, surgical resection was performed. Intraoperatively, the tumor was inseparable from both the duodenum and pancreas and PpPD was performed due to the invasive behavior. Although malignancy was suspected, pathological diagnosis identified the tumor as a retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma for which surgical resection was the proper diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Reteoperitoneal cavernous hemangioma is unique in that it is typically separated from the surrounding organs. However, clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of a case, such as this, which has invaded into the surrounding organs despite its benign etiology. From this case, we recommend that combined resection of inseparable organs should be performed if the mass has invaded into other tissues due to the hazardous nature of local recurrence. In summary, this report is the first to describe a case of retroperitoneal hemangioma that had uniquely invaded into surrounding organs and was treated with PpPD.
Cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet), a calcimimetic, has been shown to upregulate calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) expression in parathyroid glands of rats with chronic renal insufficiency. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the reduced CaSR expression in human parathyroid glands remains to be elucidated.
Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposits (PGNMID) is a recently described disease entity. In the kidney transplantation literature, only 6 recurrent and 2 de novo PGNMID cases, including 7 of the IgG3 subclass (6 with ? light chain and 1 with ? light chain) and 1 of the IgG1 subclass (? light chain), have been described to date. We describe a 52-year-old man with end-stage renal disease whose primary glomerular disease had been suggested to be membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient underwent living related donor kidney transplantation and presented with proteinuria, hematuria, and decreased kidney function at 4 months posttransplantation. Biopsy of the transplanted kidney showed diffuse endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed prominent granular glomerular staining for IgG, C3, and ? light chain, with IgM, IgA, and ? light chain undetectable. Immunofluorescence staining for IgG subclass showed signal for IgG2 only. Retrospective analysis of the native kidney biopsy specimen also showed the same monoclonal glomerular staining for the IgG2? subtype. These findings led us to the diagnosis of PGNMID of the IgG2? subtype as both the primary glomerular disease and recurrent disease in the transplanted kidney. Recurrence was treated with high-dose prednisolone, which decreased proteinuria, hematuria, and serum creatinine level. The case demonstrates that PGNMID of the IgG2? subtype also can recur in the transplanted kidney.
Cinacalcet treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) has demonstrated parathyroid size regression and morphological changes, such as cystic degeneration and hypovascularisation, on ultrasonography. However, there have been very few reports regarding the histopathological alterations of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in patients with SHPT after administration of cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of cinacalcet for histopathological alterations on the parathyroid glands.
Previous studies in Western countries have revealed that mucosal carcinoma of the fallopian tube frequently coexists with pelvic (ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal) serous carcinomas, and early tubal carcinoma is now regarded as a possible origin of these tumors. However, the relationship between early tubal carcinoma and non-serous ovarian cancer, such as clear cell adenocarcinoma, has not been studied in detail. In this study, we sought to examine the coexistence of mucosal carcinoma of the fallopian tube in Japanese ovarian cancer cases. We submitted the fallopian tubes in toto for histological examination in 52 ovarian carcinoma cases and three peritoneal serous carcinoma cases. The ovarian tumors included 12 serous adenocarcinomas, 23 clear cell adenocarcinomas, nine endometrioid adenocarcinomas, three mucinous adenocarcinomas, and four mixed epithelial carcinomas. Mucosal carcinoma of the fallopian tube did not coexist with non-serous adenocarcinoma (n?=?40). In contrast, mucosal carcinoma of the fallopian tube was observed in six cases of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and one case of peritoneal serous adenocarcinoma. In these cases, the p53 immunophenotypes were similar in tubal lesions and invasive ovarian or peritoneal carcinomas. Tumors were negative for p53 in four of seven cases, and one of the p53-negative serous adenocarcinomas showed low-grade morphology. We believe that some ovarian and peritoneal serous adenocarcinomas develop from early tubal carcinomas. However, it should be noted that early tubal carcinomas are not always p53-positive immunohistochemically. Finally, it is unlikely that early tubal lesions are involved in the carcinogenesis of clear cell adenocarcinoma and other non-serous adenocarcinomas.
In 2001, a 41-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of severe renal dysfunction and fever of unknown origin. On admission, her serum creatinine was 8.7 mg/dL, urine protein was 0.3 g/day, and urine ?(2)-microglobulin was 81,007 ?g/day. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed bilateral contracted kidneys with a mass projecting from the lower pole of the right kidney. Biopsy of this lesion revealed interstitial nephritis and a noncaseating granuloma. Because extrarenal organ involvement or laboratory findings specific for sarcoidosis or other primary diseases were not detected, idiopathic granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) was diagnosed. Prednisolone was started at dosage of 30 mg daily, and serum creatinine decreased to 5.5 mg/dL after 1 month. Her renal function was preserved for 8 years, but maintenance hemodialysis had to be started in 2009. A surgical specimen obtained after initiation of dialysis showed resolution of GIN in the renal mass lesion, which presumably resulted in preservation of renal function over the long term. Even in patients with severe renal dysfunction, histological diagnosis of GIN might lead to prognostic improvement because of appropriate therapeutic intervention.
Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has recently been applied to patients with myelofibrosis with reproducible engraftment and resolution of marrow fibrosis, no data describe the outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation. We describe 14 patients with primary (n = 1) and secondary myelofibrosis (n = 13) who underwent reduced-intensity umbilical cord blood transplantation. Conditioning regimens included fludarabine and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis composed cyclosporine/tacrolimus alone (n = 6) or a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (n = 8). Thirteen patients achieved neutrophil engraftment at a median of 23 days. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 92.9% at day 60 and 42.9% at day 100, respectively. Posttransplantation chimerism analysis showed full donor type in all patients at a median of 14 days. The use of umbilical cord blood could be feasible even for patients with severe marrow fibrosis, from the viewpoint of donor cell engraftment.
We report on a 33-year-old woman who presented with positive myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) during rheumatoid arthritis treatment with infliximab. She had a history of worsening arthralgia, and urinalysis showed the new occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. Immunosuppressive therapy and discontinuation of the infliximab therapy alleviated her arthralgia and improved the urinalysis results. We report this rare case in which an anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) agent for ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis was studied.
Communicating bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation, a variant of bronchopulmonary sequestration, is a rare anomaly characterized by communication between an isolated portion of the respiratory tree and the gastrointestinal tract. We report herein a unique case involving a 43-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma arising in communicating bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation. This patient had a workup for a chief complaint of exacerbation of constitutional dysphagia, resulting in detection of squamous cell carcinoma involving the lower esophagus. Under the clinical diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma, esophagectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pathologic findings showed that squamous cell carcinoma had arisen in malformed bronchopulmonary tissue constituting part of the distal esophagus segmentally. This case was unique in that squamous cell carcinoma developed in an extremely rare type of congenital abnormality that had functioned as a passageway for food from birth, as a result of chronic irritation for more than 4 decades.
Umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is widely accepted, but one critical issue for adult patients is a low engraftment rate, of which one cause is haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). We aimed to identify the contribution of HPS to engraftment failure after CBT, following preparative regimens containing fludarabine phosphate, in 119 patients (median age, 55 years; range; 17-69 years) with haematological diseases. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis comprised continuous infusion of a calcineurin inhibitor with or without mycophenolate mofetil. Of the 119 patients, 20 developed HPS within a median of 15 d (cumulative incidence; 16.8%) and 17 of them did so before engraftment. Donor-dominant chimaerism was confirmed in 16 of 18 evaluable patients with HPS. Despite aggressive interventions including corticosteroid, ciclosporin, high-dose immunoglobulin and/or etoposide, engraftment failed in 14 of 18 patients. Of these 14 patients, four received second rescue transplantation and all resulted in successful engraftment. Overall survival rates significantly differed between patients with and without HPS (15.0% vs. 35.4%; P < 0.01). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified having fewer infused CD34(+) cells as a significant risk factor for the development of HPS (P = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). We concluded that engraftment failure closely correlated with HPS in our cohort, which negatively impacted overall survival after CBT.
Crookes cell adenoma (CCA), characterized by massive Crookes hyaline change in corticotroph adenoma, causes a rare subtype of Cushings disease. In contrast to ordinary corticotroph adenomas, CCAs are generally aggressive and present as invasive macroadenomas, which are refractory to both surgery and radiotherapy and have a high-recurrence rate. Moreover, some patients with CCA present with distant or craniospinal metastases. Currently, there are no effective standard therapies for CCA.
We report a 79-year-old Japanese woman who had primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with end-stage renal disease and severe bone changes. In 2004, she began to experience pain in her shoulders and knees, as well as muscle weakness and anorexia. She already had renal failure with a serum Cr of 4.7 mg/dl, while serum calcium was 9.6 mg/dl, PTH was 2,710 pg/ml, and serum alkaline phosphatase was 923 mU/ml. Multiple fractures of the pelvic bones and lumbar spine, osteoporosis, and subperiosteal bone resorption were detected. Although hemodialysis (HD) was started in February 2005, her symptoms became more severe. Total parathyroidectomy (PTX) and right iliac crest bone biopsy were performed. Histomorphometric analysis of the cancellous bone indicated a diagnosis of osteitis fibrosa, but a reduction of cortical bone and near absence of cancellous bone were also apparent. This showed that bone resorption by osteoclasts was predominant over bone formation by osteoblasts. Soon after PTX, her pain subsided completely. We conclude that primary HPT should be detected and treated early enough to avoid renal damage, since renal dysfunction markedly accelerates bone changes in patients with primary HPT.
There is scant knowledge on the changes in renal histological findings in type 1 diabetic patients those initially had nephrotic proteinuria and decreased renal function and later had complete remission of diabetic nephropathy by multifactorial treatment (MFT). A 44-year-old Japanese type 1 diabetic woman (duration of diabetes: 17 years) with massive proteinuria (2.9 g/day) and decreased renal function (creatinine clearance rate (Ccr): 86 mL/min) was admitted. Aggressive MFT was started with intensive insulin treatment, a low protein and low salt diet, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and a diuretic. Her levels of HbA1c decreased to less than 7% within 4 months, and her high blood pressure gradually decreased and remained around mean 116/68 mmHg. Her Ccr level gradually improved and reached 108 mL/min after 78 months. Her first renal biopsy performed before MFT demonstrated diffuse and/or global accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff staining-positive mesangial matrix with increased mesangial matrix/glomerulus ratio and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Her second renal biopsy performed 5 years after MFT demonstrated decreased mesangial matrix/glomerulus ratio (42.0+/-4.0% to 29.2+/-1.9% [mean+/-S.D.], p<0.001) and increased her number of glomerular capillaries lumen per glomerulus (47+/-11 to 77+/-12, p<0.006). The number of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-expressing cells in the glomerular capillary significantly increased. Increased tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and the thickness of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) seen in the first biopsy specimen had decreased in the specimen taken at the second biopsy. Our case provides evidence that glomerular morphological improvements including decreased mesangial deposit and VEGF-related vasculogenesis in response to MFT goes along with functional normalization of diabetic nephropathy, which could not be attained in type 1 diabetic patients that underwent pancreas transplantation.
The present study investigated expression profiles of the potential CSC markers including CD133, CD44, ALDH1, and ?-catenin, and evaluated their prognostic value in lung adenocarcinomas. One-hundred-and-seventy-seven tumors (stage I) were immunohistochemically examined for the expression of these markers, and thresholds to subdivide expression levels were determined using receiver operating characteristics curves. Tumors with high levels of CD133 (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 4.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-16.40, P?=?0.021), CD44 (HR 3.73, 95% CI 1.20-11.58, P?=?0.023) or ALDH1 (HR 3.61, 95% CI 1.09-12.3, P?=?0.036), but not ?-catenin (HR 2.43, 95% CI 0.59-10.8, P?=?0.220), showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the corresponding low expressers. In conclusion, levels of CD133, CD44, and ALDH1 had independent prognostic value to predict the recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma.
A new classification of adenocarcinoma (ADC) was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) in 2011. The present study evaluates its prognostic value in stage I disease of Japanese cases. One-hundred-and-seventy-nine cases with pathological stage I ADC were classified according to the new classification system and their association with disease recurrence was analyzed. Eighteen (10.1%) and 24 (13.4%) cases were adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), respectively. One-hundred-and-thirty-seven cases (76.5%) were invasive adenocarcinoma (IVA), in which 43 (24.0%) were lepidic (LEP), 59 (33.0%) were acinar (ACN), 16 (8.9%) were papillary (PAP), 1 (0.6%) was micropapillary (MPAP), 12 (6.7%) were solid predominant subtypes (SOL), and 6 (3.4%) were invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC). The5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) of patients with AIS and MIA were 100%. Those of LEP, ACN, PAP, SOL and MUC were 93.5%, 83.7%, 75.0%, 44.4% and 62.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that high-histological grade (SOL, MPAP, MUC) had an independent prognostic value to predict post-operative recurrence (HR 3.661, 95% CI 1.421-9.437, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a prognostic value of the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of ADC in Japanese cases.
ALDH1A1 metabolizes a variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde, and also oxidizes retinol to synthesize retinoic acid and modulate cell differentiation. Moreover, ALDH1A1 is also suggested to participate in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. To investigate the potential role of ALDH1A1 in carcinogenesis of the lung, the present study examined two hundred and sixty eight cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for its immunohistochemical expression and analyzed associations between ALDH1A1 levels and a series of clinicopathologic parameters. Also, the biological significance of the aberrant expression of ALDH1A1 was investigated in vitro. ALDH1A1 expression was markedly reduced in 39.9% (107/268) of NSCLCs. The incidence of this reduction was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas (ADC: 41.6%, 85/207) and large cell carcinomas (61.1%, 11/18) than squamous cell carcinomas (25.5%, 11/43). Among ADCs, the downregulation tended to be more remarkable in high grade, poorly differentiated tumors, and tumors with stronger proliferating activity. It also occurred with a significantly higher incidence in smokers than non-smokers. Forced expression of ALDH1A1 in NSCLC cell lines, which had lost ALDH1A1 expression, markedly attenuated their growth. Taken together, loss of ALDH1A1 expression is suggested to promote carcinogenesis especially in the smoking-related ADCs.
This report presents a case of primary pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the duodenum. A 63-year-old male with persistent melena was referred for a solid tumor in his right upper abdomen detected using ultrasonography. Gastrofiberscopy revealed a protrusion in the upper part of the duodenum, with a large ulcer on the top of it. Enhanced computed tomography showed that the tumor extended to the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed, despite the absence of malignant cells in the biopsy specimen, with a preoperative diagnosis of duodenal cancer. The tumor consisted of multiple cell types, and immunohistochemical staining was positive for desmin, HHF-35 and alpha smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy revealed primitive Z-band structures in the tumor. The final diagnosis was pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the duodenum. This is the first report of primary rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in the duodenum, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy.
We encountered an unusual and rare case of 59-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) showing myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-related acute renal insufficiency accompanied by eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis. To date, reports in English of CSS presenting with rapidly progressive/acute renal insufficiency and biopsy-proven renal lesions have been uncommon. Here, we discuss this unusual case and review the previously reported CSS cases. The complication of eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis in CSS cases with acute renal insufficiency might be higher than generally thought. Furthermore, the presence of eosinophilic infiltration and eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis might be associated with the good renal outcome in CSS patients.
A 68-year-old Japanese woman with asthma of recent onset and a long history of membranous glomerulonephropathy (MN) was admitted because of multifocal pulmonary infiltrates, marked eosinophilia, mild renal dysfunction, a rash on her feet, and right median nerve paralysis. Although MPO- and PR3-ANCA were negative, skin biopsy demonstrated leukocytoclastic vasculitis and Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) was diagnosed. She also had salivary gland swelling and a high serum IgG4 level. Renal biopsy revealed MN with eosinophil-rich tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Her symptoms resolved after the start of corticosteroid therapy. The present case shows that ANCA-negative CSS can have a clinical condition similar to IgG4-related kidney disease.
Several authors have reported cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) with definite immune complex (IC) deposits, however, the clinical and pathological significance of IC deposits in patients with ANCA-associated CGN remains unclear.
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