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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TNF receptor inhibitor therapy for the treatment of children with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). A joint Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) and Children's Oncology Group (COG) study (ASCT0521).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute, non-infectious lung disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Previous studies have suggested a role for TNF? in the pathogenesis of IPS. We report a multi-center phase II trial investigating a soluble TNF binding protein, etanercept (Enbrel(®), Amgen) for the treatment of pediatric patients with IPS. Eligible patients were <18 years, within 120 days post-transplant, with radiographic evidence of a diffuse pneumonitis. All patients underwent a pre-therapy broncho-alveolor lavage (BAL) to establish the diagnosis of IPS. Systemic corticosteroids (2.0 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (0.4 mg/kg twice weekly x 8 doses) were administered. Response was defined as survival and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support by day 28 of study. Thirty-nine patients (median age 11y, range 1-17y) were enrolled, with 11 of 39 patients non-evaluable due to identification of pathogens from their pre-therapy BAL. In the remaining 28 patients, the median FiO2 at study entry was 45%, with 17 of 28 requiring mechanical ventilation. Complete responses were seen in 20 (71%) patients, with a median time to response 10 days (range 1-24). Response rates were higher for patients not requiring mechanical ventilation at study entry (100% vs. 53%,p=0.01). Overall survival at 28 days and 1-year post-therapy were 89% (95% CI:70-96) and 63% (95% CI:42-79) respectively. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased at onset of therapy, subsequently decreasing in responding patients. The addition of etanercept to high dose corticosteroids was associated with high response rates and survival in children with IPS.
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Effect of body mass in children with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The rising incidence of pediatric obesity may significantly affect bone marrow transplantation (BMT) outcomes. We analyzed outcomes in 3687 children worldwide who received cyclophosphamide-based BMT regimens for leukemias between 1990 and 2007. Recipients were classified according to age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles as underweight (UW), at risk of UW (RUW), normal, overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Median age and race were similar in all groups. Sixty-one percent of OB children were from the United States/Canada. Three-year relapse-free and overall survival ranged from 48% to 52% (P = .54) and 55% to 58% (P = .81) across BMI groups. Three-year leukemia relapses were 33%, 33%, 29%, 25%, and 21% in the UW, RUW, normal, OW, and OB groups, respectively (P < .001). Corresponding cumulative incidences for transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18%, 19%, 21%, 22%, and 28% (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a decreased risk of relapse compared with normal BMI (relative risk [RR] = 0.73; P < .01) and a trend toward higher TRM (RR = 1.28; P = .014). BMI in children is not significantly associated with different survival after BMT for hematologic malignancies. Obese children experience less relapse posttransplant compared with children with normal BMI; however, this benefit is offset by excess in TRM.
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Opportunities and challenges of proteomics in pediatric patients: Circulating biomarkers after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a successful example.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, facilitate-targeted treatment, and reduce health care costs. Thus, there is great hope that biomarkers will be integrated in all clinical decisions in the near future. A decade ago, the biomarker field was launched with great enthusiasm because MS revealed that blood contains a rich library of candidate biomarkers. However, biomarker research has not yet delivered on its promise due to several limitations: (i) improper sample handling and tracking as well as limited sample availability in the pediatric population, (ii) omission of appropriate controls in original study designs, (iii) lability and low abundance of interesting biomarkers in blood, and (iv) the inability to mechanistically tie biomarker presence to disease biology. These limitations as well as successful strategies to overcome them are discussed in this review. Several advances in biomarker discovery and validation have been made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current most effective tumor immunotherapy, and these could serve as examples for other conditions. This review provides fresh optimism that biomarkers clinically relevant in pediatrics are closer to being realized based on: (i) a uniform protocol for low-volume blood collection and preservation, (ii) inclusion of well-controlled independent cohorts, (iii) novel technologies and instrumentation with low analytical sensitivity, and (iv) integrated animal models for exploring potential biomarkers and targeted therapies.
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Human mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate graft-versus-host disease and maintain graft-versus-leukemia activity following experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation(1.)
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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We sought to define the effects and underlying mechanisms of human, marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) activity. Irradiated B6D2F1 mice given C57BL/6 BM and splenic T-cells and treated with hMSCs had reduced systemic GvHD, donor T-cell expansion, and serum TNF? and IFN? levels. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that hMSCs redistributed from lungs to abdominal organs within 72h; and target tissues harvested from hMSC-treated alloBMT mice had less GvHD than untreated controls. Cryo-imaging more precisely revealed that hMSCs preferentially distributed to splenic marginal zones and regulated T-cell expansion in the white pulp. Importantly, hMSCs had no effect on in vitro cytotoxic T-cell activity and preserved potent GvL effects in vivo. Mixed leukocyte cultures containing hMSCs exhibited decreased T-cell proliferation, reduced TNF?, IFN?, and IL-10, but increased PGE2 levels. Indomethacin and E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor antagonisms both reversed while EP2 agonism restored hMSC-mediated in vitro T-cell suppression, confirming the role for PGE2 . Furthermore, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition following alloBMT abrogated the protective effects of hMSCs. Together, our data show that hMSCs preserve GvL activity and attenuate GvHD and reveal that hMSC biodistribute to secondary lymphoid organs wherein they attenuate alloreactive T-cell proliferation likely through PGE2 induction. Stem Cells 2014.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor: enbrel (etanercept) for the treatment of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: blood and marrow transplant clinical trials network protocol.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a diffuse, noninfectious lung injury that occurs acutely after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). IPS-related mortality has been historically high (>50%) despite treatment with systemic corticosteroids and supportive care measures. We have now examined the role of tumor necrosis factor inhibition in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids with etanercept or placebo. Thirty-four subjects (?18 years) with IPS after HCT were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (0.4 mg/kg twice weekly × 4 weeks; n = 16) or placebo (n = 18). No active infections and a pathogen-negative bronchoscopy were required at study entry. Response (alive, with complete discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support) and overall survival were examined. This study, originally planned to accrue 120 patients, was terminated prematurely due to slow accrual. In the limited number of patients examined, there were no differences in response rates at day 28 of study. Ten of 16 patients (62.5% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 35.4% to 84.8%]) receiving etanercept and 12 of 18 patients (66.7% [95% CI, 41.0% to 86.7%]) receiving placebo met the day 28 response definition (P = 1.00). The median survival was 170 days (95% CI, 11 to 362) with etanercept versus 64 days (95% CI, 26 to 209) with placebo (P = .51). Among responders, the median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 9 days (etanercept) versus 7 days (placebo). Therapy was well tolerated, with 1 toxicity-related death from infectious pneumonia in the placebo arm. The treatment of IPS with corticosteroids in adult HCT recipients was associated with high early response rates (>60%) compared with historical reports, with poor overall survival. The addition of etanercept did not lead to further increases in response, although the sample size of this truncated trial preclude a definitive conclusion.
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Prospective cohort study comparing intravenous busulfan to total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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We conducted a prospective cohort study testing the noninferiority of survival of ablative intravenous busulfan (IV-BU) vs ablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens in myeloid malignancies. A total of 1483 patients undergoing transplantation for myeloid malignancies (IV-BU, N = 1025; TBI, N = 458) were enrolled. Cohorts were similar with respect to age, gender, race, performance score, disease, and disease stage at transplantation. Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (68% IV-BU, 78% TBI). Grafts were primarily peripheral blood (77%) from HLA-matched siblings (40%) or well-matched unrelated donors (48%). Two-year probabilities of survival (95% confidence interval [CI]), were 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%) and 48% (95% CI, 43%-54%, P = .019) for IV-BU (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98, P = .03) and TBI, respectively. Corresponding incidences of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18% (95% CI, 16%-21%) and 19% (95% CI, 15%-23%, P = .75) and disease progression were 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) and 39% (95% CI, 34%-44%, P = .08). The incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was 5% for IV-BU and 1% with TBI (P < .001). There were no differences in progression-free survival and graft-versus-host disease. Compared with TBI, IV-BU resulted in superior survival with no increased risk for relapse or TRM. These results support the use of myeloablative IV-BU vs TBI-based conditioning regimens for treatment of myeloid malignancies.
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National Cancer Institute-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium First International Consensus Conference on late effects after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: long-term organ damage and dys
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Long-term complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been studied in detail. Although virtually every organ system can be adversely affected after HCT, the underlying pathophysiology of these late effects remain incompletely understood. This article describes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of late effects involving the gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, and pulmonary systems, and discusses post-HCT metabolic syndrome studies. Underlying diseases, pretransplantation exposures, transplantation conditioning regimens, graft-versus-host disease, and other treatments contribute to these problems. Because organ systems are interdependent, long-term complications with similar pathophysiologic mechanisms often involve multiple organ systems. Current data suggest that post-HCT organ complications result from cellular damage that leads to a cascade of complex events. The interplay between inflammatory processes and dysregulated cellular repair likely contributes to end-organ fibrosis and dysfunction. Although many long-term problems cannot be prevented, appropriate monitoring can enable detection and organ-preserving medical management at earlier stages. Current management strategies are aimed at minimizing symptoms and optimizing function. There remain significant gaps in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of therapy-related organ toxicities disease after HCT. These gaps can be addressed by closely examining disease biology and identifying those patients at greatest risk for adverse outcomes. In addition, strategies are needed for targeted disease prevention and health promotion efforts for individuals deemed at high risk because of their genetic makeup or specific exposure profile.
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Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor: enbrel (etanercept) for subacute pulmonary dysfunction following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Subacute lung disease, manifested as either obstructive (OLD) or restrictive (RLD) lung dysfunction, is a common complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In each case, therapeutic options are limited, morbidity remains high, and long-term survival is poor. Between 2001 and 2008, 34 patients with noninfectious, obstructive (25) or RLD restrictive lung dysfunction (nine) received etanercept (Enbrel®, Amgen Inc.) 0.4 mg/kg/dose, subcutaneously, twice weekly, for 4 (group A) or 12 weeks (group B). Corticosteroids (if present at study entry) were kept constant for the initial 4 weeks of therapy and then tapered as tolerated. Thirty-one of 34 (91%) subjects were evaluable for response, and 10 (32%) met primary response criteria. There was no difference in response based on the duration of treatment (29% group A versus 35% group B; P = .99), the presence of RLD or OLD (33% versus 32%; P = .73), or the severity of pulmonary disease at study onset. Estimated 5-year overall survival rates following therapy were 61% (95% confidence interval, 46%-80%) for all subjects and 90% (95% confidence level, 73%-100%) for the 10 who met the primary response criteria. Five-year survival estimates for subjects treated with RLD was 44%, compared with 67% for those treated for OLD (P = .19). Etanercept was well tolerated, with no bacteremia or viremia observed. Pathogens were noted on posttherapy bronchoalveolar lavage in two cases. These data support the development of expanded clinical trials to study etanercept as a therapeutic agent for subacute lung injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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An official American Thoracic Society research statement: noninfectious lung injury after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: idiopathic pneumonia syndrome.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Acute lung dysfunction of noninfectious etiology, known as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), is a severe complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several mouse models have been recently developed to determine the underlying causes of IPS. A cohesive interpretation of experimental data and their relationship to the findings of clinical research studies in humans is needed to better understand the basis for current and future clinical trials for the prevention/treatment of IPS.
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Translational research efforts in biomarkers and biology of early transplant-related complications.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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In the time since the first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed over 40 years ago, this life-saving procedure has been used increasingly for patients with hematologic, metabolic, and malignant diseases. Despite major advances in our understanding of the immunologic processes (both beneficial and injurious) that are associated with HSCT and improvements in supportive and critical care medicine, successful outcomes are still limited by several serious complications. As such, the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies for these complications will be crucial as increasing numbers of high-risk transplants are performed each year. The development of such approaches is fundamentally dependent upon a basic understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease and also on our ability to successfully translate these insights back to the bedside. This brief review will highlight breakthroughs in translational research endeavors that have paved the way for the development of novel strategies intended to change the standard of care and optimize outcomes for patients in whom allogeneic HSCT offers the only hope for a cure.
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for T cell activation and induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase. However, a requirement for Cdk5 has been demonstrated only in postmitotic neurons where there is abundant expression of its activating partners p35 and/or p39. Although hyperactivation of the Cdk5-p35 complex has been found in a variety of inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders, the potential contribution of nonneuronal Cdk5-p35 activity has not been explored in this context. We describe a previously unknown function of the Cdk5-p35 complex in T cells that is required for induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation leads to a rapid induction of Cdk5-p35 expression that is required for T lymphocyte activation. Chimeric mice lacking Cdk5 gene expression in hematopoietic tissues (Cdk5(-/-C)) are resistant to induction of EAE, and adoptive transfer of either Cdk5(-/-C) or p35(-/-) encephalitogenic lymphocytes fails to transfer disease. Moreover, our data reveal a novel mechanism involving Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of the actin modulator coronin 1a on threonine 418. Cdk5-deficient lymphocytes lack this posttranslational modification of coronin 1a and exhibit defective TCR-induced actin polarization and reduced migration toward CCL-19. These data define a distinct role for Cdk5 in lymphocyte biology and suggest that inhibition of this kinase may be beneficial in the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory disorders.
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in children.
Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Five-year survival rates for childhood cancer now exceed 80% and with the significant progress made by the transplant community in developing less toxic conditioning regimens and in the treatment of posttransplant complications, allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) contributes significantly to that population of long-term survivors. In this context, the acute and long-term toxicities of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) have an ever-increasing effect on organ function, quality of life, and survival; patients and families who initially felt great relief to be cured from the primary disease, now face the challenge of a chronic debilitating illness for which preventative and treatment strategies are suboptimal. Hence, the development of novel strategies that reduce and or control cGVHD, preserve graft-versus-tumor effects, facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution, and enhance survival after allo-HSCT represents one of the most significant challenges facing physician-scientists and patients.
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Secondary lymphoid organs contribute to, but are not required for the induction of graft-versus-host responses following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a shifting paradigm for T cell allo-activation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). GVHD fundamentally depends upon the activation of donor T cells by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but the precise location of these interactions remains uncertain. We examined the role of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) in the induction of GVHD by using homozygous aly/aly mice that are deficient in lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyers patches (PPs). Lethally irradiated, splenectomized, aly/aly (LN/PP/Sp-/-) mice and sham-splenectomized, aly/+ (LN/PP/Sp+/+) mice received BMT from either syngeneic (aly/aly) or allogeneic, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) disparate donors. Surprisingly, although LN/PP/Sp-/- allo-BMT recipients experience a survival advantage, they developed significant systemic and target organ GVHD that is comparable to LN/PP/Sp+/+ controls. Early after allo-BMT, the activation and proliferation of donor T cells was significantly greater in the BM cavity of LN/PP/Sp-/- mice compared to LN/PP/Sp+/+ controls. Donor T cells in LN/PP/Sp-/- mice demonstrated cytolytic activity in vitro, but Graft vs Leukemia (GVL) activity could be overcome by increasing the tumor burden. These data suggest that SLO contribute to, but are not required for, allogeneic T cell responses, and suggest that the BM may represent an alternative, albeit less efficient site for T cell activation following allo-BMT.
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Regenerative stromal cell therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: current impact and future directions.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Regenerative stromal cell therapy (RSCT) has the potential to become a novel therapy for preventing and treating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient. However, enthusiasm for using RSCT in allogeneic HSCT has been tempered by limited clinical data and poorly defined in vivo mechanisms of action. As a result, the full clinical potential of RSCT in supporting hematopoietic reconstitution and as treatment for GVHD remains to be determined. This manuscript reviews the immunomodulatory activity of regenerative stromal cells in preclinical models of allogeneic HSCT, and emphasizes an emerging literature suggesting that microenvironment influences RSC activation and function. Understanding this key finding may ultimately define the proper niche for RSCT in allogeneic HSCT. In particular, mechanistic studies are needed to delineate the in vivo effects of RSCT in response to inflammation and injury associated with allogeneic HSCT, and to define the relevant sites of RSC interaction with immune cells in the transplant recipient. Furthermore, development of in vivo imaging technology to correlate biodistribution patterns, desired RSC effect, and clinical outcome will be crucial to establishing dose-response effects and minimal biologic dose thresholds needed to advance translational treatment strategies for complications like GVHD.
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Internal hernia complications of gastric bypass surgery in the acute setting: spectrum of imaging findings.
Emerg Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Bariatric surgery is increasingly becoming an option for the treatment of morbid obesity. Patients who have undergone gastric bypass surgery have varied post-surgical complications which present acutely in the emergency medical setting, particularly internal hernias. It may be difficult to identify an internal hernia in the absence of intestinal obstruction. This article will review the various types of imaging presentations to highlight the complexity of making a radiographic diagnosis. Recognition of internal hernia as the cause of intermittent or acute abdominal pain symptoms in these patients in the emergency setting can prompt immediate surgical intervention, thus avoiding life-threatening outcomes.
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The Notch ligands Jagged2, Delta1, and Delta4 induce differentiation and expansion of functional human NK cells from CD34+ cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Notch receptor signaling is required for T cell development, but its role in natural killer (NK) cell development is poorly understood. We compared the ability of the 5 mammalian Notch ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta1, Delta3, or Delta4) to induce NK cell development from human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). CD34(+) HPCs were cultured with OP9 stromal cell lines transduced with 1 of the Notch ligands or with OP9 stromal cells alone, in the presence of IL-7, Flt3L, and IL-15. Differentiation and expansion of CD56(+)CD3(-) cells were greatly accelerated in the presence of Jagged2, Delta-1, or Delta-4, versus culture in the absence of ligand or in the presence of Jagged1 or Delta3. At 4 weeks, cultures containing Jagged2, Delta1, or Delta4 contained 80% to 90% NK cells, with the remaining cells being CD33(+) myelogenous cells. Notch-induced NK (N-NK) cells resembled CD56(bright) NK cells in that they were CD16(-), CD94(-), CD117(+), and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR(-)). They also expressed NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, 2B4, and DNAM-1, with partial expression of NKG2D. The N-NK cells displayed cytotoxic activity against the K562 and RPMI-8226 cell lines, at levels similar to activated peripheral blood (PB) NK cells, although killing of Daudi cells was not present. N-NK cells were also capable of interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion. Thus, Notch ligands have differential ability to induce and expand immature, but functional, NK cells from CD34(+) HPCs. The use of Notch ligands to generate functional NK cells in vitro may be significant for cellular therapy purposes.
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Etanercept clearance during an in vitro model of continuous venovenous hemofiltration.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist used in inflammation-mediated conditions. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) has also been used in patients with inflammatory conditions. This study evaluated etanercept clearance using an in vitro CVVH model.
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Bone marrow transplantation: new approaches to immunosuppression and management of acute graft-versus-host disease.
Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) significantly limits the application and the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Novel therapies that target the aberrant immune response underlying GVHD are reviewed with particular emphasis on immunomodulatory agents currently incorporated into clinical trials. In addition, regenerative stromal cellular therapy (RSCT) is discussed as an emerging form of novel GVHD therapy.
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A biomarker panel for acute graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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No validated biomarkers exist for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We screened plasma with antibody microarrays for 120 proteins in a discovery set of 42 patients who underwent transplantation that revealed 8 potential biomarkers for diagnostic of GVHD. We then measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) the levels of these biomarkers in samples from 424 patients who underwent transplantation randomly divided into training (n = 282) and validation (n = 142) sets. Logistic regression analysis of these 8 proteins determined a composite biomarker panel of 4 proteins (interleukin-2-receptor-alpha, tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte growth factor) that optimally discriminated patients with and without GVHD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve distinguishing these 2 groups in the training set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.94) and 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.92) in the validation set. In patients with GVHD, Cox regression analysis revealed that the biomarker panel predicted survival independently of GVHD severity. A panel of 4 biomarkers can confirm the diagnosis of GVHD in patients at onset of clinical symptoms of GVHD and provide prognostic information independent of GVHD severity.
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Pairwise protein expression classifier for candidate biomarker discovery for early detection of human disease prognosis.
BMC Bioinformatics
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An approach to molecular classification based on the comparative expression of protein pairs is presented. The method overcomes some of the present limitations in using peptide intensity data for class prediction for problems such as the detection of a disease, disease prognosis, or for predicting treatment response. Data analysis is particularly challenging in these situations due to sample size (typically tens) being much smaller than the large number of peptides (typically thousands). Methods based upon high dimensional statistical models, machine learning or other complex classifiers generate decisions which may be very accurate but can be complex and difficult to interpret in simple or biologically meaningful terms. A classification scheme, called ProtPair, is presented that generates simple decision rules leading to accurate classification which is based on measurement of very few proteins and requires only relative expression values, providing specific targeted hypotheses suitable for straightforward validation.
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Nongynecological endometriosis presenting as an acute abdomen.
Emerg Radiol
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Endometriosis is a highly prevalent disease that affects up to 10 % of menstruating women. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain or infertility, although the range of clinical symptoms varies widely. Affected women may be asymptomatic or experience mild, moderate, or severe pain that fluctuates with hormonal cycles. Patients who suffer extreme pain may seek immediate care and present to the emergency department with clinical signs of an acute abdomen. In the case of patients without a prior history of endometriosis, the differential diagnosis is broad and making the correct clinical and radiologic diagnosis in the emergency setting can be challenging. In some cases, the diagnosis is only made after surgical or histopathological analysis. Prompt and accurate clinical and radiological evaluation is necessary because complications of endometriosis, such as bowel obstruction and appendicitis, may require immediate surgical intervention. This pictorial essay analyzes nongynecological manifestations of endometriosis that may have a clinical presentation of an acute abdominal emergency. Atypical clinical presentations and unusual sites and complications of endometriosis are discussed, as well as the differential diagnostic considerations. The radiologic features of endometriosis are shown on multiple modalities, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound.
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TNF-inhibition with etanercept for graft-versus-host disease prevention in high-risk HCT: lower TNFR1 levels correlate with better outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) causes most non-relapse mortality (NRM) after alternative donor (unrelated and mismatched related) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). We previously showed that increases in day +7 TNF-receptor-1 (TNFR1) ratios (posttransplantation day +7/pretransplantation baseline) after myeloablative HCT correlate with outcomes including GVHD, NRM, and survival. Therefore, we conducted a phase II trial at 2 centers, testing whether the addition of the TNF-inhibitor etanercept (25 mg twice weekly from start of conditioning to day +56) to standard GVHD prophylaxis would lower TNFR1 levels, reduce GVHD rates, and improve NRM and survival. Patients underwent myeloablative HCT from a matched unrelated donor (URD; N = 71), 1-antigen mismatched URD (N = 26), or 1-antigen mismatched related donor (N = 3) using either total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning (N = 29) or non-TBI-based conditioning (N = 71). Compared to historical controls, the increase in posttransplantation day +7 TNFR1 ratios was not altered in patients who received TBI-based conditioning, but was 40% lower in patients receiving non-TBI-based conditioning. The latter group experienced relatively low rates of severe grade 3 to 4 GVHD (14%), 1-year NRM (16%), and high 1-year survival (69%). These findings suggest that (1) the effectiveness of TNF-inhibition with etanercept may depend on the conditioning regimen, and (2) attenuating the expected rise in TNFR1 levels early posttransplantation correlates with good outcomes.
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MT1-MMP-dependent remodeling of cardiac extracellular matrix structure and function following myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Pathol.
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The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), an interwoven meshwork of proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that is dominated by polymeric fibrils of type I collagen, serves as the mechanical scaffold on which myocytes are arrayed for coordinated and synergistic force transduction. Following ischemic injury, cardiac ECM remodeling is initiated via localized proteolysis, the bulk of which has been assigned to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members. Nevertheless, the key effector(s) of myocardial type I collagenolysis both in vitro and in vivo have remained unidentified. In this study, using cardiac explants from mice deficient in each of the major type I collagenolytic MMPs, including MMP-13, MMP-8, MMP-2, MMP-9, or MT1-MMP, we identify the membrane-anchored MMP, MT1-MMP, as the dominant collagenase that is operative within myocardial tissues in vitro. Extending these observations to an in vivo setting, mice heterozygous for an MT1-MMP-null allele display a distinct survival advantage and retain myocardial function relative to wild-type littermates in an experimental model of myocardial infarction, effects associated with preservation of the myocardial type I collagen network as a consequence of the decreased collagenolytic potential of cardiac fibroblasts. This study identifies MT1-MMP as a key MMP responsible for effecting postinfarction cardiac ECM remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.
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Human biomarker discovery and predictive models for disease progression for idiopathic pneumonia syndrome following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a frequently fatal complication that limits successful outcomes. Preclinical models suggest that IPS represents an immune mediated attack on the lung involving elements of both the adaptive and the innate immune system. However, the etiology of IPS in humans is less well understood. To explore the disease pathway and uncover potential biomarkers of disease, we performed two separate label-free, proteomics experiments defining the plasma protein profiles of allogeneic SCT patients with IPS. Samples obtained from SCT recipients without complications served as controls. The initial discovery study, intended to explore the disease pathway in humans, identified a set of 81 IPS-associated proteins. These data revealed similarities between the known IPS pathways in mice and the condition in humans, in particular in the acute phase response. In addition, pattern recognition pathways were judged to be significant as a function of development of IPS, and from this pathway we chose the lipopolysaccaharide-binding protein (LBP) protein as a candidate molecular diagnostic for IPS, and verified its increase as a function of disease using an ELISA assay. In a separately designed study, we identified protein-based classifiers that could predict, at day 0 of SCT, patients who: 1) progress to IPS and 2) respond to cytokine neutralization therapy. Using cross-validation strategies, we built highly predictive classifier models of both disease progression and therapeutic response. In sum, data generated in this report confirm previous clinical and experimental findings, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of IPS, identify potential molecular classifiers of the condition, and uncover a set of markers potentially of interest for patient stratification as a basis for individualized therapy.
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National Cancer Institute, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Consortium First International Consensus Conference on late effects after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: the need for pediatric-s
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Existing standards for screening and management of late effects occurring in children who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include recommendations from pediatric cancer networks and consensus guidelines from adult-oriented transplantation societies applicable to all HCT recipients. Although these approaches have significant merit, they are not pediatric HCT-focused, and they do not address post-HCT challenges faced by children with complex nonmalignant disorders. In this article we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current published recommendations and conclude that pediatric-specific guidelines for post-HCT screening and management would be beneficial to the long-term health of these patients and would promote late effects research in this field. Our panel of late effects experts also provides recommendations for follow-up and therapy of selected post-HCT organ and endocrine complications in pediatric patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.