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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice.
J. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To determine the role of lactoferrin in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-) ) mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also determine the protective role of human lactoferrin in the LFKO(-/-) mice.
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Activity of potent and selective host defense peptide mimetics in mouse models of oral candidiasis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis.
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Macrophage inflammatory protein-1? shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL) in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1? MIP-1? IL-?, IL-1? and IL-8; p<0.01). MIP-1? was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1? levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity); whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity), with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I.?=?42.5-52.7). MIP-1? consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1? continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.
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A consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis is present in sites prior to bone loss in a longitudinal study of localized aggressive periodontitis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A synergistic interaction of this consortium in LAP causation is possible and is the subject of ongoing research.
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Effect of pit and fissure sealants on caries detection by a fluorescent camera system.
J Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealant placement on the detection of caries by a fluorescent camera (FC), the Spectra caries detector.
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as an early colonizer of oral tissues: epithelium as a reservoir?
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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This study examined in vivo and in vitro colonization by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an organism highly associated with aggressive periodontitis. Thirteen volunteers (5 were A. actinomycetemcomitans positive for buccal epithelial cells [BECs] and teeth, 5 were A. actinomycetemcomitans positive for teeth only, and 3 were A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative controls) had two mandibular stents fabricated. Each stent contained 3 removable hydroxyapatite (HA) tooth surrogates. One HA square was removed from a stent at 5 time points over 7 h to assess the transfer of A. actinomycetemcomitans from teeth or BECs to HA. Streptococcus, Actinomyces, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and total anaerobic counts were evaluated on each square over time. In vitro experiments evaluated binding, desorption, transfer, and reattachment of A. actinomycetemcomitans wild-type and mutant strains to BECs and saliva-coated HA (SHA). Streptococcus and Actinomyces formed 80% of the cultivable flora on HA in all subjects. Transfer of A. actinomycetemcomitans to HA was not seen in subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans on teeth only. All 5 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans on BECs showed transfer of A. actinomycetemcomitans to HA. In vitro, A. actinomycetemcomitans desorbed from BECs and transferred to SHA. A. actinomycetemcomitans binding to SHA was irreversible and did not transfer to BECs. The adhesin Aae showed specificity for BECs. Fimbrial mutants showed the greatest reduction in binding to SHA. A. actinomycetemcomitans migrated from BECs to HA in vivo and to SHA in vitro; however, A. actinomycetemcomitans movement from teeth and SHA to BECs did not occur. In vivo, A. actinomycetemcomitans colonized HA within 6 h and thus can be considered an early colonizer. BECs are a likely reservoir for A. actinomycetemcomitans tooth colonization.
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced bone loss and antibody response in three rat strains.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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The aim of this study is to compare the colonization, immunoglobulin (Ig) G response, and alveolar bone loss in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa)-inoculated Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH), Dahl Salt-Sensitive (DSS), and Brown Norway (BN) rats.
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Pretty painful: why does tooth bleaching hurt?
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Vital bleaching procedures are a popular means of improving the appearance of discolored teeth. There is a wide array of whitening products for home and dental office use; all involves placing peroxide containing gels or solutions in contact with the teeth. In order to whiten teeth peroxide has to be able to penetrate tooth structure and oxidize colored compounds in the dentin. Unfortunately beauty comes with a price; many patients undergoing peroxide based whitening procedures complain of bleaching sensitivity (BS) arising in the treated teeth. In BS, pain can occur in healthy intact teeth without any provoking stimulus. Currently the mechanism of nociceptors activation in BS is unknown. A more common form of dental pain-dentin sensitivity (DS) occurs when stimuli such as cold or tactile stimulation contact areas of exposed dentin in otherwise healthy teeth. In DS, stimulation of the dentin results in fluid shifts in the dentinal tubules, these fluid shifts activate mechanosensitive nerve endings in the deep dentin and pulp. Since many aspects of BS and DS symptoms differ, it is hypothesized that that the mechanism of pain generation differs for these two conditions. Recently the functional properties of a chemosensitive ion channel-TRPA1 have been described. This channel is activated by a variety of oxidizer compounds including hydrogen peroxide. Pulpal sensory afferents express TRPA1. It is hypothesized that direct activation of intradental nerve activity via TRPA1 is the mechanism of BS pain. If this theory were correct, tooth sensitivity treatments that reduce the excitability of the intradental nerves such as potassium salts, would be the treatment of choice for BS.
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The original desensitizers: strontium and potassium salts.
J Clin Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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Many patients complain of teeth that are painful when exposed to a variety of harmless thermal and tactile stimuli. Sensitive tooth necks and root surfaces frequently are the unintentional by-products of aggressive oral hygiene practices and periodontal treatment. Dentists and the afflicted patients have resorted to many remedies for this common form of dental pain. In the past, many of these purported treatments were based on a fragmentary knowledge of the anatomic substrate and physiological processes underlying dentin sensitivity. Much progress has been made identifying dentin permeability and intradental nerve excitability as physiological parameters that can be modified by desensitizing agents. In this paper, rather than provide a comprehensive or critical review of desensitizing treatment, I will discuss the rationale and some of the history behind two early and popular classes of dentifrice-applied desensitizing agents; strontium and potassium salts.
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The effect of cationic polymer treatment on dye staining and on the adhesion of charged particles to dentin.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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The aim of this study is to examine the influence of electrostatics in determining the ability of charged material to adhere to dentin surfaces.
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Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha: a salivary biomarker of bone loss in a longitudinal cohort study of children at risk for aggressive periodontal disease?
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Periodontitis develops in a time-dependent manner. Cross-sectional studies document one moment in time but fail to capture the progressive nature of disease. Radiographic measures of bone loss are relatively insensitive but are reliable markers of irreversible disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify biomarkers that can precede radiographic evidence of bone loss and, thus, mark the period prior to clinical evidence of irreversible disease. A longitudinal study of students susceptible to localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was conducted to evaluate chemokines/cytokines found in saliva derived from periodontally healthy children who subsequently developed alveolar bone loss.
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An improved cost-effective, reproducible method for evaluation of bone loss in a rodent model.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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This study was designed to investigate the utility of two "new" definitions for assessment of bone loss in a rodent model of periodontitis.
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A new treatment alternative for sensitive teeth: a desensitizing oral rinse.
J Dent
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Tooth sensitivity is a common, painful dental condition. Consumer dental products, mostly dentifrices, play an important role in sensitivity treatment. The objective of this review is to describe a new mouthwash-based desensitizing technology.
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A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions.
Arch. Oral Biol.
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Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10-18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined.
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In vitro evaluation of the Spectra early caries detection system.
J Clin Dent
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The goal of this study was to perform an in vitro evaluation of the Spectra, a new caries detector that uses light-induced fluorescence of healthy tooth structure and bacterial pigments to optically detect caries. The Spectra generates a storable color map image of examined tooth surfaces which shows areas of enamel and dentin caries. In this study, Spectra readings of occlusal surfaces were compared to clinical, radiographic, and histological assessments of caries.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.