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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Large-scale gene-centric analysis identifies polymorphisms for resistant hypertension.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Resistant hypertension (RHTN), defined by lack of blood pressure (BP) control despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, increases cardiovascular risk compared with controlled hypertension. Yet, there are few data on genetic variants associated with RHTN.
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Native American ancestry is associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in Latinos.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Studies have observed that Latinos have a higher prevalence of DR than whites. The purpose of this study is to test the association between genetic admixture and severe DR in Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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Saturated Fat Intake Modulates the Association between an Obesity Genetic Risk Score and Body Mass Index in Two US Populations.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs.
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Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
Iris Postmus, Stella Trompet, Harshal A Deshmukh, Michael R Barnes, Xiaohui Li, Helen R Warren, Daniel I Chasman, Kaixin Zhou, Benoit J Arsenault, Louise A Donnelly, Kerri L Wiggins, Christy L Avery, Paula Griffin, QiPing Feng, Kent D Taylor, Guo Li, Daniel S Evans, Albert V Smith, Catherine E de Keyser, Andrew D Johnson, Anton J M de Craen, David J Stott, Brendan M Buckley, Ian Ford, Rudi G J Westendorp, P Eline Slagboom, Naveed Sattar, Patricia B Munroe, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Alice Stanton, Denis C Shields, Eoin O'Brien, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Y-D Ida Chen, Deborah A Nickerson, Joshua D Smith, Marie Pierre Dubé, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J P Kastelein, Paul M McKeigue, John Betteridge, Andrew Neil, Paul N Durrington, Alex Doney, Fiona Carr, Andrew Morris, Mark I McCarthy, Leif Groop, Emma Ahlqvist, , Joshua C Bis, Kenneth Rice, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Lumley, Eric A Whitsel, Til Stürmer, Eric Boerwinkle, Julius S Ngwa, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Wei-Qi Wei, Russell A Wilke, Ching-Ti Liu, Fangui Sun, Xiuqing Guo, Susan R Heckbert, Wendy Post, Nona Sotoodehnia, Alice M Arnold, Jeanette M Stafford, Jingzhong Ding, David M Herrington, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Leonore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Audrey Y Chu, Franco Giulianini, Jean G MacFadyen, Bryan J Barratt, Fredrik Nyberg, Bruno H Stricker, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Valur Emilsson, Oscar H Franco, Paul M Ridker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yongmei Liu, Joshua C Denny, Christie M Ballantyne, Jerome I Rotter, L Adrienne Cupples, Bruce M Psaty, Colin N A Palmer, Jean-Claude Tardif, Helen M Colhoun, Graham Hitman, Ronald M Krauss, J Wouter Jukema, Mark J Caulfield.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
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Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
Jie Huang, Jennifer E Huffman, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Munekazu Yamkauchi, Stella Trompet, Folkert W Asselbergs, Maria Sabater-Lleal, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Wei-Min Chen, Nicholas L Smith, Marcus E Kleber, So-Youn Shin, Diane M Becker, Weihong Tang, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Vinh Truong, Lasse Folkersen, Qiong Yang, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellkah, Brendan M Buckley, Jason H Moore, Frances M K Williams, Harry Campbell, Günther Silbernagel, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Geoffrey H Tofler, Gerjan J Navis, Anita DeStefano, Alan F Wright, Ming-Huei Chen, Anton J M de Craen, Bradford B Worrall, Alicja R Rudnicka, Ann Rumley, Ebony B Bookman, Bruce M Psaty, Fang Chen, Keith L Keene, Oscar H Franco, Bernhard O Böhm, André G Uitterlinden, Angela M Carter, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Joshua C Bis, Mohammad A Ikram, , Michèle M Sale, Barbara McKnight, Myriam Fornage, Ian Ford, Kent Taylor, P Eline Slagboom, Wendy L McArdle, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Alison H Goodall, Lisa R Yanek, Karen L Furie, Mary Cushman, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aaron R Folsom, Saonli Basu, Nena Matijevic, Wiek H van Gilst, James F Wilson, Rudi G J Westendorp, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Russell P Tracy, Ozren Polašek, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Peter J Grant, Hans L Hillege, Francois Cambien, David J Stott, Gordon D Lowe, Timothy D Spector, James B Meigs, Winfried März, Per Eriksson, Lewis C Becker, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Nicole Soranzo, Scott M Williams, Caroline Hayward, Pim van der Harst, Anders Hamsten, Charles J Lowenstein, David P Strachan, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA.
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Association of low-frequency and rare coding-sequence variants with blood lipids and coronary heart disease in 56,000 whites and blacks.
Gina M Peloso, Paul L Auer, Joshua C Bis, Arend Voorman, Alanna C Morrison, Nathan O Stitziel, Jennifer A Brody, Sumeet A Khetarpal, Jacy R Crosby, Myriam Fornage, Aaron Isaacs, Johanna Jakobsdottir, Mary F Feitosa, Gail Davies, Jennifer E Huffman, Ani Manichaikul, Brian Davis, Kurt Lohman, Aron Y Joon, Albert V Smith, Megan L Grove, Paolo Zanoni, Valeska Redon, Serkalem Demissie, Kim Lawson, Ulrike Peters, Christopher Carlson, Rebecca D Jackson, Kelli K Ryckman, Rachel H Mackey, Jennifer G Robinson, David S Siscovick, Pamela J Schreiner, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, James S Pankow, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Tamara B Harris, Kent D Taylor, Jeanette M Stafford, Lindsay M Reynolds, Riccardo E Marioni, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco, Aniruddh P Patel, Yingchang Lu, George Hindy, Omri Gottesman, Erwin P Bottinger, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander, Ruth J F Loos, Stefano Duga, Piera Angelica Merlini, Martin Farrall, Anuj Goel, Rosanna Asselta, Domenico Girelli, Nicola Martinelli, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Mingyao Li, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Ruth McPherson, Hugh Watkins, Diego Ardissino, , Qunyuan Zhang, Judy Wang, Michael Y Tsai, Herman A Taylor, Adolfo Correa, Michael E Griswold, Leslie A Lange, John M Starr, Igor Rudan, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, José M Ordovás, Daniel Levy, Y-D Ida Chen, Alexander P Reiner, Caroline Hayward, Ozren Polašek, Ian J Deary, Ingrid B Borecki, Yongmei Liu, Vilmundur Gudnason, James G Wilson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Charles Kooperberg, Stephen S Rich, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Christopher J O'Donnell, Kenneth Rice, Eric Boerwinkle, Sekar Kathiresan, L Adrienne Cupples.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Low-frequency coding DNA sequence variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), protect against risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and have prompted the development of a new class of therapeutics. It is uncertain whether the PCSK9 example represents a paradigm or an isolated exception. We used the "Exome Array" to genotype >200,000 low-frequency and rare coding sequence variants across the genome in 56,538 individuals (42,208 European ancestry [EA] and 14,330 African ancestry [AA]) and tested these variants for association with LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Although we did not identify new genes associated with LDL-C, we did identify four low-frequency (frequencies between 0.1% and 2%) variants (ANGPTL8 rs145464906 [c.361C>T; p.Gln121*], PAFAH1B2 rs186808413 [c.482C>T; p.Ser161Leu], COL18A1 rs114139997 [c.331G>A; p.Gly111Arg], and PCSK7 rs142953140 [c.1511G>A; p.Arg504His]) with large effects on HDL-C and/or triglycerides. None of these four variants was associated with risk for CHD, suggesting that examples of low-frequency coding variants with robust effects on both lipids and CHD will be limited.
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Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?9×10-6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p?=?3.8×10-4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?2×10-6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.
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Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.
Maria Sabater-Lleal, Jie Huang, Daniel Chasman, Silvia Naitza, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Alexander Teumer, Alex P Reiner, Lasse Folkersen, Saonli Basu, Alicja R Rudnicka, Stella Trompet, Anders Malarstig, Jens Baumert, Joshua C Bis, Xiuqing Guo, Jouke J Hottenga, So-Youn Shin, Lorna M Lopez, Jari Lahti, Toshiko Tanaka, Lisa R Yanek, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellakh, James F Wilson, Pau Navarro, Jennifer E Huffman, Tatijana Zemunik, Susan Redline, Reena Mehra, Drazen Pulanić, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Ivana Kolčić, Ozren Polašek, Sarah H Wild, Harry Campbell, J David Curb, Robert Wallace, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Stefania Bandinelli, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widén, Aarno Palotie, Myriam Fornage, David Green, Myron Gross, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, David C Liewald, John M Starr, Frances M K Williams, Peter J Grant, Timothy D Spector, Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Bengt Sennblad, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Jenny van Dongen, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jie Yao, Nancy Swords Jenny, Talin Haritunians, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Lumley, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, Bruce M Psaty, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Anne Grotevendt, Georg Homuth, Henry Völzke, Thomas Kocher, Anuj Goel, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Udo Seedorf, Robert Clarke, Maristella Steri, Kirill V Tarasov, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, David J Stott, Naveed Sattar, Brendan M Buckley, Ann Rumley, Gordon D Lowe, Wendy L McArdle, Ming-Huei Chen, Geoffrey H Tofler, Jaejoon Song, Eric Boerwinkle, Aaron R Folsom, Lynda M Rose, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Martina Teichert, M Arfan Ikram, Thomas H Mosley, Steve Bevan, Martin Dichgans, Peter M Rothwell, Cathie L M Sudlow, Jemma C Hopewell, John C Chambers, Danish Saleheen, Jaspal S Kooner, John Danesh, Christopher P Nelson, Jeanette Erdmann, Muredach P Reilly, Sekar Kathiresan, Heribert Schunkert, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Luigi Ferrucci, Johan G Eriksson, David Jacobs, Ian J Deary, Nicole Soranzo, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Eco J C de Geus, Russell P Tracy, Caroline Hayward, Wolfgang Koenig, Francesco Cucca, J Wouter Jukema, Per Eriksson, Sudha Seshadri, Hugh S Markus, Hugh Watkins, Nilesh J Samani, , Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas L Smith, David Tregouet, Paul M Ridker, Weihong Tang, David P Strachan, Anders Hamsten, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation.
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Pooled analysis of iron-related genes in Parkinsons disease: Association with transferrin.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Pathologic features of Parkinsons disease (PD) include death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, presence of ?-synuclein containing Lewy bodies, and iron accumulation in PD-related brain regions. The observed iron accumulation may be contributing to PD etiology but it also may be a byproduct of cell death or cellular dysfunction. To elucidate the possible role of iron accumulation in PD, we investigated genetic variation in 16 genes related to iron homeostasis in three case-control studies from the United States, Australia, and France. After screening 90 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of interest in the US study population, we investigated the five most promising gene regions in two additional independent case-control studies. For the pooled data set (1289 cases, 1391 controls) we observed a protective association (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) between PD and a haplotype composed of the A allele at rs1880669 and the T allele at rs1049296 in transferrin (TF; GeneID: 7018). Additionally, we observed a suggestive protective association (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.74-1.02) between PD and a haplotype composed of the G allele at rs10247962 and the A allele at rs4434553 in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2; GeneID: 7036). We observed no associations in our pooled sample for haplotypes in SLC40A1, CYB561, or HFE. Taken together with previous findings in model systems, our results suggest that TF or a TF-TFR2 complex may have a role in the etiology of PD, possibly through iron misregulation or mitochondrial dysfunction within dopaminergic neurons.
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No association of 9p21 with arterial elasticity and retinal microvascular findings.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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How 9p21 variation affects risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear, so we assessed whether 9p21 variants are associated with arterial elasticity or retinal microvascular findings.
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Multidimensional prognostic risk assessment identifies association between IL12B variation and surgery in Crohns disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The ability to identify patients with Crohns disease (CD) at highest risk of surgery would be invaluable in guiding therapy. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple IBD loci with unknown phenotypic consequences. The aims of this study were to: (1) identify associations between known and novel CD loci with early resective CD surgery and (2) develop the best predictive model for time to surgery using a combination of phenotypic, serologic, and genetic variables.
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Genetic ancestry and the relationship of cigarette smoking to lung function and per cent emphysema in four race/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Recent studies suggest that susceptibility to cigarette smoke may vary by race/ethnicity; however, they were generally small and relied on self-reported race/ethnicity.
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Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population with diabetic retinopathy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of preventable blindness in adults. To identify genetic contributions in DR, we studied 2071 type 2 diabetics. We first conducted a genome-wide association study of 1007 individuals, comparing 570 subjects with ?8 years duration without DR (controls) with 437 PDR (cases) in the Chinese discovery cohort. Cases and controls were similar for HbA1c, diabetes duration and body mass index. Association analysis with imputed data identified three novel loci: TBC1D4-COMMD6-UCHL3 (rs9565164, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)), LRP2-BBS5 (rs1399634, P = 2.0 × 10(-6)) and ARL4C-SH3BP4 (rs2380261, P = 2.1 × 10(-6)). Analysis of an independent cohort of 585 Hispanics diabetics with or without DR though did not confirm these signals. These genes are still of particular interest because they are involved in insulin regulation, inflammation, lipid signaling and apoptosis pathways, all of which are possibly involved with DR. Our finding nominates possible novel loci as potential DR susceptibility genes in the Chinese that are independent of the level of HbA1c and duration of diabetes and may provide insight into the pathophysiology of DR.
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Genetic association of COL5A1 variants in keratoconus patients suggests a complex connection between corneal thinning and keratoconus.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located near or within the COL5A1 gene, at 9q34.2-q34.3 chromosomal region have been reported in association with central corneal thickness (CCT). Using family linkage analysis, we identified a keratoconus susceptibility locus at 9q34. These findings led us to perform an association study between COL5A1 variation and keratoconus susceptibility.
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A genome-wide association study of central corneal thickness in Latinos.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a clinically important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and keratoconus. Genetic factors controlling CCT in Latinos, the most populous minority population in the United States, are unclear. Here we describe the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) report of CCT in Latinos.
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An association between the calpastatin (CAST) gene and keratoconus.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Keratoconus (KC) is a genetically heterogeneous corneal dystrophy. Previously, we performed 2 genome-wide linkage scans in a 4-generation autosomal dominant pedigree and repeatedly mapped a KC locus to a genomic region located on chromosome 5q overlapping the gene encoding the inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin (CAST). To test whether variants in CAST gene are involved in genetic susceptibility to KC, we performed genetic testing of polymorphic markers in CAST gene in family and case-control panels of patients with KC.
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Genome-wide association analysis of blood-pressure traits in African-ancestry individuals reveals common associated genes in African and non-African populations.
Nora Franceschini, Ervin Fox, Zhaogong Zhang, Todd L Edwards, Michael A Nalls, Yun Ju Sung, Bamidele O Tayo, Yan V Sun, Omri Gottesman, Adebawole Adeyemo, Andrew D Johnson, J Hunter Young, Ken Rice, Qing Duan, Fang Chen, Yun Li, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Keith L Keene, Jeanette S Andrews, Jennifer A Smith, Jessica D Faul, Zhang Guangfa, Wei Guo, Yu Liu, Sarah S Murray, Solomon K Musani, Sathanur Srinivasan, Digna R Velez Edwards, Heming Wang, Lewis C Becker, Pascal Bovet, Murielle Bochud, Ulrich Broeckel, Michel Burnier, Cara Carty, Daniel I Chasman, Georg Ehret, Wei-Min Chen, Guanjie Chen, Wei Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Albert W Dreisbach, Michele K Evans, Xiuqing Guo, Melissa E Garcia, Rich Jensen, Margaux F Keller, Guillaume Lettre, Vaneet Lotay, Lisa W Martin, Jason H Moore, Alanna C Morrison, Thomas H Mosley, Adesola Ogunniyi, Walter Palmas, George Papanicolaou, Alan Penman, Joseph F Polak, Paul M Ridker, Babatunde Salako, Andrew B Singleton, Daniel Shriner, Kent D Taylor, Ramachandran Vasan, Kerri Wiggins, Scott M Williams, Lisa R Yanek, Wei Zhao, Alan B Zonderman, Diane M Becker, Gerald Berenson, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin Bottinger, Mary Cushman, Charles Eaton, Fredrik Nyberg, Gerardo Heiss, Joel N Hirschhron, Virginia J Howard, Konrad J Karczewsk, Matthew B Lanktree, Kiang Liu, Yongmei Liu, Ruth Loos, Karen Margolis, Michael Snyder, , Bruce M Psaty, Nicholas J Schork, David R Weir, Charles N Rotimi, Michèle M Sale, Tamara Harris, Sharon L R Kardia, Steven C Hunt, Donna Arnett, Susan Redline, Richard S Cooper, Neil J Risch, D C Rao, Jerome I Rotter, Aravinda Chakravarti, Alex P Reiner, Daniel Levy, Brendan J Keating, Xiaofeng Zhu.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.
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Trans-ethnic fine mapping identifies a novel independent locus at the 3 end of CDKAL1 and novel variants of several susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified ?60 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. A majority of these loci have been discovered and tested only in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of trans-ethnic effects of these loci in an East Asian population.
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Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans.
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Genetic variants synthesize to produce paneth cell phenotypes that define subtypes of Crohns disease.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Genetic susceptibility loci for Crohns disease (CD) are numerous, complex, and likely interact with undefined components of the environment. It has been a challenge to link the effects of particular loci to phenotypes of cells associated with pathogenesis of CD, such as Paneth cells. We investigated whether specific phenotypes of Paneth cells associated with particular genetic susceptibility loci can be used to define specific subtypes of CD.
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Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: a genome-wide association study meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes) and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH) (peak P?=?1.5×10(-31)) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (P?=?4.3×10(-24)) loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms (rs2075650; P?=?1.1×10(-6)) associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P?=?8.9×10(-6)) and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P?=?6.5×10(-6)), encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene (rs621313; P?=?3.5×10(-6)), involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation.
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Genome-wide association analyses identify multiple loci associated with central corneal thickness and keratoconus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Central corneal thickness (CCT) is associated with eye conditions including keratoconus and glaucoma. We performed a meta-analysis on >20,000 individuals in European and Asian populations that identified 16 new loci associated with CCT at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). We further showed that 2 CCT-associated loci, FOXO1 and FNDC3B, conferred relatively large risks for keratoconus in 2 cohorts with 874 cases and 6,085 controls (rs2721051 near FOXO1 had odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-1.88, P = 2.7 × 10(-10), and rs4894535 in FNDC3B had OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.29-1.68, P = 4.9 × 10(-9)). FNDC3B was also associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (P = 5.6 × 10(-4); tested in 3 cohorts with 2,979 cases and 7,399 controls). Further analyses implicate the collagen and extracellular matrix pathways in the regulation of CCT.
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Best practices and joint calling of the HumanExome BeadChip: the CHARGE Consortium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genotyping arrays are a cost effective approach when typing previously-identified genetic polymorphisms in large numbers of samples. One limitation of genotyping arrays with rare variants (e.g., minor allele frequency [MAF] <0.01) is the difficulty that automated clustering algorithms have to accurately detect and assign genotype calls. Combining intensity data from large numbers of samples may increase the ability to accurately call the genotypes of rare variants. Approximately 62,000 ethnically diverse samples from eleven Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium cohorts were genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip across seven genotyping centers. The raw data files for the samples were assembled into a single project for joint calling. To assess the quality of the joint calling, concordance of genotypes in a subset of individuals having both exome chip and exome sequence data was analyzed. After exclusion of low performing SNPs on the exome chip and non-overlap of SNPs derived from sequence data, genotypes of 185,119 variants (11,356 were monomorphic) were compared in 530 individuals that had whole exome sequence data. A total of 98,113,070 pairs of genotypes were tested and 99.77% were concordant, 0.14% had missing data, and 0.09% were discordant. We report that joint calling allows the ability to accurately genotype rare variation using array technology when large sample sizes are available and best practices are followed. The cluster file from this experiment is available at www.chargeconsortium.com/main/exomechip.
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Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8). This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value?=?2.11×10(-12) in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
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Novel loci associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in the context of coronary artery disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified novel loci associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Despite this progress, identified DNA variants account for a relatively small portion of overall SCD risk, suggesting that additional loci contributing to SCD susceptibility await discovery. The objective of this study was to identify novel DNA variation associated with SCD in the context of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation.
Christian Gieger, Aparna Radhakrishnan, Ana Cvejic, Weihong Tang, Eleonora Porcu, Giorgio Pistis, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Ulrich Elling, Alison H Goodall, Yann Labrune, Lorna M Lopez, Reedik Mägi, Stuart Meacham, Yukinori Okada, Nicola Pirastu, Rossella Sorice, Alexander Teumer, Katrin Voss, Weihua Zhang, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Joshua C Bis, David Ellinghaus, Martin Gögele, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Claudia Langenberg, Peter Kovacs, Paul F O'Reilly, So-Youn Shin, Tonu Esko, Jaana Hartiala, Stavroula Kanoni, Federico Murgia, Afshin Parsa, Jonathan Stephens, Pim van der Harst, C Ellen van der Schoot, Hooman Allayee, Antony Attwood, Beverley Balkau, François Bastardot, Saonli Basu, Sebastian E Baumeister, Ginevra Biino, Lorenzo Bomba, Amélie Bonnefond, Francois Cambien, John C Chambers, Francesco Cucca, Pio D'Adamo, Gail Davies, Rudolf A de Boer, Eco J C de Geus, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Jeanette Erdmann, David M Evans, Mario Falchi, Wei Feng, Aaron R Folsom, Ian H Frazer, Quince D Gibson, Nicole L Glazer, Chris Hammond, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Susan R Heckbert, Christian Hengstenberg, Micha Hersch, Thomas Illig, Ruth J F Loos, Jennifer Jolley, Kay Tee Khaw, Brigitte Kühnel, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Vasiliki Lagou, Heather Lloyd-Jones, Thomas Lumley, Massimo Mangino, Andrea Maschio, Irene Mateo Leach, Barbara McKnight, Yasin Memari, Braxton D Mitchell, Grant W Montgomery, Yusuke Nakamura, Matthias Nauck, Gerjan Navis, Ute Nöthlings, Ilja M Nolte, David J Porteous, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Janne Pullat, Susan M Ring, Jerome I Rotter, Daniela Ruggiero, Aimo Ruokonen, Cinzia Sala, Nilesh J Samani, Jennifer Sambrook, David Schlessinger, Stefan Schreiber, Heribert Schunkert, James Scott, Nicholas L Smith, Harold Snieder, John M Starr, Michael Stumvoll, Atsushi Takahashi, W H Wilson Tang, Kent Taylor, Albert Tenesa, Swee Lay Thein, Anke Tönjes, Manuela Uda, Sheila Ulivi, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Peter M Visscher, Uwe Völker, H-Erich Wichmann, Kerri L Wiggins, Gonneke Willemsen, Tsun-Po Yang, Jing Hua Zhao, Paavo Zitting, John R Bradley, George V Dedoussis, Paolo Gasparini, Stanley L Hazen, Andres Metspalu, Mario Pirastu, Alan R Shuldiner, L Joost van Pelt, Jaap-Jan Zwaginga, Dorret I Boomsma, Ian J Deary, Andre Franke, Philippe Froguel, Santhi K Ganesh, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Nicholas G Martin, Christa Meisinger, Bruce M Psaty, Timothy D Spector, Nicholas J Wareham, Jan-Willem N Akkerman, Marina Ciullo, Panos Deloukas, Andreas Greinacher, Steve Jupe, Naoyuki Kamatani, Jyoti Khadake, Jaspal S Kooner, Josef Penninger, Inga Prokopenko, Derek Stemple, Daniela Toniolo, Lorenz Wernisch, Serena Sanna, Andrew A Hicks, Augusto Rendon, Manuel A Ferreira, Willem H Ouwehand, Nicole Soranzo.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function.
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Metabolic and cardiovascular genes in polycystic ovary syndrome: a candidate-wide association study (CWAS).
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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The role of metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been well established, with insulin resistance and the resulting compensatory hyperinsulinemia thought to promote hyperandrogenemia. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established a large number of loci for metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. A subset of these loci has been investigated for a role in PCOS; these studies generally have not revealed a confirmed role for these loci in PCOS risk. However, a large scale investigation of genes related to these pathways has not previously been performed. We conducted a two stage case control association study of 121,715 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to represent susceptibility loci associated with traits such as type 2 diabetes, obesity measures, lipid levels and cardiovascular function using the Cardio-Metabochip in 847 PCOS cases and 845 controls. Several hypothesis-generating associations with PCOS were observed (top SNP rs2129107, P=3.8×10(-6)). We did not find any loci definitively associated with PCOS after strict correction for multiple testing, suggesting that cardio-metabolic loci are not major risk factors underlying the susceptibility to PCOS.
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A genome-wide association study identifies a potential novel gene locus for keratoconus, one of the commonest causes for corneal transplantation in developed countries.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Keratoconus is a condition in which the cornea progressively thins over time, and is a major cause for cornea transplantation. To identify keratoconus susceptibility regions, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a discovery and replication design. A discovery panel of 222 keratoconus Caucasian patients and 3324 Caucasian controls was genotyped using Illumina 370K beadchips. Further associated and fine-mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n= 4905) were genotyped in an independent replication case-control panel of 304 cases and 518 controls and a family panel of 307 subjects in 70 families. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were performed to test associations in case-control samples with and without principal component (PC) adjustments. Generalized estimation equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in GWAF were used for association testing in families. No genome-wide associations were identified in the discovery GWAS panel. From the initial testing without adjustments for PCs, the top three SNPs located at 3p26 (rs6442925), 2q21.3 (rs4954218) and 19q13.3 (rs1428642) were identified with unadjusted P-values of 6.5 × 10(-8), 2.4 × 10(-7) and 3.1 × 10(-7), respectively. After adjustments for PCs, rs1428642 became the most significant through the genome with a P-value of 1.4 × 10(-6), while rs6442925 and rs4954218 were less significant (P= 1.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4)). SNP rs4954218 was confirmed in two independent replication panels with P-values of 0.004 and 0.009, respectively. Meta-analysis revealed a highest association at rs4954218 with adjusted P= 1.6 × 10(-7) (unadjusted P= 1.2 × 10(-9)). These findings suggest SNP rs4954218, located near the RAB3GAP1 gene, previously reported to be associated with corneal malformation, is a potential susceptibility locus for keratoconus.
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Genome-wide association studies of cerebral white matter lesion burden: the CHARGE consortium.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detectable by magnetic resonance imaging are part of the spectrum of vascular injury associated with aging of the brain and are thought to reflect ischemic damage to the small deep cerebral vessels. WMHs are associated with an increased risk of cognitive and motor dysfunction, dementia, depression, and stroke. Despite a significant heritability, few genetic loci influencing WMH burden have been identified.
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Variants of the caveolin-1 gene: a translational investigation linking insulin resistance and hypertension.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The co-occurrence of insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension is a heritable condition leading to cardiovascular complications. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a gene previously associated with metabolic dysfunction in animal and cellular models, may be a marker for these conditions in humans.
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A phenomics-based strategy identifies loci on APOC1, BRAP, and PLCG1 associated with metabolic syndrome phenotype domains.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Despite evidence of the clustering of metabolic syndrome components, current approaches for identifying unifying genetic mechanisms typically evaluate clinical categories that do not provide adequate etiological information. Here, we used data from 19,486 European American and 6,287 African American Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium participants to identify loci associated with the clustering of metabolic phenotypes. Six phenotype domains (atherogenic dyslipidemia, vascular dysfunction, vascular inflammation, pro-thrombotic state, central obesity, and elevated plasma glucose) encompassing 19 quantitative traits were examined. Principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimension of each domain such that >55% of the trait variance was represented within each domain. We then applied a statistically efficient and computational feasible multivariate approach that related eight principal components from the six domains to 250,000 imputed SNPs using an additive genetic model and including demographic covariates. In European Americans, we identified 606 genome-wide significant SNPs representing 19 loci. Many of these loci were associated with only one trait domain, were consistent with results in African Americans, and overlapped with published findings, for instance central obesity and FTO. However, our approach, which is applicable to any set of interval scale traits that is heritable and exhibits evidence of phenotypic clustering, identified three new loci in or near APOC1, BRAP, and PLCG1, which were associated with multiple phenotype domains. These pleiotropic loci may help characterize metabolic dysregulation and identify targets for intervention.
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Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.
Michael A Nalls, David J Couper, Toshiko Tanaka, Frank J A van Rooij, Ming-Huei Chen, Albert V Smith, Daniela Toniolo, Neil A Zakai, Qiong Yang, Andreas Greinacher, Andrew R Wood, Melissa Garcia, Paolo Gasparini, Yongmei Liu, Thomas Lumley, Aaron R Folsom, Alex P Reiner, Christian Gieger, Vasiliki Lagou, Janine F Felix, Henry Völzke, Natalia A Gouskova, Alessandro Biffi, Angela Döring, Uwe Völker, Sean Chong, Kerri L Wiggins, Augusto Rendon, Abbas Dehghan, Matt Moore, Kent Taylor, James G Wilson, Guillaume Lettre, Albert Hofman, Joshua C Bis, Nicola Pirastu, Caroline S Fox, Christa Meisinger, Jennifer Sambrook, Sampath Arepalli, Matthias Nauck, Holger Prokisch, Jonathan Stephens, Nicole L Glazer, L Adrienne Cupples, Yukinori Okada, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Koichi Matsuda, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Toshihiro Tanaka, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Naoyuki Kamatani, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Inga Prokopenko, Thomas Illig, Kushang V Patel, Stephen F Garner, Brigitte Kühnel, Massimo Mangino, Ben A Oostra, Swee Lay Thein, Josef Coresh, H-Erich Wichmann, Stephan Menzel, Jingping Lin, Giorgio Pistis, André G Uitterlinden, Tim D Spector, Alexander Teumer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Stefania Bandinelli, Timothy M Frayling, Aravinda Chakravarti, Cornelia M van Duijn, David Melzer, Willem H Ouwehand, Daniel Levy, Eric Boerwinkle, Andrew B Singleton, Dena G Hernandez, Dan L Longo, Nicole Soranzo, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Bruce M Psaty, Luigi Ferrucci, Tamara B Harris, Christopher J O'Donnell, Santhi K Ganesh.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations of diverse ancestral backgrounds.
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Cerivastatin, genetic variants, and the risk of rhabdomyolysis.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The withdrawal of cerivastatin involved an uncommon but serious adverse reaction, rhabdomyolysis. The bimodal response, rhabdomyolysis in a small proportion of users, points to genetic factors as a potential cause. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate genetic markers for cerivastatin-associated rhabdomyolysis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.
Louise V Wain, Germaine C Verwoert, Paul F O'Reilly, Gang Shi, Toby Johnson, Andrew D Johnson, Murielle Bochud, Kenneth M Rice, Peter Henneman, Albert V Smith, Georg B Ehret, Najaf Amin, Martin G Larson, Vincent Mooser, David Hadley, Marcus Dörr, Joshua C Bis, Thor Aspelund, Tonu Esko, A Cecile J W Janssens, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon Heath, Maris Laan, Jingyuan Fu, Giorgio Pistis, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Gavin Lucas, Nicola Pirastu, Irene Pichler, Anne U Jackson, Rebecca J Webster, Feng Zhang, John F Peden, Helena Schmidt, Toshiko Tanaka, Harry Campbell, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Veronique Vitart, Daniel I Chasman, Stella Trompet, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, John C Chambers, Xiuqing Guo, Terho Lehtimäki, Brigitte Kühnel, Lorna M Lopez, Ozren Polašek, Mladen Boban, Christopher P Nelson, Alanna C Morrison, Vasyl Pihur, Santhi K Ganesh, Albert Hofman, Suman Kundu, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eric J G Sijbrands, André G Uitterlinden, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ramachandran S Vasan, Thomas J Wang, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Jaana Laitinen, Anneli Pouta, Paavo Zitting, Wendy L McArdle, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Nicole L Glazer, Kent D Taylor, Tamara B Harris, Helene Alavere, Toomas Haller, Aime Keis, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Yurii Aulchenko, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Susana Eyheramendy, Elin Org, Siim Sõber, Xiaowen Lu, Ilja M Nolte, Brenda W Penninx, Tanguy Corre, Corrado Masciullo, Cinzia Sala, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Olle Melander, Christopher J O'Donnell, Veikko Salomaa, Adamo Pio D'adamo, Antonella Fabretto, Flavio Faletra, Sheila Ulivi, Fabiola M Del Greco, Maurizio Facheris, Francis S Collins, Richard N Bergman, John P Beilby, Joseph Hung, A William Musk, Massimo Mangino, So-Youn Shin, Nicole Soranzo, Hugh Watkins, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Pierre Gider, Marisa Loitfelder, Marion Zeginigg, Dena Hernandez, Samer S Najjar, Pau Navarro, Sarah H Wild, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Eco J C de Geus, Gonneke Willemsen, Alex N Parker, Lynda M Rose, Brendan Buckley, David Stott, Marco Orrù, Manuela Uda, , Melanie M van der Klauw, Weihua Zhang, Xinzhong Li, James Scott, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Gregory L Burke, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Angela Döring, Thomas Meitinger, Gail Davies, John M Starr, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Jan H Lindeman, Peter A C 't Hoen, Inke R König, Janine F Felix, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Monique Breteler, Stéphanie Debette, Anita L Destefano, Myriam Fornage, Gary F Mitchell, Nicholas L Smith, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Nilesh J Samani, Michael Preuss, Igor Rudan, Caroline Hayward, Ian J Deary, H-Erich Wichmann, Olli T Raitakari, Walter Palmas, Jaspal S Kooner, Ronald P Stolk, J Wouter Jukema, Alan F Wright, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Farrall, Tim D Spector, Lyle J Palmer, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Arne Pfeufer, Paolo Gasparini, David Siscovick, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Daniela Toniolo, Harold Snieder, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Ben A Oostra, Andres Metspalu, Lenore Launer, Rainer Rettig, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Jeanette Erdmann, Ko Willems van Dijk, Eric Boerwinkle, Michael Boehnke, Paul M Ridker, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Aravinda Chakravarti, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Patricia B Munroe, Bruce M Psaty, Mark J Caulfield, Dabeeru C Rao, Martin D Tobin, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 × 10(-8) to P = 2.3 × 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE consortium identifies common variants associated with carotid intima media thickness and plaque.
Joshua C Bis, Maryam Kavousi, Nora Franceschini, Aaron Isaacs, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Ulf Schminke, Wendy S Post, Albert V Smith, L Adrienne Cupples, Hugh S Markus, Reinhold Schmidt, Jennifer E Huffman, Terho Lehtimäki, Jens Baumert, Thomas Münzel, Susan R Heckbert, Abbas Dehghan, Kari North, Ben Oostra, Steve Bevan, Eva-Maria Stoegerer, Caroline Hayward, Olli Raitakari, Christa Meisinger, Arne Schillert, Serena Sanna, Henry Völzke, Yu-Ching Cheng, Bolli Thorsson, Caroline S Fox, Kenneth Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Vijay Nambi, Eran Halperin, Katja E Petrovic, Leena Peltonen, H Erich Wichmann, Renate B Schnabel, Marcus Dörr, Afshin Parsa, Thor Aspelund, Serkalem Demissie, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Kent Taylor, André Uitterlinden, David J Couper, Matthias Sitzer, Mika Kähönen, Thomas Illig, Philipp S Wild, Marco Orrù, Jan Lüdemann, Alan R Shuldiner, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Charles C White, Jerome I Rotter, Albert Hofman, Jochen Seissler, Tanja Zeller, Gianluca Usala, Florian Ernst, Lenore J Launer, Ralph B D'Agostino, Daniel H O'Leary, Christie Ballantyne, Joachim Thiery, Andreas Ziegler, Edward G Lakatta, Ravi Kumar Chilukoti, Tamara B Harris, Philip A Wolf, Bruce M Psaty, Joseph F Polak, Xia Li, Wolfgang Rathmann, Manuela Uda, Eric Boerwinkle, Norman Klopp, Helena Schmidt, James F Wilson, Jorma Viikari, Wolfgang Koenig, Stefan Blankenberg, Anne B Newman, Jacqueline Witteman, Gerardo Heiss, Cornelia van Duijn, Angelo Scuteri, Georg Homuth, Braxton D Mitchell, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher J O'Donnell, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaque determined by ultrasonography are established measures of subclinical atherosclerosis that each predicts future cardiovascular disease events. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 31,211 participants of European ancestry from nine large studies in the setting of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. We then sought additional evidence to support our findings among 11,273 individuals using data from seven additional studies. In the combined meta-analysis, we identified three genomic regions associated with common carotid intima media thickness and two different regions associated with the presence of carotid plaque (P < 5 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs mapped in or near genes related to cellular signaling, lipid metabolism and blood pressure homeostasis, and two of the regions were associated with coronary artery disease (P < 0.006) in the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-Wide Replication and Meta-Analysis (CARDIoGRAM) consortium. Our findings may provide new insight into pathways leading to subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events.
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Variants in ZNF365 isoform D are associated with Crohns disease.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple Crohns disease (CD) susceptibility loci, including association with non-coding intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10q21.
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Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47.
Carl A Anderson, Gabrielle Boucher, Charlie W Lees, Andre Franke, Mauro D'Amato, Kent D Taylor, James C Lee, Philippe Goyette, Marcin Imielinski, Anna Latiano, Caroline Lagacé, Regan Scott, Leila Amininejad, Suzannah Bumpstead, Leonard Baidoo, Robert N Baldassano, Murray Barclay, Theodore M Bayless, Stephan Brand, Carsten Büning, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Lee A Denson, Martine De Vos, Marla Dubinsky, Cathryn Edwards, David Ellinghaus, Rudolf S N Fehrmann, James A B Floyd, Timothy Florin, Denis Franchimont, Lude Franke, Michel Georges, Jürgen Glas, Nicole L Glazer, Stephen L Guthery, Talin Haritunians, Nicholas K Hayward, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Gilles Jobin, Debby Laukens, Ian Lawrance, Marc Lémann, Arie Levine, Cécile Libioulle, Edouard Louis, Dermot P McGovern, Monica Milla, Grant W Montgomery, Katherine I Morley, Craig Mowat, Aylwin Ng, William Newman, Roel A Ophoff, Laura Papi, Orazio Palmieri, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Julian Panés, Anne Phillips, Natalie J Prescott, Deborah D Proctor, Rebecca Roberts, Richard Russell, Paul Rutgeerts, Jeremy Sanderson, Miquel Sans, Philip Schumm, Frank Seibold, Yashoda Sharma, Lisa A Simms, Mark Seielstad, A Hillary Steinhart, Stephan R Targan, Leonard H van den Berg, Morten Vatn, Hein Verspaget, Thomas Walters, Cisca Wijmenga, David C Wilson, Harm-Jan Westra, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhen Z Zhao, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Vibeke Andersen, Leif Törkvist, Maria Gazouli, Nicholas P Anagnou, Tom H Karlsen, Limas Kupcinskas, Jurgita Šventoraitytė, John C Mansfield, Subra Kugathasan, Mark S Silverberg, Jonas Halfvarson, Jerome I Rotter, Christopher G Mathew, Anne M Griffiths, Richard Gearry, Tariq Ahmad, Steven R Brant, Mathias Chamaillard, Jack Satsangi, Judy H Cho, Stefan Schreiber, Mark J Daly, Jeffrey C Barrett, Miles Parkes, Vito Annese, Hakon Hakonarson, Graham Radford-Smith, Richard H Duerr, Séverine Vermeire, Rinse K Weersma, John D Rioux.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis.
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RGS6 variants are associated with dietary fat intake in Hispanics: the IRAS Family Study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Recently, a genome-wide association scan was completed in the IRAS (Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study) Family Study (IRASFS) Hispanic-American cohort. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) gene were found to be associated with adiposity phenotypes. RGS6 has shown downstream antagonistic interplay with opioid receptors, targets of fatty/sugary food agonists. The possibility that RGS6 promotes tolerance and tachyphylaxis among the opioid receptor is a plausible pathway for overconsuming fat/sugar-laden food. Therefore, we hypothesized that RGS6 variants are associated with intake of fatty/sugary foods. In 932 Hispanics from San Antonio and San Luis Valley, CO, the following dietary intake variables were assessed using the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire: total calories, total fat, % calories from fat, % calories from saturated fat, protein, % calories from protein, carbohydrates, % calories from carbohydrates, and daily frequency of servings of fats/oils/sweets. We tested for association between 23 SNPs in RGS6 and dietary intake using a variance components measured genotype approach. All models were adjusted for gender, recruitment site, admixture, BMI, and age. Using an additive genetic model, rs1402064 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets, total calories, total fat and saturated fat (P = 0.0007, 0.026, 0.023, and 0.024). SNPs rs847330 and rs847354 were associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002 and 0.018), total fat (P = 0.040 and 0.048) and saturated fat (P = 0.044 and 0.041). Finally, rs769148 was associated with higher intake of fats/oils/sweets (P = 0.002). RGS6 is a new candidate gene for adiposity traits that may be associated with a behavioral tendency toward fat-laden food intake.
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Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT).
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8)). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can result in false positive associations in GWAS.
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Replication of association of a novel insulin receptor gene polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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To evaluate association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of 295 variants in 39 genes central to metabolic insulin signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) regulation, followed by replication efforts.
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Association of polymorphisms in the hepatocyte growth factor gene promoter with keratoconus.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Keratoconus is a progressive disorder of the cornea that can lead to severe visual impairment or blindness. Although several genomic regions have been linked to rare familial forms of keratoconus, no genes have yet been definitively identified for common forms of the disease.
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Associations of SNPs in ADIPOQ and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Circulating adiponectin is associated with both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Variants of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) are associated with clinical CVD, but little is known about associations with subclinical CVD. We studied the association of 11 ADIPOQ single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with common and internal carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), and CAC scores (in those with CAC) in 2,847 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants were white (n = 712), African American (n = 712), Chinese (n = 718), and Hispanic (n = 705). All models were adjusted for age, sex, and field site, and stratified by race/ethnic group. African Americans with genotypes AG/GG of rs2241767 had 36% greater (95% confidence interval (CI; 16%, 59%), P = 0.0001) CAC prevalence; they also had a larger common cIMT (P = 0.0043). Also in African Americans, genotypes AG/AA of rs1063537 were associated with a 35% (95% CI (14%, 59%), P = 0.0005) greater CAC prevalence. Hispanics with the AA genotype of rs11711353 had a 37% (95% CI (14%, 66%), P = 0.0011), greater CAC prevalence compared to those with the GG genotype. Additional adjustment for ancestry in African-American and Hispanic participants did not change the results. No single SNP was associated with subclinical CVD phenotypes in Chinese or white participants. There appears to be an association between ADIPOQ SNPs and subclinical CVD in African Americans and Hispanics. Replication as well as assessment of other ADIPOQ SNPs is warranted.
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Genetic predictors of medically refractory ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) remains a significant clinical challenge and the ability to predict, at an early stage, those individuals at risk of colectomy for medically refractory UC (MR-UC) would be a major clinical advance. The aim of this study was to use a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a well-characterized cohort of UC patients to identify genetic variation that contributes to MR-UC.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohns disease susceptibility loci.
Andre Franke, Dermot P B McGovern, Jeffrey C Barrett, Kai Wang, Graham L Radford-Smith, Tariq Ahmad, Charlie W Lees, Tobias Balschun, James Lee, Rebecca Roberts, Carl A Anderson, Joshua C Bis, Suzanne Bumpstead, David Ellinghaus, Eleonora M Festen, Michel Georges, Todd Green, Talin Haritunians, Luke Jostins, Anna Latiano, Christopher G Mathew, Grant W Montgomery, Natalie J Prescott, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Jerome I Rotter, Philip Schumm, Yashoda Sharma, Lisa A Simms, Kent D Taylor, David Whiteman, Cisca Wijmenga, Robert N Baldassano, Murray Barclay, Theodore M Bayless, Stephan Brand, Carsten Büning, Albert Cohen, Jean-Frederick Colombel, Mario Cottone, Laura Stronati, Ted Denson, Martine De Vos, Renata D'Incà, Marla Dubinsky, Cathryn Edwards, Tim Florin, Denis Franchimont, Richard Gearry, Jürgen Glas, André Van Gossum, Stephen L Guthery, Jonas Halfvarson, Hein W Verspaget, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Amir Karban, Debby Laukens, Ian Lawrance, Marc Lémann, Arie Levine, Cécile Libioulle, Edouard Louis, Craig Mowat, William Newman, Julian Panés, Anne Phillips, Deborah D Proctor, Miguel Regueiro, Richard Russell, Paul Rutgeerts, Jeremy Sanderson, Miquel Sans, Frank Seibold, A Hillary Steinhart, Pieter C F Stokkers, Leif Törkvist, Gerd Kullak-Ublick, David Wilson, Thomas Walters, Stephan R Targan, Steven R Brant, John D Rioux, Mauro D'Amato, Rinse K Weersma, Subra Kugathasan, Anne M Griffiths, John C Mansfield, Séverine Vermeire, Richard H Duerr, Mark S Silverberg, Jack Satsangi, Stefan Schreiber, Judy H Cho, Vito Annese, Hakon Hakonarson, Mark J Daly, Miles Parkes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohns disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10??). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohns disease.
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Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status is associated with Crohns disease.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Genetic variation in both innate and adaptive immune systems is associated with Crohns disease (CD) susceptibility, but much of the heritability to CD remains unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 896 CD cases and 3204 healthy controls all of Caucasian origin as defined by multidimensional scaling. We found supportive evidence for 21 out of 40 CD loci identified in a recent CD GWAS meta-analysis, including two loci which had only nominally achieved replication (rs4807569, 19p13; rs991804, CCL2/CCL7). In addition, we identified associations with genes involved in tight junctions/epithelial integrity (ASHL, ARPC1A), innate immunity (EXOC2), dendritic cell biology [CADM1 (IGSF4)], macrophage development (MMD2), TGF-beta signaling (MAP3K7IP1) and FUT2 (a physiological trait that regulates gastrointestinal mucosal expression of blood group A and B antigens) (rs602662, P=3.4x10(-5)). Twenty percent of Caucasians are non-secretors who do not express ABO antigens in saliva as a result of the FUT2 W134X allele. We demonstrated replication in an independent cohort of 1174 CD cases and 357 controls between the four primary FUT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CD (rs602662, combined P-value 4.90x10(-8)) and also association with FUT2 W143X (P=2.6x10(-5)). Further evidence of the relevance of this locus to CD pathogenesis was demonstrated by the association of the original four SNPs and CD in the recently published CD GWAS meta-analysis (rs602662, P=0.001). These findings strongly implicate this locus in CD susceptibility and highlight the role of the mucus layer in the development of CD.
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Genome-wide association study of vitamin D concentrations in Hispanic Americans: the IRAS family study.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many adverse health outcomes. There are several well established environmental predictors of vitamin D concentrations, yet studies of the genetic determinants of vitamin D concentrations are in their infancy. Our objective was to conduct a pilot genome-wide association (GWA) study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH](2)D) concentrations in a subset of 229 Hispanic subjects, followed by replication genotyping of 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire sample of 1190 Hispanics from San Antonio, Texas and San Luis Valley, Colorado. Of the 309,200 SNPs that met all quality control criteria, three SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other were significantly associated with 1,25[OH](2)D (rs6680429, rs9970802, and rs10889028) at a Bonferroni corrected P-value threshold of 1.62 × 10(-7), however none met the threshold for 25[OH]D. Of the 50 SNPs selected for replication genotyping, five for 25[OH]D (rs2806508, rs10141935, rs4778359, rs1507023, and rs9937918) and eight for 1,25[OH](2)D (rs6680429, rs1348864, rs4559029, rs12667374, rs7781309, rs10505337, rs2486443, and rs2154175) were replicated in the entire sample of Hispanics (P<0.01). In conclusion, we identified several SNPs that were associated with vitamin D metabolite concentrations in Hispanics. These candidate polymorphisms merit further investigation in independent populations and other ethnicities.
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Four novel Loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24, and 5q14) influence the microcirculation in vivo.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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There is increasing evidence that the microcirculation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Changes in retinal vascular caliber reflect early microvascular disease and predict incident cardiovascular events. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genetic variants associated with retinal vascular caliber. We analyzed data from four population-based discovery cohorts with 15,358 unrelated Caucasian individuals, who are members of the Cohort for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, and replicated findings in four independent Caucasian cohorts (n ?= ?6,652). All participants had retinal photography and retinal arteriolar and venular caliber measured from computer software. In the discovery cohorts, 179 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spread across five loci were significantly associated (p<5.0×10(-8)) with retinal venular caliber, but none showed association with arteriolar caliber. Collectively, these five loci explain 1.0%-3.2% of the variation in retinal venular caliber. Four out of these five loci were confirmed in independent replication samples. In the combined analyses, the top SNPs at each locus were: rs2287921 (19q13; p? =? 1.61×10(-25), within the RASIP1 locus), rs225717 (6q24; p?=?1.25×10(-16), adjacent to the VTA1 and NMBR loci), rs10774625 (12q24; p ?=? 2.15×10(-13), in the region of ATXN2,SH2B3 and PTPN11 loci), and rs17421627 (5q14; p?=?7.32×10(-16), adjacent to the MEF2C locus). In two independent samples, locus 12q24 was also associated with coronary heart disease and hypertension. Our population-based genome-wide association study demonstrates four novel loci associated with retinal venular caliber, an endophenotype of the microcirculation associated with clinical cardiovascular disease. These data provide further insights into the contribution and biological mechanisms of microcirculatory changes that underlie cardiovascular disease.
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Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with histologic features of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Little data are available from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We conducted a pilot GWAS in patients with NAFLD, characterized by histology, who were enrolled in the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) Database Study.
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CRTC3 links catecholamine signalling to energy balance.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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The adipose-derived hormone leptin maintains energy balance in part through central nervous system-mediated increases in sympathetic outflow that enhance fat burning. Triggering of ?-adrenergic receptors in adipocytes stimulates energy expenditure by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent increases in lipolysis and fatty-acid oxidation. Although the mechanism is unclear, catecholamine signalling is thought to be disrupted in obesity, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Here we show that the cAMP response element binding (CREB) coactivator Crtc3 promotes obesity by attenuating ?-adrenergic receptor signalling in adipose tissue. Crtc3 was activated in response to catecholamine signals, when it reduced adenyl cyclase activity by upregulating the expression of Rgs2, a GTPase-activating protein that also inhibits adenyl cyclase activity. As a common human CRTC3 variant with increased transcriptional activity is associated with adiposity in two distinct Mexican-American cohorts, these results suggest that adipocyte CRTC3 may play a role in the development of obesity in humans.
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Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. In an effort to identify genetic variation underlying ulcerative colitis risk, we present two distinct genome-wide association studies of ulcerative colitis and their joint analysis with a previously published scan, comprising, in aggregate, 2,693 individuals with ulcerative colitis and 6,791 control subjects. Fifty-nine SNPs from 14 independent loci attained an association significance of P < 10(-5). Seven of these loci exceeded genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)). After testing an independent cohort of 2,009 cases of ulcerative colitis and 1,580 controls, we identified 13 loci that were significantly associated with ulcerative colitis (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including the immunoglobulin receptor gene FCGR2A, 5p15, 2p16 and ORMDL3 (orosomucoid1-like 3). We confirmed association with 14 previously identified ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci, and an analysis of acknowledged Crohns disease loci showed that roughly half of the known Crohns disease associations are shared with ulcerative colitis. These data implicate approximately 30 loci in ulcerative colitis, thereby providing insight into disease pathogenesis.
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Common variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.
Marcin Imielinski, Robert N Baldassano, Anne Griffiths, Richard K Russell, Vito Annese, Marla Dubinsky, Subra Kugathasan, Jonathan P Bradfield, Thomas D Walters, Patrick Sleiman, Cecilia E Kim, Aleixo Muise, Kai Wang, Joseph T Glessner, Shehzad Saeed, Haitao Zhang, Edward C Frackelton, Cuiping Hou, James H Flory, George Otieno, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Robert Grundmeier, Massimo Castro, Anna Latiano, Bruno Dallapiccola, Joanne Stempak, Debra J Abrams, Kent Taylor, Dermot McGovern, , Gary Silber, Iwona Wrobel, Antonio Quiros, Jeffrey C Barrett, Sarah Hansoul, Dan L Nicolae, Judy H Cho, Richard H Duerr, John D Rioux, Steven R Brant, Mark S Silverberg, Kent D Taylor, M Michael Barmuda, Alain Bitton, Themistocles Dassopoulos, Lisa Wu Datta, Todd Green, Anne M Griffiths, Emily O Kistner, Michael T Murtha, Miguel D Regueiro, Jerome I Rotter, L Philip Schumm, A Hillary Steinhart, Stephen R Targan, Ramnik J Xavier, Cécile Libioulle, Cynthia Sandor, Mark Lathrop, Jacques Belaiche, Olivier Dewit, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Debby Laukens, Myriam Mni, Paul Rutgeerts, André Van Gossum, Diana Zelenika, Denis Franchimont, J P Hugot, Martine De Vos, Séverine Vermeire, Edouard Louis, Lon R Cardon, Carl A Anderson, Hazel Drummond, Elaine Nimmo, Tariq Ahmad, Natalie J Prescott, Clive M Onnie, Sheila A Fisher, Jonathan Marchini, Jilur Ghori, Suzannah Bumpstead, Rhian Gwillam, Mark Tremelling, Panos Delukas, John Mansfield, Derek Jewell, Jack Satsangi, Christopher G Mathew, Miles Parkes, Michel Georges, Mark J Daly, Melvin B Heyman, George D Ferry, Barbara Kirschner, Jessica Lee, Jonah Essers, Richard Grand, Michael Stephens, Arie Levine, David Piccoli, John Van Limbergen, Salvatore Cucchiara, Dimitri S Monos, Stephen L Guthery, Lee Denson, David C Wilson, Straun F A Grant, Mark Daly, Hakon Hakonarson.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohns disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD.
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High-frequency haplotypes in the X chromosome locus TLR8 are associated with both CD and UC in females.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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TNF-alpha and IL-1 have been associated with mucosal inflammation in both Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Innate immune defects have been associated with CD, specifically CARD15/NOD2. Recently, Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) signaling has been shown to enhance generation of both cytokines. Interestingly, TLR8 is located on the X chromosome and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with abnormalities of the X chromosome. The aim was to test whether TLR8 haplotypes are associated with IBD.
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Genome-wide association study and follow-up analysis of adiposity traits in Hispanic Americans: the IRAS Family Study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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We investigated candidate genomic regions associated with computed tomography (CT)-derived measures of adiposity in Hispanics from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study (IRASFS). In 1,190 Hispanic individuals from 92 families 3 from the San Luis Valley, Colorado and San Antonio, Texas, we measured CT-derived visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral:subcutaneous ratio (VSR). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was completed using the Illumina HumanHap 300 BeadChip (approximately 317K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) in 229 individuals from the San Antonio site (stage 1). In total, 297 SNPs with evidence for association with VAT, SAT, or VSR, adjusting for age and sex (P<0.001), were genotyped in the remaining 961 Hispanic samples. The entire Hispanic cohort (n=1,190) was then tested for association, adjusting for age, sex, site of recruitment, and admixture estimates (stage 2). In stage 3, additional SNPs were genotyped in four genic regions showing evidence of association in stage 2. Several SNPs were associated in the GWAS (P<1x10(-5)) and were confirmed to be significantly associated in the entire Hispanic cohort (P<0.01), including: rs7543757 for VAT, rs4754373 and rs11212913 for SAT, and rs4541696 and rs4134351 for VSR. Numerous SNPs were associated with multiple adiposity phenotypes. Targeted analysis of four genes whose SNPs were significant in stage 2 suggests candidate genes for influencing the distribution (RGS6) and amount of adiposity (NGEF). Several candidate loci, including RGS6 and NGEF, are associated with CT-derived adipose fat measures in Hispanic Americans in a three-stage genetic association study.
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Genome-wide association study of blood pressure and hypertension.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Blood pressure is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. To date, few variants associated with interindividual blood pressure variation have been identified and replicated. Here we report results of a genome-wide association study of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and hypertension in the CHARGE Consortium (n = 29,136), identifying 13 SNPs for SBP, 20 for DBP and 10 for hypertension at P < 4 × 10(-7). The top ten loci for SBP and DBP were incorporated into a risk score; mean BP and prevalence of hypertension increased in relation to the number of risk alleles carried. When ten CHARGE SNPs for each trait were included in a joint meta-analysis with the Global BPgen Consortium (n = 34,433), four CHARGE loci attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for SBP (ATP2B1, CYP17A1, PLEKHA7, SH2B3), six for DBP (ATP2B1, CACNB2, CSK-ULK3, SH2B3, TBX3-TBX5, ULK4) and one for hypertension (ATP2B1). Identifying genes associated with blood pressure advances our understanding of blood pressure regulation and highlights potential drug targets for the prevention or treatment of hypertension.
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Susceptibility to Crohns disease is mediated by KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3 heterozygosity and the HLA-C ligand.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the KIR loci and the genes encoding their HLA ligands and genetic susceptibility to Crohns disease (CD). Analyses of the interactions between KIR3DL1, KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, and KIR2DL3 with their respective HLA ligands indicate that there is a protective effect for KIR2DL2 in the absence of its HLA ligand C1. Given that KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 segregate as alleles, we compared their genotypic distributions to expectations under Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) with regard to the HLA ligand C1 status. While all the genotypic distributions conform to expectations under HWE in controls, in C2 ligand homozygous cases there is significant deviation from HWE, with a reduction of KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3 heterozygotes. KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3 heterozygosity is the only genotypic combination that confers protection from CD. In addition to the protective effect (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.22-0.87; p = 0.018) observed in C2 ligand homozygotes, the KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3 genotype is predisposing (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.03-4.53; p = 0.031) in the presence of C1 ligand. A test for trend of HLA class I C ligand group genotypes with KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3 heterozygosity in cases and controls indicates that C1, C2 ligand group heterozygotes have an intermediate effect on predisposition. These results show for the first time that disease susceptibility may be related to heterozygosity at a specific KIR locus, and that HLA ligand genotype influences the relative effect of the KIR genotype.
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MAGI2 genetic variation and inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Despite recent advances the majority of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes remain undiscovered. Recent data suggest that autoimmune conditions may share susceptibility loci. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between celiac disease and IBD and both conditions demonstrate increased gut permeability. MAGI2, recently implicated in ulcerative colitis (UC) and celiac disease, encodes a scaffolding protein involved in epithelial integrity. Our aim was to test MAGI2 variants for association with IBD and also their role in determining intermediate hereditary phenotypes defined by antibody production to microbial antigens.
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Genetic epistasis of IL23/IL17 pathway genes in Crohns disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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The IL23/IL17 pathway is pivotal in the development of chronic mucosal inflammation seen in Crohns disease (CD). Genetic variants in the IL23R and IL12B have been associated with CD susceptibility. We investigated 10 genes within the IL23/IL17 pathway in a case-control study of 763 CD cases and 254 healthy controls.
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Variants in the HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene influence component phenotypes in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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To study the role of genetic variation in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR) gene in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
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The HMG-CoA reductase gene and lipid and lipoprotein levels: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) is an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis. To investigate the contribution of the HMGCR gene to lipids and lipoprotein subfractions in different ethnicities, we performed an association study in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In total, 2,444 MESA subjects [597 African-Americans (AA), 627 Chinese-Americans (CHA), 612 European-Americans (EA), and 608 Hispanic-Americans (HA)] without statin use were included. Participants had measurements of blood pressure, anthropometry, and fasting blood samples. Subjects were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After excluding SNPs with minor allele frequency <5%, a single block was constructed. The most frequent haplotype was H1 (41-56%) in all ethnic groups except AA (H2a, 44.9%). Lower triglyceride level was associated with the H2a haplotype in AA and H2 in HA. In HA, H4 carriers had higher levels of triglyceride and small low-density lipoprotein (s-LDL), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), while carriers with H7 or H8 had associations with these traits in the opposite direction. No significant association was discovered in both CHA and EA. The total variation for triglyceride that could be explained by H2 alone was 2.6% in HA and 1.4% in AA. In conclusion, HMGCR gene variation is associated with multiple lipid/lipoprotein traits, especially with triglyceride, s-LDL, and HDL-c. The impact of the genetic variance is modest and differs greatly among ethnicities.
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IBD-associated TL1A gene (TNFSF15) haplotypes determine increased expression of TL1A protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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The recently identified member of the TNF superfamily TL1A (TNFSF15) increases IFN-gamma production by T cells in peripheral and mucosal CCR9+ T cells. TL1A and its receptor DR3 are up-regulated during chronic intestinal inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease (CD). TL1A gene haplotypes increase CD susceptibility in Japanese, European, and US cohorts.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.