T-wave alternans (TWA) represents myocardial instability. The present study was to determine the impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on TWA and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure patients.
ns1 gene of Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) was consisted of 951 nucleotides encoding a deduced 316-amino aicd protein. In this study, the gene was cloned and fused in frame with a N-terminal 6×His tag under control of the polyhedrin promoter, which was transposed into the mini-attTn7 locus of a modified baculovirus vector. Transfection of Sf-9 cells with the resulting recombinant DNA was performed to prepare recombinant virus and the resultant supernatant of transfection with fluorescent signal was harvested. Western blot analysis revealed that NS1 protein was successfully expressed in Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant virus and was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Moreover, the expressed NS1 is a phosphorylated protein and the phosphorylation site is Thr-184. These results showed that the activity of BmBDV NS1 may be regulated by phosphorylation.
We previously identified a pumilio gene in silkworm (Bombyx mori L.), designated BmPUM, which was specifically expressed in the ovary and testis. To further characterize this gene's involvement in silkworm development, we have determined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of BmPUM during all embryonic stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BmPUM was expressed in all stages of silkworm embryos and that its transcript levels displayed two distinct peaks. The first was observed at the germ-band formation stage (1 d after oviposition) and dropped to a low level at the gonad formation stage (5 d after oviposition). The second was detected at the stage of bristle follicle occurrence (6 d after oviposition), which was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Nanos (Nos), functioning together with Pum in abdomen formation of Drosophila embryos, was also highly expressed at the beginning (0 h to 1 d after oviposition) of embryogenesis, but its transcript levels were very low after the stage of germ-band formation. These results suggest that BmPUM functions with Bombyx mori nanos (Bm-nanos) at the early stages of silkworm embryonic development, and may then play a role in gonad formation and the occurrence of bristle follicles. Our data thus provide a foundation to uncover the role of BmPUM during silkworm development.
Fresh biomass of Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) CGMCC5992 can effectively remove gallic acid from aqueous solution. To improve the removal rate of gallic acid, this study first identified the important factors affecting the removal rate of gallic acid with univariate analysis, and then used four-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) with the removal rate of gallic acid as response value, to obtain the optimum conditions for the removal of gallic acid as follows: 6.95 h treatment time, pH 3.70, 7.07 g/L mycelium volume, and 120.64 mg/L initial concentration of gallic acid. Under such optimized condition, the removal rate of gallic acid approached 99.21 %. HPLC-MS analysis proved that the gallic acid in aqueous solution was completely removed by A. oryzae, rather than being metabolized into its derivatives. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the biomass morphology and surface structure of A. oryzae changed after the adsorption of gallic acid. Thus, the present study has provided an optimal condition for A. oryzae removal of gallic acid in water.
Recently, as an emerging persistent dissolved organic pollutant (DOP), gallic acid (GA) and its efficient decomposition methods have received global attention. The present work aimed to compare the effect of Aspergillus oryzae 5992 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 40719 on degradation of different concentrations of GA. The A. oryzae grew well and achieved a GA removal rate up to 99% in media containing 1-4% GA, much higher than P. chrysosporium. The activity of laccase and lignin peroxidase excreted by A. oryzae was higher than that by P. chrysosporium in the presence of GA. Based on the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, three relevant intermediate metabolites were determined as progallin A, methyl gallate, and pyrogallic acid, implying that A. oryzae could not degrade GA unless the carboxyl in the molecule was protected or removed. In view of the ability of A. oryzae to accommodate a high concentration of GA and achieve a high removal rate, as well as the significantly different enzyme activities involved in GA degradation and the underlying mechanisms between the two fungal strains, A. oryzae is proven to be a superior strain for the degradation of DOP.
The atonal genes are an evolutionarily conserved group of genes encoding regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. These transcription factors have a critical antioncogenic function in the retina, and are necessary for cell fate determination through the regulation of the cell signal pathway. In this study, the atonal gene was cloned from Bombyx mori, and the transcription factor was named BmAtonal. Sequence analysis showed that the BmAtonal protein shares extensive homology with other invertebrate Atonal proteins with the bHLH motif. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses revealed that BmAtonal was expressed in all developmental stages of B. mori and various larval tissues. The BmAtonal protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified protein. By immunofluorescence, the BmAtonal protein was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm of BmN cells. After knocking out nuclear localization signals (NLS), the BmAtonal protein was only detected in the cytoplasm. In addition, using the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) baculovirus expression system, the recombinant BmAtonal protein was successfully expressed in the B. mori cell line BmN. This work lays the foundation for exploring the biological functions of the BmAtonal protein, such as identifying its potential binding partners and understanding the molecular control of the formation of sensory organs.
In our previous study, Orf101 (Bm101) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was identified as a component of the budded virions important for viral late gene expression. In this study we demonstrate that Bm101 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To determine the role of Bm101 in the baculovirus life cycle, a Bm101 knockout bacmid containing the BmNPV genome was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, a Bm101 repair bacmid was constructed by transposing the Bm101 open reading frame with its native promoter region into the polyhedrin locus of the Bm101 knockout bacmid. Bacmid DNA transfection assay revealed that the Bm101 knockout bacmid was unable to produce the infectious budded virus, while the Bm101 repair bacmid rescued this defect, allowing budded-virus titers to reach wild-type levels. Real time PCR analysis indicated that the viral DNA genome in the absence of Bm101 was unaffected in the first 24 h p.t. Thus, studies of a Bm101-null BACmid indicate that Bm101 is required for viral DNA replication during the infection cycle.
Degradation performance of silk fibroin is an important property for its medical applications. Herein we constructed a shortened silk fibroin heavy chain protein fused with a matrix metalloproteinase cleavage site (SSFH-MMP) along with a glutathione S-transferase tag ahead. The digestion assay shows it can be cut by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) at its MMP cleavage site. Furthermore, we introduced the SSFH-MMP into silk fibroin by genetic modification of silkworms in order to increase the degradation rate of the silk fibroin. After acquisition of a race of transgenic silkworms with the coding sequence of the MMP cleavage site in their genomic DNA, we tested some properties of their silk fibroin designated TSF-MMP. The results show that the TSF-MMP has MMP cleavage sites and yields a quicker degradation rate during dilution in MMP-2 enzyme buffer or implantation into tumor tissues compared with that of normal silk fibroin. Moreover, the TSF-MMP is in vitro non-toxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) indicating that the TSF-MMP may become a biomaterial with a quicker degradation rate for its medical applications.
The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cultured in media containing chitosan on its antogonistic activity against postharvest diseases of strawberries and the possible mechanisms involved are discussed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were applied in the analysis of the proteins of R. mucilaginosa in response to chitosan. Compared with the application of R. mucilaginosa alone, the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast combined with 0.5% chitosan was enhanced greatly, with significant increase in chitinase activity of antagonistic yeast, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity, and with an inhibition of lipid peroxidation of strawberries. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with chitosan at 0.5% increased rapidly in strawberry wounds compared with those harvested from NYDB without chitosan. In the cellular proteome, several differentially expressed proteins were identified, most of which were related to basic metabolism.
Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in a tremendous yield loss worldwide. Studies on various host-pathogen interactions have shown that plant WRKY transcription factors are essential for defence. For the B.?napus-S.?sclerotiorum interaction, little direct evidence has been found with regard to the biological roles of specific WRKY genes in host resistance. In this study, we isolated a B.?napus WRKY gene, BnWRKY33, and found that the gene is highly responsive to S.?sclerotiorum infection. Transgenic B.?napus plants overexpressing BnWRKY33 showed markedly enhanced resistance to S.?sclerotiorum, constitutive activation of the expression of BnPR1 and BnPDF1.2, and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation in response to pathogen infection. Further, we isolated a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrate gene, BnMKS1, and found that not only can BnWRKY33 interact with BnMKS1, which can also interact with BnMPK4, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, consistent with their collective nuclear localization, but also BnWRKY33, BnMKS1 and BnMPK4 are substantially and synergistically expressed in response to S.?sclerotiorum infection. In contrast, the three genes showed differential expression in response to phytohormone treatments. Together, these results suggest that BnWRKY33 plays an important role in B.?napus defence to S.?sclerotiorum, which is most probably associated with the activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defence response and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation, and we propose a potential mechanism in which BnMPK4-BnMKS1-BnWRKY33 exist in a nuclear localized complex to regulate resistance to S.?sclerotiorum in oilseed rape.
While bacteria exist in CIED patients without clinical signs of infection, the underlying bacterial community structure and diversity in the bloodstream and pocket tissue of asymptomatic CIED patients remain unknown. In this study, we performed high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA of blood and pocket tissue from 54 asymptomatic CIED patients as well as blood from 30 normal individuals (normal controls). Firstly, we observed a significant increase of blood bacterial diversity in patients as compared with blood of normal subjects or patient tissues. We also found significant differences in 13 blood-associated bacterial genera between patients and normal subjects, and 14 bacteria genera between blood and tissues within patients. Secondly, we found that the serum levels of four inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-1?, IL-6, and MCP-1) in CIED patients were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. Thirdly, we found that there were significant correlations between 43 bacterial species and these inflammatory markers. Taken together, our results reveal a high diversity in the microbial community in CIED patients, and suggest the potential roles of multiple bacteria co-occurrence in the CIED subclinical infections.
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important model of lepidoptera insect, and it has been used for several models of human diseases. In human being, long-term high-sugar diet can induce the occurrence of diabetes and other related diseases. Interestingly, our experiments revealed the high glucose diet also has a suppressive effect on the development of silkworms. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which high-glucose diet inhibited the midgut growth in silkworms, we employed comparative proteomic analysis to globally identify proteins differentially expressed in normal and high-glucose diet group silkworms. In all, 28 differently proteins were suppressed and 5 proteins induced in high-glucose diet group. Gene ontology analysis showed that most of these differently proteins are mainly involved in metabolic process, catalytic and cellular process. A development related protein, imaginal disk growth factor (IDGF), was further confirmed by western blot exclusively expressing in the normal diet group silkworms. Taken together, our data suggests that IDGF plays a critical role in impairing the development of silkworms by a high-glucose diet.
Orf101 (Bm101) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, but its function remains unknown. In this study, Bm101 was characterized. Transcripts of Bm101 were detected from 24 through 96 h post infection (h p.i.) by RT-PCR. The corresponding protein was also detected from 24 to 96 h p.i. in BmNPV-infected BmN cells by Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody against Bm101. Western blot assay of occlusion-derived virus and budded virus (BV) preparations revealed that Bm101 encodes a 28-kDa structural protein that is associated with BV and is located in the envelope fraction of budded virions. In addition, confocal analysis showed that the protein was localized in the cytosol and cytoplasmic membrane in virus-infected cells. In conclusion, the available data suggest that Bm101 is a functional ORF of BmNPV and encodes a protein expressed in the late stage of the infection cycle that is associated with the BV envelope.
Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) is a new designated species of the new genus Bidensovirus in the new family Bidnaviridae, which contains two single-stranded linear DNAs (VD1 and VD2) and causes the chronic densonucleosis disease of silkworm. Previous researches revealed that VD1-ORF3 encodes the major structural proteins VPs. In this work, through western blot, we found that VPs expressed from 48 h post-inoculation and kept increasing until 120 h post-inoculation in midgut of Bombyx mori. In order to further investigate the translation of vp gene, the ORFs (vp1 and vp2) of the VP started just up-stream of the first two candidate initiation codons were expressed in Sf9 cells by a baculovirus expression system. The expression products were purified by gradient density centrifugation and analyzed by Western blot and electron microscopy. The results showed that the expressions of vp1 yielded three proteins (VP1, VP1', and VP2), which are the same with the viral VPs expression in midgut of Bombyx mori, and vp2 generated two VPs with the molecular weights of about 51 kDa (VP2) and 37 kDa. The observation by electron microscopy indicated that these VPs can auto-assemble into virus-like particles that could not be distinguished from virus particles. These findings will provide materials for studying the structure of BmBDV and be helpful in the studies on BmBDV-based disease in silkworms.
Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica.
Since graphene oxide (GO) is readily available and exhibits exceptional optical, electrical, mechanical and chemical properties, it has attracted increasing interests for use in GO-DNA based sensors. This paper reviews the advances in GO-DNA based sensors using DNA as recognition elements. In solution, GO is as an excellent acceptor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to quench the fluorescence in dye labeled DNA sequences. This review discusses the emerging GO-DNA based sensors related to FRET for use in the detection of DNA, proteins, metal ions, cysteine (Cys), and others. The application of the electrochemical GO-DNA based sensors is also summarized because GO possesses exceptional electrochemical properties. The detection mechanisms and the advantages of GO are also revealed and discussed. GO-DNA based sensors perform well at low cost, and high sensitivity, and provide low detection limits. Additionally, GO-DNA based sensors should appear in the near future as scientists explore their usefulness and properties. Finally, future perspectives and possible challenges in this area are outlined.
The Bm111 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) encodes a small polypeptide (70 amino acids) of which the function remains unknown. To characterize its function, multiple sequence alignments were performed, and the predicted protein was found to share amazingly high (98 %) sequence identity with the Bombyx mandarina nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF110 (Boma110) but negligible with proteins of other insect viruses, indicating the close relationship between these two NPVs with silkworm larvae. The transcription of Bm111 was detected as early as 3 hpi in BmNPV-infected BmN cells, suggesting it is an early gene. To investigate the role of Bm111 in baculovirus life cycle, a Bm111-knockout virus was constructed by bacmid recombination in Escherichia coli. The results showed that knockout of the Bm111 did not affect the replication of virus DNA, but significantly extended the death time of infected silkworm larvae compared to the wild-type or rescued viruses. We also successfully expressed the recombinant protein Bm111 in E. coli to provide sufficient material for subsequent studies. Taken together, our data indicate that Bm111 only affects the virulence of BmNPV, but not its replication.
Degradation of p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase delta (Pol ?) that results in an interconversion between Pol ?4 and Pol ?3 forms plays a significant role in response to replication stress or genotoxic agents triggered DNA damage. Also, the p12 is readily degraded by human calpain in vitro. However, little has been done for the investigation of its degree of participation in any of the more common apoptosis. Here, we first report that the p12 subunit is a substrate of ?-calpain. In calcium-triggered apoptotic HeLa cells, the p12 is degraded at 12 hours post-induction (hpi), restored thereafter by 24 hpi, and then depleted again after 36 hpi in a time-dependent manner while the other three subunits are not affected. It suggests a dual function of Pol ? by its interconversion between Pol ?4 and Pol ?3 that is involved in a novel unknown apoptosis mechanism. The proteolysis of p12 could be efficiently blocked by both calpain inhibitor ALLN and proteasome inhibitor MG132. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays show that the ?-calpain binds to p12 through the interaction of ?-calpain with Pol ? other three subunits, not p12 itself, and PCNA, implying that the proteolysis of p12 by ?-calpain might be through a Pol ?4/PCNA complex. The p12 cleavage sites by ?-calpain are further determined as the location within a 16-amino acids peptide 28-43 by in vitro cleavage assays. Thus, the p12/Pol ? is a target as a nuclear substrate of ?-calpain in a calcium-triggered apoptosis and appears to be a potential marker in the study of the chemotherapy of cancer therapies.
Peptide-mediated interactions are crucial to a variety of functions in the living cell and are estimated to be involved in up to 40 % of all cellular processes. Fast and reliable inference of such interactions is fundamentally important for our understanding and, then, reconstruction of complete virtual interactomics involved in a specific cell, tissue or organism. In the current study, we performed structure-level characterization, modeling and prediction of protein-peptide recognition specificity and stability in a high-throughput manner. To achieve this, the classical chemometrics methodology quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), which is traditionally applied to small-molecule entities such as drug compounds and environmental chemicals, was employed to statistically correlate structure features with binding affinities for a panel of structure-solved, affinity-known protein-peptide complexes compiled from the PDB database and literatures. In the standard QSAR procedure, various structural descriptors including physicochemical, geometrical and constitutional parameters that characterize diverse aspects of protein-peptide interaction property were derived from the biomacromolecular complex structure architecture, and these descriptors were then correlated with experimentally measured affinities by using the partial least squares (PLS) regression and Gaussian process (GP) in conjunction with genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection. The nonlinear GA/GP method was found to perform much well as compared to linear GA/PLS modeling, suggesting that the protein-peptide interaction system is highly complicated that may involve strong noise and interactive effect. The optimal GA/GP model revealed that the interface size and solvent effect play a critical role in protein-peptide binding, and other properties such as peptide length and flexibility also contribute significantly to the binding. A further test on 2,018 human amphiphysin SH3 domain-binding peptides demonstrated that the purposed QSAR modeling procedure is very fast and effective, which can thus be readily used to perform proteome-wide inference of peptide-mediated interactions.
Human growth hormone (hGH) is the major and important hormone component of human being. At present, hGH for clinical uses is mostly produced in Escherichia coli, which requires costly denaturation and refolding to recover functionality. To obtain long-term bioactive hormone, we used hGH as a foreign gene and constructed a recombinant plasmid pJS700-hGH which carries a recombinant gene cotC-hgh with an enterokinase site under the control of cotC promoter. Plasmid pJS700-hGH was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double crossover and an amylase-inactivated mutant was produced. After spore formation, Western blot and fluorescence immunoassay were used to monitor hGH surface expression on spores. Oral administration to silkworm with spores displaying hGH further showed that the recombinant spores may have potential ability to be digested and absorbed into the silkworms hemolymph due to both the resistant characters of spores and the addition of enterokinase site.
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major viral agent that causes deadly grasserie disease in silkworms, while BmNPV DNA polymerase (BmNPV-pol), encoded by ORF53 gene, plays a central role in viral DNA replication. Efficacy studies of BmNPV-POL are limited because of poor heterologous protein expression in E. coli. Here, we redesigned the BmNPV-pol to preferentially match codon frequencies of E. coli without altering the amino acid sequence. Following de novo synthesis, codon-optimized BmNPV-pol (co-BmNPV-pol) gene was cloned into pET32a and pGEX-4T-2 vector. The expression of co-BmNPV-POL in E. coli was significantly increased when BmNPV-POL was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. The co-BmNPV-POL fusion proteins were isolated using GST affinity chromatography and Mono Q iron exchange chromatography. Protein purity and identity were confirmed by western blot and MALDI-TOF analyses. The biological activity of purified proteins was measured on a poly(dA)/oligo(dT) primer/template. The specific polymerasing activity of the recombinant BmNPV-POL was 6,329 units/mg at optimal conditions. Thus, a large amount of purified protein as a soluble form with high activity would provide many benefits for the functional research and application of BmNPV-POL.
Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation.
The sequencing of DNA fragments has become an important facet of the study of genomes. Parallel genomic DNA fragments displayed on a microarray play a key role in producing a template in next generation DNA sequencing. Here, we developed a technique to display parallel genomic DNA fragments based on the reaction with Bst DNA polymerase on a microarray. One of the hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) primers was modified with acrylamide. HRCA products could be localized near the respective templates in polyacrylamide gel. DNA colonies produced by HRCA were displayed massively and in parallel on a microarray. Then the probe labeled with Cy 5 was hybridized to DNA colonies and extension reactions with Cy 5-labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) were carried out. The results show the signals of hybridization and extension reactions could be obtained. This provided a strategy for high-throughput sequencing.
It is difficult to obtain intact embryos, especially intact early embryos, from insect eggs because of their small sizes. Based on the means traditionally used to get silkworm embryos and the previous approaches used for getting Drosophila embryos, we established a novel method of silkworm embryo preparation. The new method is straightforward and easy to operate. Silkworm embryos could be prepared without severe damage in large quantities by this new protocol. In addition, the novel method of silkworm embryo preparation is quite suitable for immunohistochemistry.
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major viral agent that causes deadly grasserie disease in silkworms. BmNPV DNA polymerase (Bm-DNAPOL), encoded by the ORF53 gene, plays a central role in viral DNA replication. In this work, a His-tagged Bm-DNAPOL fusion protein, constructed using a novel MultiBac expression system, was overexpressed in Sf-9 insect cells, purified to near homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose beads and further purified by ion-exchange chromatography. About 0.4 mg of enzyme was obtained from about 1 × 10(9) infected Sf-9 cells in suspension culture. Characterization of the highly purified enzyme indicated that Bm-DNAPOL is a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 110,000 Da. It possessed a specific activity of 15,126.3 U/mg under optimal in vitro reaction conditions and behaved in the manner of a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-independent DNA polymerase on both poly(dA)/oligo(dT) primer/template and singly premiered M13 DNA. BmNPV viral replication may be independent of replication factor C and a PCNA complex, while single-stranded DNA binding protein might play an important role in BmNPV DNA replication. These findings will be significant in studies on BmNPV-based disease in silkworms and for using silkworms as a bioreactor for the production of biomolecules of commercial importance.
Seeds are the most important plant storage organ and play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Since little is known about the protein composition of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds, in this work we used proteomic methods to obtain a reference map of rice seed proteins and identify important molecules. Overall, 480 reproducible protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis on pH 4-7 gels and 302 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and database searches. Together, these proteins represented 252 gene products and were classified into 12 functional categories, most of which were involved in metabolic pathways. Database searches combined with hydropathy plots and gene ontology analysis showed that most rice seed proteins were hydrophilic and were related to binding, catalytic, cellular or metabolic processes. These results expand our knowledge of the rice proteome and improve our understanding of the cellular biology of rice seeds.
Helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. These highly conserved proteins form a large transcription factor superfamily, and are commonly identified in large numbers within animal, plant, and fungal genomes. The bHLH domain has been well studied in many animal species, but has not yet been characterized in non-avian reptiles. In this study, we identified 102 putative bHLH genes in the genome of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Based on phylogenetic analysis, these genes were classified into 43 families, with 43, 24, 16, 3, 10, and 3 members assigned into groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, and 3 members categorized as "orphans". Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with highly conserved patterns observed for introns and additional domains. Results from phylogenetic analysis of the H/E(spl) family suggest that genome and tandem gene duplications have contributed to this familys expansion. Our classification and evolutionary analysis has provided insights into the evolutionary diversification of animal bHLH genes, and should aid future studies on bHLH protein regulation of key growth and developmental processes.
To investigate the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV infection, we constructed a near-isogenic line (BC8) with BmNPV resistance using highly resistant (NB) and highly susceptible parental strains (306). We investigated variations in the gene expression in the midguts of BmNPV-infected BC8 and 306 at 12 h pi using the microarray. 92 differentially expressed genes were identified. Real-time qPCR analysis confirmed that 10 genes were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated in the midguts of BC8 and NB compared to 306. To our knowledge, we first defined the role of the amino acid transporter and 26S proteasome in insect antiviral. However, serine protease was not completely consistent with data of reported previously in insect antiviral. The role of the 5 genes (Bm123, Bm122, COP ?, aquaporin, glycoside hydrolases) was also demonstrated in insect antiviral. Our results provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of the Bombyx mori immune response against BmNPV infection.
A new yeast antagonist, Pichia caribbica, isolated in our laboratory from the soil collected from unsprayed orchards, was evaluated for its biocontrol capability against Rhizopus stolonifer on peaches and the possible mechanisms involved. The decay incidence and lesion diameter of Rhizopus decay of peaches treated by P. caribbica were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher the concentration of P. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. Rapid colonization of the yeast in peach wounds stored at 25 °C was observed. In peaches, the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were significantly induced by P. caribbica treatment compared to those of the control fruits. All these results indicated that P. caribbica has a great potential for the development of commercial formulations to control postharvest Rhizopus decay of peaches. Its modes of action were based on competition for space and nutrients with pathogens, inducement of activities of defense-related enzymes such as POD, CAT, and PAL of peaches.
Many studies have shown that Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are associated with the development of various cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. To investigate whether HLA class I allelic polymorphism is related to the development of hepatitis B virus(HBV)-associated HCC, a total of 326 HBV-infected patients (138 individuals with HCC and 188 well-matched controls without HCC) were enrolled in this study. HLA-A, -B, and -C were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified HLA-B(?)35:01:01G as a risk factor for HBV-related HCC development independent of our previous findings in HLA region (OR, 12.04; p, 0.0028; pc, 0.04). HLA-A(?)11:01:01G, B(?)58:01:01G, C(?)03:02:01G and some of their extended haplotypes were found as potential susceptible factors for HCC development. HLA-B(?)46:01:01G and some of its extended haplotypes were found as potential protective factors for HCC development. Our results support that specific HLA class I alleles and haplotypes may affect the risk of HBV-related HCC development. The findings may help to determine better approaches for prevention and treatment of HCC in these patients.
Direct discharge of vinasse from the distillery industry causes resource wasting and environmental destruction due to its mass of organic components. Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC5992 is capable of degrading the organic substrates of wastewater. One-factor-at-a-time design was adopted to select the most important nutrients influencing the degradation of organic materials of vinasse. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) with Design-Expert (8.0.4) was used to develop mathematical model equations, study responses, and optimize concentrations of the key nutrients to improve the degradation efficiency. The optimized medium containing 0.3 g/L urea, 20.73 mg/L ZnSO(4), and 19.79 mg/L vitamin B(6) was supplied to 10-times diluted vinasse; under the optimal condition, a decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 4,635 to 323 mg/L in vinasse was achieved in 5 days. The reduction of vinasse COD after the optimization of nutrient condition in this study is more significant than those reported previously.
The influence of adding burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) in the culture media on the efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in controlling postharvest decay of peaches and its possible mode of action were investigated. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa to Rhizopus decay and blue mold decay of peaches was greatly enhanced through cultivation in the nutrient yeast dextrose agar (NYDA) medium amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32%, compared with that cultivated in NYDB without BFO. R. mucilaginosa at 1×10(8) cells/mL cultivation in the NYDB media did not reduce the natural decay incidence of peaches, compared with the control after 30 d at 4 °C followed by 7d at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa cultivation in the NYDB media amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32% reduced the natural decay incidence of peaches. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% increased rapidly in peach wounds compared to that harvested from NYDB without BFO no matter peaches were stored at 20 °C or 4 °C. The activities of chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase of cell-free culture filtrate of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% were higher than that at other concentrations and the control.
Orf91 (Bm91) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a highly conserved gene that encodes a predicted 105-amino-acid protein, but its function remains unknown. In the current study, 5-RACE revealed that the transcription initiation site of Bm91 was - 12 nucleotides upstream of the start codon ATG, transcription of Bm91 was detected from 12 to 96 h postinfection (p.i.) and Bm91 protein was detected from 24 to 96 h p.i. in BmNPV-infected BmN cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that Bm91 was in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) but not in budded virus (BV). To investigate the role of Bm91 in baculovirus life cycle, a Bm91-knockout virus was constructed by bacmid recombination in E. coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that the production of BV and occlusion bodies (OBs) in Bm91-deficient-virus-infected BmN cells were similar to those in wild-type-virus-infected ones. Bioassay results showed that genetic deletion of Bm91 did not significantly affect BmNPV infectivity, but extended the median lethal time (LT50). Taken together, these results indicate that Bm91 is not essential for viral propagation in vitro, but absence of the gene may affect the virulence of ODVs in silkworm larvae.
With the continuous improvement of the living standards of human society, the number of diabetics worldwide is growing rapidly. To date, the main effective therapy for diabetic is intravenous injection of insulin, which is accompanied by a lot of shortage such as high cost and side effects. To obtain long-term bioactive anti-diabetic drug for oral administration, we used human proinsulin (hpi) as a foreign gene to construct a recombinant plasmid pJS700-HPI with an enterokinase site Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys suitable for digestion. Plasmid pJS700-HPI was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double cross-over and an amylase inactivated mutant was produced. After induction of spores formation, western blot was used to monitor HPI surface expression on spores. Oral administration to the silkworms with spores implied that the HPI protein displayed on recombinant spores may be digested and absorbed into the silkworms hemolymph due to the resistant characters of spores and the addition of enterokinase site.
Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) VD1-ORF4 (open reading frame 4, ORF4) consists of 3,318 nucleotides, which codes for a predicted 1,105-amino acid protein containing a conserved DNA polymerase motif. However, its functions in viral propagation remain unknown. In the current study, the transcription of VD1-ORF4 was examined from 6 to 96 h postinfection (p.i.) by RT-PCR, 5-RACE revealed the transcription initiation site of BmBDV ORF4 to be -16 nucleotides upstream from the start codon, and 3-RACE revealed the transcription termination site of VD1-ORF4 to be +7 nucleotides downstream from termination codon. Three different proteins were examined in the extracts of BmBDV-infected silkworms midguts by Western blot using raised antibodies against VD1-ORF4 deduced amino acid, and a specific protein band about 53 kDa was further detected in purified virions using the same antibodies. Taken together, BmBDV VD1-ORF4 codes for three or more proteins during the viral life cycle, one of which is a 53 kDa protein and confirmed to be a component of BmBDV virion.
Silkworms are usually susceptible to the infection of Bombyx mori (B. mori) nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which can cause significant economic loss. However, some silkworm strains are identified to be highly resistant to BmNPV. To explore the silkworm genes involved in this resistance in the present study, we performed comparative real-time PCR, ATPase assay, over-expression and sub-cellular localization experiments. We found that when inoculated with BmNPV both the expression and activity of V-ATPase were significantly up-regulated in the midgut column cells (not the goblet cells) of BmNPV-resistant strains (NB and BC8), the main sites for the first step of BmNPV invasion, but not in those of a BmNPV-susceptible strain 306. Furthermore, this up-regulation mainly took place during the first 24 hours post inoculation (hpi), the essential period required for establishment of virus infection, and then was down-regulated to normal levels. Amazingly, transient over-expression of V-ATPase c subunit in BmNPV-infected silkworm cells could significantly inhibit BmNPV proliferation. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating clearly that V-ATPase is indeed involved in the defense response against BmNPV. Our data further suggests that prompt and potent regulation of V-ATPase may be essential for execution of this response, which may enable fast acidification of endosomes and/or lysosomes to render them competent for degradation of invading viruses.
Mammalian DNA polymerase ? (pol ?), a four-subunit enzyme, plays a crucial and versatile role in DNA replication and various DNA repair processes. Its function as a chromosomal DNA polymerase is dependent on the association with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which functions as a molecular sliding clamp. All four of the pol ? subunits (p125, p50, p68, and p12) have been reported to bind to PCNA. However, the identity of the subunit of pol ? that directly interacts with PCNA and is therefore primarily responsible for the processivity of the enzyme still remains controversial. Previous model for the network of protein-protein interactions of the pol ?-PCNA complex showed that pol ? might be able to interact with a single molecule of PCNA homotrimer through its three subunits, p125, p68, and p12 in which the p50 was not included in. Here, we have confirmed that the small subunit p50 of human pol ? truthfully interacts with PCNA by the use of far-Western analysis, quantitative ELISA assay, and subcellular co-localization. P50 is required for mediation of the interaction between pol ? subassemblies and PCNA homotrimer. Thus, pol ? interacts with PCNA via its four subunits.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a critically endangered mammalian species. Studies on functions of regulatory proteins involved in developmental processes would facilitate understanding of specific behavior in giant panda. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse and human. Our present study identified 107 bHLH family members being encoded in giant panda genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they belong to 44 bHLH families with 46, 25, 15, 4, 11 and 3 members in group A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively, while the remaining 3 members were assigned into "orphan". Compared to mouse, the giant panda does not encode seven bHLH proteins namely Beta3a, Mesp2, Sclerax, S-Myc, Hes5 (or Hes6), EBF4 and Orphan 1. These results provide useful background information for future studies on structure and function of bHLH proteins in the regulation of giant panda development.
Several studies have showed that fragmented QRS complexes (f - QRS, defined as different RSR patterns) on a routine 12 - lead electrocardiogram were associated with increased mortality and arrhythmic events in patients with coronary artery disease, but relatively little data were available regarding idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM).
Natural wild-type strains of Bacillus subtilis spore is regarded as a non-pathogenic for both human and animal, and has been classified as a novel food which is currently being used as probiotics added in the consumption. To identify B. subtilis spore proteins, we have accomplished a preliminary proteomic analysis of B. subtilis spore, with a combination of two-dimensional electrophoretic separations and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In this article, we presented a reference map of 158 B. subtilis spore proteins with an isoelectric point (pI) between 4 and 7. Followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we identified 71 B. subtilis spore proteins with high level of confidence. Database searches, combined with hydropathy analysis and GO analysis revealed that most of the B. subtilis spore proteins were hydrophilic proteins related to catalytic function. These results should accelerate efforts to understand the resistance of spore to harsh conditions.
Comparative proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins in the midgut of Takifugu rubripes (Fugu) in response to excessive fluoride. Sixteen fish were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. The control group was raised in soft water alone (F?=?0.4 mg/L), whereas the experimental group was raised in the soft water with sodium fluoride at a high concentration of 35 mg/L. After 3 days, proteins were extracted from the fish midgut and then subjected to two-dimensional (2-D) PAGE analysis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS) was applied to identify the differential expressed proteins between the two groups. Among 377 and 528 proteins detected in the control and the treated groups, respectively, 17 proteins were up-regulated and 218 were down-regulated (P?0.01) in the fluoride-treated group, compared with the control group. We further analyzed 17 up-regulated proteins by MALDI TOF/TOF MS and identified 12 of them by MASCOT, of which eight were known proteins. Consistent with their annotated functions, these proteins seem to be involved in apoptosis and other functions related to fluorosis. Our results provide initial insights into the effects of excessive fluoride exposure on physiological and biochemical functions of Fugu midgut as well as on the toxicological mechanism of fluoride in both fish and human.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a highly potent neurotoxin that blocks the action potential by selectively binding to voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)). The skeletal muscle Na(v) (Na(v)1.4) channels in most pufferfish species and certain North American garter snakes are resistant to TTX, whereas in most mammals they are TTX-sensitive. It still remains unclear as to whether the difference in this sensitivity among the various vertebrate species can be associated with adaptive evolution. In this study, we investigated the adaptive evolution of the vertebrate Na(v)1.4 channels. By means of the CODEML program of the PAML 4.3 package, the lineages of both garter snakes and pufferfishes were denoted to be under positive selection. The positively selected sites identified in the p-loop regions indicated their involvement in Na(v)1.4 channel sensitivity to TTX. Most of these sites were located in the intracellular regions of the Na(v)1.4 channel, thereby implying the possible association of these regions with the regulation of voltage-sensor movement.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are oxidoreductases catalyzing the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones accompanied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. ADHs attract major scientific and industrial interest for the evolutionary perspectives, afforded by their wide occurrence in nature, and for their use in industrial synthesis. However, the low activity of ADHs under extremes of pH and temperature often limits their application. To obtain ADH with high activity, in this study, we used Bombyx mori alcohol dehydrogenases (BmADH) as foreign gene and constructed a recombinant integrative plasmid pJS700-BmADH. This pJS700-BmADH was transformed into Bacillus subtilis by double cross-over and produced an amylase inactivated mutant. The fusion protein containing BmADH was expressed on the spore surface and recognized by BmADH-specific antibody. We also assayed the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the fusion protein together with the native BmADH at different pH and temperature levels, which indicated the recombinant enzyme exhibits activity over wider ranges of temperature and pH than its native form, perhaps due to the resistance properties of B. subtilis spores against adverse conditions.
Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) has two complementary single-stranded DNA genome (VD1 and VD2) and owns a self-encoding DNA polymerase motif, but its replication mechanism is unclear. In our previous research, a protein encoded by VD1-ORF1 was indentified in the midgut of BmPLV China Zhenjiang isolate-(BmPLV-Z) infected silkworm larvae via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This protein was named as non-structural protein 2 (NS2), which showed no similarity to that of parvoviruses. To date, little is known about it. In this study, sequence alignment results showed that NS2 shared homology with some chromosomal replication initiator protein dnaA and DNA-binding response regulators. The ns2 was cloned and expressed in E. coli, and then a polyclonal antibody of the NS2 protein was prepared successfully. The data from real-time quantitative PCR displayed that the transcription of VD1-ORF1 from BmPLV-Z-infected midguts started from 28-h post inoculation (h p.i.) in low amounts, but in high amounts at late stages of infection. Immunofluorescence showed that NS2 ultimately concentrated on the nuclear membrane in BmN cells at late stages, indicating that NS2 might be associated with integral membrane protein.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones, by using either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), as coenzymes. In this study, a short-chain ADH gene was identified in Bombyx mori by 5-RACE PCR. This is the first time the coding region of BmADH has been cloned, expressed, purified and then characterized. The cDNA fragment encoding the BmADH protein was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR, and then cloned into E. coli expression vector pET-30a(+). The recombinant His-tagged BmADH protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography. The soluble recombinant BmADH, produced at low-growth temperature, was instrumental in catalyzing the ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+), thereby indicating ethanol as one of the substrates of BmADH.
To investigate whether Bombyx mori immunized with Bacillus subtilis spore displaying GP64 escape from the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) attack, a recombinant integrative plasmid named pJS700-GP64 was constructed, which carries a recombinant cotC-Gp64 gene under the control of the cotC promoter. In this study, pJS700-GP64 was transformed into B. subtilis 168 (trp(-)) competent cells, an amylase (amyE) inactivated mutant was selected, and was confirmed to be a double cross-over integrant, cotC-Gp64 fragment of which was integrated into B. subtilis chromosome. Gp64 was expressed on the spore surface and recognized by Gp64-specific antibody. Results of B. mori when challenged with BmNPV indicated that B. mori vaccinated with the recombinant spores possessed resistance to the invasion of BmNPV at some degree.
Eukaryotic DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) plays a crucial role in chromosomal DNA replication and various DNA repair processes. It is thought to consist of p125, p66 (p68), p50 and p12 subunits. However, rigorous isolation of mammalian pol ? from natural sources has usually yielded two-subunit preparations containing only p125 and p50 polypeptides. While recombinant pol ? isolated from infected insect cells have some problems of consistency in the quality of the preparations, and the yields are much lower. To address these deficiencies, we have constructed recombinant BmNPV baculoviruses using MultiBac system. This method makes the generation of recombinant forms of pol ? containing mutations in any one of the subunits or combinations thereof extremely facile. From about 350 infected larvae, we obtained as much as 4 mg of pol ? four-subunit complex. Highly purified enzyme behaved like the one of native form by rigorous characterization and comparison of its activities on poly(dA)/oligo(dT) template-primer and singly primed M13 DNA, and its homogeneity on FPLC gel filtration. In vitro base excision repair (BER) assays showed that pol ? plays a significant role in uracil-intiated BER and is more likely to mediate LP BER, while the trimer lacking p12 is more likely to mediate SN BER. It seems likely that loss of p12 modulates the rate of SN BER and LP BER during the repair process. Thus, this work provides a simple, fast, reliable and economic way for the large-scale production of human DNA polymerase ? with a high activity and purity, setting up a new platform for our further research on the biochemical properties of pol ?, its regulation and the integration of its functions, and how alterations in pol ? function could contribute to the etiology of human cancer or other diseases that can result from loss of genomic stability.
To investigate the mechanism of nucleopolyhedrovirus resistance of silkworm, we bred a near-isogenic silkworm line, designated BC9, from the parental resistant strain NB and the susceptible strain 306, that is resistant to infection by nucleopolyhedrovirus. Proteomic techniques were employed to search for candidate genes playing a role in the antivirus response, based on differential protein expression profiles in the fat bodies of these strains. Four proteins were identified, two of which are possibly related to energy metabolism, the third one may have a function similar to integrase, and the fourth one is completely novel. Thus, our strategy of the combined use of near-isogenic silkworm line and proteomic techniques is effective for discovering new genes in the antivirus response of insects.
A gene encoding Bombyx mori arginine kinase (BmAK) has been indentified differentially expressed in the midguts of Bombyx mori strain NB which is resistant to nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), strain 306 which is susceptible to NPV and a near isogenic line BC(8) with similar genetic background to 306 but resistant to NPV by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In this study, we characterized the expression profiles of BmAK using RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. The expression level of BmAK fluctuated in various developing stage and various tissue. Remarkably, the expression level of BmAK increased more than 10-fold 24 hours post inoculation (h p.i.) of NPV in strain NB and BC(8), while such increment was abraded in strain 306 although the basal expression level of BmAK in strain 306 was higher than that of strain NB and BC(8). Western blotting analysis using polyclonal antibody against BmAK verified such observation, and immunofluoresence analysis indicated for the first time that BmAK was mainly located to the cytoplasm or some structures in cytoplasm. These findings suggest that arginine kinase is involved in the antiviral process of Bombyx mori larvae against NPV infection.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate into lactate and constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. Recently, LDH draws a great deal of attention for its potential to be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and malaria. Insect LDHs have been mainly identified from fruit fly and mosquitoes, but not from silkworm. In this study, a novel LDH homologue, designated as BmLDH1, was firstly identified and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The BmLDH1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 996 bp, and encodes a protein of 331 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. Sequence comparison showed BmLDH1 is a highly conserved protein. RT-PCR revealed BmLDH1 is transcripted in all tissues and in all developmental stages tested, indicating its essential roles for silkworm physiology and development. The BmLDH1 gene was subcloned and expressed in E. coli, and was further characterized by Western blot and Mass Spectrometry. The expressed protein contained the LDH activity, and could be inhibited by reduced glutathione in vitro. Immunofluoresence showed that the BmLDH1 was located in the cytoplasm. The cloned BmLDH1 sequence was deposited in the GenBank (accession number EU334850).
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF5 (Bm5) is a gene present in many lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), but its function is unknown. In this study, Bm5 was characterized. The transcript of Bm5 was detected 12-72 h post infection (p.i.). Polyclonal antiserum raised to a His-BM5 fusion protein recognized BM5 in infected cell lysates from 24 to 72 h p.i., suggesting that Bm5 is a late gene. Immunofluorescence analysis by confocal microscopy showed that the BM5 protein is localized primarily in the cytoplasm. Localization of BM5 in budded virion (BV) and occlusion-derived virion (ODV) by Western analyses demonstrated that BM5 is not a structural protein associated with BV or ODV.
The twist genes are an evolutionarily conserved group of regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. In present study, the twist gene was firstly cloned from Bombyx mori and was designated as BmTwist. Sequence analysis showed that BmTwist cDNA contains a 798 bp open reading frame, encoding a peptide of 266 amino acid residues. Sequence alignment showed that BmTwist protein shared extensive homology with other invertebrate Twist proteins in bHLH motif. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that BmTwist expressed in all developmental stages of B. mori larvae various larval tissues. Here the authors also presented the results of prokaryotic expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody production of the BmTwist protein. Immunofluorescence of BmTwist in BmN cells using the antibodies showed that BmTwist protein was located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, using B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) baculovirus expression system, the authors expressed a recombinant twist protein in BmN cell line. The obtained results, especially the preparation of polyclonal antibodies against BmTwist, will greatly facilitate further studies to explore biological functions of BmTwist protein such as identifying its potential binding partners.
To investigate comparative proteomics of the pufferfish kidney exposed to excessive fluoride, the authors randomly put 16 fish into the control and treated groups that were raised in softwater alone (F(-) = 0.4 mg/L) or with sodium fluoride of 35 mg/L for 3 days, respectively. Then proteins of the fish kidneys were profiled by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was applied to identify the spots on the gel with altered densities. On average, 547 and 516 protein spots were detected in the control and the treated groups, respectively. Among them, 32 protein spots showed significant alteration (p < 0.05) between the fluoride-treated and the control groups, and 22 differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS. Consistent with their previously annotated functions, these proteins appear to be involved in the biological functions associated with fluorosis. These results will greatly advance ones understanding of the effects of fluoride exposure on the physiological and biochemical functions of takifugu kidney as well as the toxicological mechanism of fluoride-causing fluorosis in both fish and humans.
Imaginal disc growth factors (IDGF) play a key role in insect development, but their mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a novel IDGF gene in Bombyx mori and designated it as BmlDGF. We found that the BmlDGF gene contains eight exons and seven introns, encoding a peptide of 434 amino-acid residues. The protein was predicted to contain one conserved motif of the glycosyl hydrolases family 18 and fall into group V chitinases. Sequence alignment showed that BmIDGF shares extensive homology with other invertebrate IDGF. RT-PCR analysis showed that BmIDGF is expressed in all developmental stages of silkworm larvae and various larvae tissues, which was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that BmIDGF is located in the extracellular space. We also successfully expressed it in E. coli and further characterized it by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our data suggests that BmIDGF is a chitinase-like extracellular protein, and provides an excellent platform for subsequent studies on its enzyme activity and role in B. mori development.
BmPLV-Z is the abbreviation for Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (China isolate). This is a novel virus with two single-stranded linear DNA molecules, viz., VD1 (6543 bp) and VD2 (6022 bp), which are encapsidated respectively into separate virions. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of VD1-ORF4 indicated the existence of a putative DNA-polymerase with exonuclease activity, possibly involved in the replication of BmPLV-Z. In the present study, a recombinant baculovirus was constructed to express the full length of the protein encoded by the VD1-ORF4 gene (3318 bp). In addition, a 2163-bp fragment amplified from the very same gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a and expressed in E.coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) pLysS. The expressed fusion protein was employed to immunize New Zealand white rabbits for the production of an antiserum, afterwards used for examining the expression of the protein encoded by VD1-ORF4 gene in Sf-9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. Western blot analysis of extracts from thus cells infected revealed a specific band of about 120 kDa, thereby indicating that the full length protein encoded by the VD1-ORF4 gene had been successfully and stably expressed in Sf-9 cells.
V-ATPase plays a central role in lepidopteran midgut ion transport physiology, and lepidopteran midgut turned out to be a model tissue for the study of V-ATPase. In the present study, the 5-RACE method is used to obtain the 5-UTR of V-ATPase c subunit gene from Bombyx mori. Sequence analysis of the promoter region and 3-UTR of V-ATPase c subunit gene revealed that the transcription of the V-ATPase c subunit gene may be regulated by multi-ways. RT-PCR analysis showed that B. mori V-ATPase c subunit mRNA expresses in the whole developmental stages of B. mori. We also constructed a transient vector to determine the subcellular localization of the B. mori V-ATPase c subunit, and the result demonstrated that it is located in the membrane and some specific regions of BmN cells. Real-time PCR analysis further indicated that the c subunit mRNA expression was upregulated significantly at 24 and 72 h in the midguts of resistant B. mori larvae after being inoculated with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, suggesting that it may be related to the immune response against virus infection.
ORF134 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a homolog of Autographa californica multiple NPV ORF5, but its function is unknown so far. The aim of this study is to characterize BmNPV ORF134 (Bm134).
HIV-1 co-receptor tropism is central for understanding the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. We performed a genome-wide comparison between the adaptive evolution of R5 and X4 variants from HIV-1 subtypes B and C. The results showed that R5 and X4 variants experienced differential evolutionary patterns and different HIV-1 genes encountered various positive selection pressures, suggesting that complex selection pressures are driving HIV-1 evolution. Compared with other hypervariable regions of Gp120, significantly more positively selected sites were detected in the V3 region of subtype B X4 variants, V2 region of subtype B R5 variants, and V1 and V4 regions of subtype C X4 variants, indicating an association of positive selection with co-receptor recognition/binding. Intriguingly, a significantly higher proportion (33.3% and 55.6%, P<0.05) of positively selected sites were identified in the C3 region than other conserved regions of Gp120 in all the analyzed HIV-1 variants, indicating that the C3 region might be more important to HIV-1 adaptation than previously thought. Approximately half of the positively selected sites identified in the env gene were identical between R5 and X4 variants. There were three common positively selected sites (96, 113 and 281) identified in Gp41 of all X4 and R5 variants from subtypes B and C. These sites might not only suggest a functional importance in viral survival and adaptation, but also imply a potential cross-immunogenicity between HIV-1 R5 and X4 variants, which has important implications for AIDS vaccine development.
Calorie restriction (CR) is known to extend life span from yeast to mammals. To gain an insight into the effects of CR on growth and development of the silkworm Bombyx mori at protein level, we employed comparative proteomic approach to investigate proteomic differences of hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm larvae subjected to CR. Thirty-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Among them, 19 were from the hemolymph and 20 from the fat body. The hemolymph of the CR group contained two down-regulated and 17 up-regulated proteins, whereas the fat body contained 15 down-regulated and five up-regulated ones. These proteins belonged to those functioning in immune system, in signal transduction and apoptosis, in regulation of growth and development, and in energy metabolism. Our results suggest that CR can alter the expression of proteins related to the above four aspects, implying that these proteins may regulate life span of the silkworm through CR.
Tetherin is a recently identified antiviral restriction factor that restricts HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu). It is reminiscent of APOBEC3G and TRIM5a that also antagonize HIV. APOBEC3G and TRIM5a have been demonstrated to evolve under pervasive positive selection throughout primate evolution, supporting the red-queen hypothesis. Therefore, one naturally presumes that Tetherin also evolves under pervasive positive selection throughout primate evolution and supports the red-queen hypothesis. Here, we performed a detailed evolutionary analysis to address this presumption.
Comparative proteomics was performed to identify proteins in the liver of Takifugu rubripes in response to excessive fluoride exposure. Sixteen fish were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. The control group was raised in soft water alone (F(-) = 0.4 mg/L), and the experimental group was raised in the same water with sodium fluoride at a high concentration of 35 mg/L. After 3 days, proteins were extracted from the fish livers and then subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to identify the proteins that were differentially expressed from the two groups of fish. Among an average of 816 and 918 proteins detected in the control and treated groups, respectively, 16 proteins were upregulated and 35 were downregulated (P < 0.01) in the fluoride-treated group as compared with those in the control group. Twenty-four highly differentially expressed proteins were further analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, and eight were identified by Mascot. These eight proteins include disulfide isomerase ER-60, 4SNc-Tudor domain protein, SMC3 protein, Cyclin D1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 10, as well as three unknown proteins. Consistent with their previously known functions, these identified proteins seem to be involved in apoptosis and other functions associated with fluorosis. These results will greatly contribute to our understanding of the effects of fluoride exposure on the physiological and biochemical functions of Takifugu and the toxicological mechanism of fluoride causing fluorosis in both fish and human.
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF109 (Bm109) is a gene present in many lepidopteran NPVs, but its function is unknown. In this study, Bm109 was characterized. The transcript of Bm109 was detected at 12-72 h postinfection (p.i.). Polyclonal antiserum raised to a His-BM109 fusion protein recognized BM109 in infected cell lysates from 24 to 72 h p.i., suggesting that Bm109 is a late gene. Localization of the BM109 in BV and ODV by western analyses demonstrated that BM109 was proteins of ODV.
Silkworm hemolymph is an important defense tissue to resist bacteria and virus infections. To study the response of silkworm hemolymph in the resistance of Bombyx mori L. nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), we constructed a near-isogenic silkworm line with BmNPV resistance using highly resistant and highly susceptible parental strains. In this paper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry were employed to investigate the differences of protein patterns in the hemolymph of the highly resistant, highly susceptible and near-isogenic silkworm strains after BmNPV was administrated to the larvae. A comparison between the proteomes of these three silkworm strains led us to identify two differentially expressed proteins, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase 2 and aminoacylase. The expression levels of these proteins were higher in the BmNPV resistant strains.
Bombyx mori parvo-like virus is a type of virus containing two single-stranded linear DNA molecules (VD1, VD2). In the present work, the structural proteins of B. mori parvo-like virus (China Zhenjiang isolate) (BmDNV-Z) were identified.
Orf94 (Bm94) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) potentially encodes 424-amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 49.4 kDa, but its function remains unknown. Blast search results revealed that Bm94 homologues exist in 10 completely sequenced Lepidopteron NPVs with identities ranging from 95 to 37%. Results of our recent study showed that Bm94 was transcribed from 12 to 72 h and the corresponding protein was detected from 24 to 72 h post-infection. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that Bm94 was present in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) and in total protein from BmNPV-infected BmN cells, but not in budded virus. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein located primarily in the cytoplasm and was also present in the nucleus in the later infection. In conclusion, these results together indicated that Bm94 was a late gene, which distributed both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, and was identified to be a component of BmNPV ODV.
Early deafness results in a redistribution of more attentional resources to the visual periphery in near space, specifically under conditions of selective attention, probably to compensate for the loss of auditory alertness to potentially dangerous stimuli from outside the current attentional focus. It remains poorly understood, however, whether spatial distribution of attention in far space is altered by early deafness as well. In the present study, we investigated whether and how early deafness alters the distribution of visuospatial attention in far space, compared to hearing controls. We asked deaf individuals and hearing controls to perform a flanker task with either peripheral or central distractors, either in near or far space. Sizes of compatibility effect were used to assess the amount of attentional resources received by the peripheral and central distractors. In near space, peripheral distractors induced significantly larger compatibility effect in deaf individuals than in hearing controls while central distractors induced significantly larger compatibility effect in hearing controls than in deaf individuals. On the other hand in far space, although peripheral distractors induced equivalent sizes of compatibility effect in the deaf and hearing groups, central distractors caused significant compatibility effect only in deaf individuals, but not in hearing controls. Our results suggest that early deafness results in a redistribution of visuospatial attention not only in near space but also in far space, with enhanced peripheral attention in near space and enhanced central attention in far space.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.