The influence of molecular structure (branched vs. linear) on product formation in the heterogeneous oxidation of unsaturated organic aerosol is investigated. Particle phase product isomers formed from the reaction of squalene (C30H50, a branched alkene with six C=C double bonds) and linolenic acid (C18H30O2, a linear carboxylic acid with three C=C double bonds) with OH radicals are identified and quantified using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The reactions are measured at low and high [O2] (~ 1 % vs. 10 % [O2]) to understand the roles of hydroxyalkyl and hydroxyperoxy radical intermediates in product formation. A key reaction step is OH addition to a C=C double bond to form a hydroxyalkyl radical. In addition, allylic alkyl radicals, formed from H atom abstraction reactions by hydroxyalkyl or OH radicals play important roles in the chemistry of product formation. Functionalization products dominate the squalene reaction at ~ 1 % [O2], with the total abundance of observed functionalization products being approximately equal to the fragmentation products at 10 % [O2]. The large abundance of squalene fragmentation products at 10 % [O2] is attributed to the formation and dissociation of tertiary hydroxyalkoxy radical intermediates. For linolenic acid aerosol, the formation of functionalization products dominates the reaction at both ~ 1 % and 10 % [O2], suggesting that the formation and dissociation of secondary hydroxyalkoxy radicals are minor reaction channels for linear molecules. The distribution of linolenic acid functionalization products depends upon [O2], indicating that O2 controls the reaction pathways of the secondary hydroxyalkyl radical. For both reactions, alcohols are formed in favor of carbonyl functional groups, suggesting that there are some key differences between heterogeneous reactions involving allylic radical intermediates and those reactions of OH radicals with simple saturated hydrocarbons.
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a major complication of lung transplantation that is associated with poor survival. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society convened a committee of international experts to describe and/or provide recommendations for 1) the definition of BOS, 2) the risk factors for developing BOS, 3) the diagnosis of BOS, and 4) the management and prevention of BOS. A pragmatic evidence synthesis was performed to identify all unique citations related to BOS published from 1980 through to March, 2013. The expert committee discussed the available research evidence upon which the updated definition of BOS, identified risk factors and recommendations are based. The committee followed the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to develop specific clinical recommendations. The term BOS should be used to describe a delayed allograft dysfunction with persistent decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s that is not caused by other known and potentially reversible causes of post-transplant loss of lung function. The committee formulated specific recommendations about the use of systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, azithromycin and about re-transplantation in patients with suspected and confirmed BOS. The diagnosis of BOS requires the careful exclusion of other post-transplant complications that can cause delayed lung allograft dysfunction, and several risk factors have been identified that have a significant association with the onset of BOS. Currently available therapies have not been proven to result in significant benefit in the prevention or treatment of BOS. Adequately designed and executed randomised controlled trials that properly measure and report all patient-important outcomes are needed to identify optimal therapies for established BOS and effective strategies for its prevention.
Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.
The prediction of near-term violence among psychiatric inpatients has become an important goal in recent years. The Imminent Risk Rating Scale (IRRS) is a screening tool that has been designed to enhance clinicians' knowledge of their patients' risk of violence in the hours and days following evaluation. Drawing on the imminent-violence literature, the instrument includes 7 items touching on personal, interpersonal, and environmental variables that are uniquely predictive of short-term violence. The present study reports on the findings of a small-scale test of the effectiveness and psychometric properties of the IRRS among a sample of psychiatric inpatients (N = 121) undergoing pretrial forensic psychiatric evaluations. The measure has desirable interrater reliability, demonstrates robust improvement over chance in identifying which patients will engage in violence over a subsequent 2-week period, and is especially effective in identifying individuals who are not violent during that time period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
The following experimental protocols and the accompanying video are concerned with the flame experiments that are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(1-4). This video demonstrates how the complex chemical structures of laboratory-based model flames are analyzed using flame-sampling mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. This experimental approach combines isomer-resolving capabilities with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range(5,6). The first part of the video describes experiments involving burner-stabilized, reduced-pressure (20-80 mbar) laminar premixed flames. A small hydrocarbon fuel was used for the selected flame to demonstrate the general experimental approach. It is shown how species' profiles are acquired as a function of distance from the burner surface and how the tunability of the VUV photon energy is used advantageously to identify many combustion intermediates based on their ionization energies. For example, this technique has been used to study gas-phase aspects of the soot-formation processes, and the video shows how the resonance-stabilized radicals, such as C3H3, C3H5, and i-C4H5, are identified as important intermediates(7). The work has been focused on soot formation processes, and, from the chemical point of view, this process is very intriguing because chemical structures containing millions of carbon atoms are assembled from a fuel molecule possessing only a few carbon atoms in just milliseconds. The second part of the video highlights a new experiment, in which an opposed-flow diffusion flame and synchrotron-based aerosol mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of the combustion-generated soot particles(4). The experimental results indicate that the widely accepted H-abstraction-C2H2-addition (HACA) mechanism is not the sole molecular growth process responsible for the formation of the observed large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
The kinetics and products of the heterogeneous OH-initiated oxidation of squalene (C30H50, a branched alkene with 6 C?C double bonds) particles are measured. These results are compared to previous measurements of the OH-initiated oxidation of linoleic acid (C18H32O2, a linear carboxylic acid with 2 C?C double bonds) particles to understand how molecular structure and chemical functionality influence reaction rates and mechanisms. In a 10% mixture of O2 in N2 in the flow reactor, the effective uptake coefficients (?eff) for squalene and linoleic acid are larger than unity, providing clear evidence for particle-phase secondary chain chemistry. ?eff for squalene is 2.34 ± 0.07, which is smaller than ?eff for linoleic acid (3.75 ± 0.18) despite the larger number of C?C double bonds in squalene. ?eff for squalene increases with [O2] in the reactor, whereas ?eff for linoleic acid decreases with increasing [O2]. This suggests that the chain cycling mechanism in these two systems is different since O2 promotes chain propagation in the OH + squalene reaction but promotes chain termination in the OH + linoleic acid reaction. Elemental analysis of squalene aerosol shows that an average of 1.06 ± 0.12 O atoms are added per reactive loss of squalene prior to the onset of particle volatilization. O2 promotes particle volatilization in the OH + squalene reaction, suggesting that fragmentation reactions are important when O2 is present in the OH oxidation of branched unsaturated organic aerosol. In contrast, O2 does not influence the rate of particle volatilization in the OH + linoleic acid reaction. This indicates that O2 does not alter the relative importance of fragmentation reactions in the OH oxidation of linear unsaturated organic aerosol.
Although many organic molecules commonly found in the atmosphere are known to be surface-active in macroscopic aqueous solutions, the impact of surface partitioning of organic molecules to a microscopic aqueous droplet interface remains unclear. Here we measure the droplet size formed, at a relative humidity (?99.9%) just below saturation, on submicrometer particles containing an ammonium sulfate core and an organic layer of a model compound of varying thickness. The 12 model organic compounds are a series of dicarboxylic acids (C3 to C10), cis-pinonic, oleic, lauric, and myristic acids, which represent a broad range in solubility from miscible (malonic acid) to insoluble. The variation in droplet size with increasing organic aerosol fraction cannot be explained by assuming the organic material is dissolved in the bulk droplet. Instead, the wet droplet diameters exhibit a complex and nonlinear dependence on organic aerosol volume fraction, leading to hygroscopic growth that is in some cases smaller and in others larger than that predicted by bulk solubility alone. For palmitic and stearic acid, small droplets at or below the detection limit of the instrument are observed, indicating significant kinetic limitations for water uptake, which are consistent with mass accommodation coefficients on the order of 10(-4). A model based on the two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state is used to explain the complex droplet growth with organic aerosol fraction and dry diameter. The model suggests that mono- and dicarboxylic acids with limited water solubility partition to the droplet surface and reduce surface tension only after a two-dimensional condensed monolayer is formed. Two relatively soluble compounds, malonic and glutaric acid, also appear to form surface phases, which increase hygroscopicity. There is a clear alternation in the threshold for droplet growth observed for odd and even carbon number diacids, which is explained in the model by differences in the excluded molecular areas of even (?40 Å(2)/molecule) and odd (?20 Å(2)/molecule) diacids. These differences are consistent with the odd diacids arranged at the droplet interface in "end-to-end" configurations with only one acid group in contact with the aqueous phase, which is in contrast to even carbon numbered diacids forming "folded" films with both acid groups in contact with the bulk phase. Organic matter produced by the ozonolysis of ?-pinene forms surface films that exhibit similar behavior and become thinner with oxidation, allowing for greater water uptake. These results reveal a new and complex relationship between the composition of an organic aerosol and its hygroscopicity, suggesting that organic surface films might strongly influence cloud droplet formation as well as the multiphase chemistry of organic aerosols.
Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level.
Many health care performance measures are either not based on high-quality clinical evidence or not tightly linked to patient-centered outcomes, limiting their usefulness in quality improvement. In this report we summarize the proceedings of an American Thoracic Society workshop convened to address this problem by reviewing current approaches to performance measure development and creating a framework for developing high-quality performance measures by basing them directly on recommendations from well-constructed clinical practice guidelines. Workshop participants concluded that ideally performance measures addressing care processes should be linked to clinical practice guidelines that explicitly rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations, such as the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process. Under this framework, process-based performance measures would only be developed from strong recommendations based on high- or moderate-quality evidence. This approach would help ensure that clinical processes specified in performance measures are both of clear benefit to patients and supported by strong evidence. Although this approach may result in fewer performance measures, it would substantially increase the likelihood that quality-improvement programs based on these measures actually improve patient care.
The identification and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a potent SHI-1:2 are described. Kinetic analysis indicated that biaryl inhibitors exhibit slow binding kinetics in isolated HDAC1 and HDAC2 preparations. Delayed histone hyperacetylation and gene expression changes were also observed in cell culture, and histone acetylation was observed in vivo beyond disappearance of drug from plasma. In vivo studies further demonstrated that continuous target inhibition was well tolerated and efficacious in tumor-bearing mice, leading to tumor growth inhibition with either once-daily or intermittent administration.
Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic aerosol (POA), which is a mixture of a large number of organic compounds that have not been comprehensively characterized. In this work, we apply a recently developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry approach utilizing "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization to achieve unprecedented chemical characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA was characterized by number of carbon atoms (NC), number of double bond equivalents (NDBE) and degree of molecular branching. Vehicular POA was observed to predominantly contain cycloalkanes with one or more rings and one or more branched alkyl side chains (?80%) with low abundances of n-alkanes and aromatics (<5%), similar to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring structures are most likely dominated by cyclohexane and cyclopentane rings and not larger cycloalkanes. High molecular weight combustion byproducts, that is, alkenes, oxygenates, and aromatics, were not present in significant amounts. The observed carbon number and chemical composition of motor vehicle POA was consistent with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional smaller contribution from unburned diesel fuel and a negligible contribution from unburned gasoline.
In adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), an increased tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) measured by Doppler echocardiography, an increased serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) level, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) are independent risk factors for mortality.
Recent work has established that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can exist as an amorphous solid, leading to various suggestions that the addition of SOA coatings to existing particles will decrease the reactivity of those particles toward common atmospheric oxidants. Experimental evidence suggests that O3 is unable to physically diffuse through an exterior semisolid or solid layer thus inhibiting reaction with the core. The extent to which this suppression in reactivity occurs for OH has not been established, nor has this been demonstrated specifically for SOA. Here, measurements of the influence of adding a coating of ?-pinene+O3 SOA onto squalane particles on the OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation rate are reported. The chemical composition of the oxidized internally mixed particles was monitored online using a vacuum ultraviolet-aerosol mass spectrometer. Variations in the squalane oxidation rate with particle composition were quantified by measurement of the effective uptake coefficient, ?eff, which is the loss rate of a species relative to the oxidant-particle collision rate. Instead of decreasing, the measured ?eff increased continuously as the SOA coating thickness increased, by a factor of ?2 for a SOA coating thickness of 42 nm (corresponding to ca. two-thirds of the particle mass). These results indicate that heterogeneous oxidation of ambient aerosol by OH radicals is not inhibited by SOA coatings, and further that condensed phase chemical pathways and rates in organic particles depend importantly on composition.
Bone metastases are a clinically significant problem that arises in approximately 70% of metastatic breast cancer patients. Once established in the bone, tumor cells induce changes in the bone microenvironment that lead to bone destruction, pain, and significant morbidity. While much is known about the later stages of bone disease, less is known about the earlier stages or the changes in protein expression in the tumor micro-environment. Due to promising results of combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI IMS) ion images in the brain, we developed methods for applying these modalities to models of tumor-induced bone disease in order to better understand the changes in protein expression that occur within the tumor-bone microenvironment. Specifically, we integrated 3-dimensional-volume reconstructions of spatially resolved MALDI IMS with high-resolution anatomical and diffusion weighted MRI data and histology in an intratibial model of breast tumor-induced bone disease. This approach enables us to analyze proteomic profiles from MALDI IMS data with corresponding in vivo imaging and ex vivo histology data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these three modalities have been rigorously registered in the bone. The MALDI mass-to-charge ratio peaks indicate differential expression of calcyclin, ubiquitin, and other proteins within the tumor cells, while peaks corresponding to hemoglobin A and calgranulin A provided molecular information that aided in the identification of areas rich in red and white blood cells, respectively. This multi-modality approach will allow us to comprehensively understand the bone-tumor microenvironment and thus may allow us to better develop and test approaches for inhibiting bone metastases.
The mammalian auditory epithelium (AE) cannot replace supporting cells and hair cells once they are lost. Therefore, sensorineural hearing loss associated with missing cells is permanent. This inability to regenerate critical cell types makes the AE a potential target for cell replacement therapies such as stem cell transplantation. Inserting stem cells into the AE of deaf ears is a complicated task due to the hostile, high potassium environment of the scala media in the cochlea, and the robust junctional complexes between cells in the AE that resist stem cell integration. Here, we evaluate whether temporarily reducing potassium levels in the scala media and disrupting the junctions in the AE make the cochlear environment more receptive and facilitate survival and integration of transplanted cells. We used sodium caprate to transiently disrupt the AE junctions, replaced endolymph with perilymph, and blocked stria vascularis pumps with furosemide. We determined that these three steps facilitated survival of HeLa cells in the scala media for at least 7 days and that some of the implanted cells formed a junctional contact with native AE cells. The data suggest that manipulation of the cochlear environment facilitates survival and integration of exogenously transplanted HeLa cells in the scala media.
The relationship between allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains ill-defined and controversial. The association between the 2 is unclear, making an evidence-based decision of whether to evaluate and treat allergies in CRS patients difficult. The purposes of this systematic review are to (1) examine the relationship between allergy and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), (2) examine the same for allergy and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and (3) recommend evaluation and treatment based on the evidence.
Aerosols containing aliphatic hydrocarbons play a substantial role in the urban atmosphere. Cyclic alkanes constitute a large fraction of aliphatic hydrocarbon emissions originating from incomplete combustion of diesel fuel and motor oil. In the present study, cholestane (C27H48) is used as a model system to examine the OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation pathways of cyclic alkanes in a photochemical flow tube reactor. Oxidation products are collected on filters and analyzed by a novel soft ionization two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The analysis reveals that the first-generation functionalization products (cholestanones, cholestanals, and cholestanols) are the dominant reaction products that account for up to 70% by mass of the total speciated compounds. The ratio of first-generation carbonyls to alcohols is near unity at every oxidation level. Among the cholestanones/cholestanals, 55% are found to have the carbonyl group on the rings of the androstane skeleton, while 74% of cholestanols have the hydroxyl group on the rings. Particle-phase oxidation products with carbon numbers less than 27 (i.e., "fragmentation products") and higher-generation functionalization products are much less abundant. Carbon bond cleavage was found to occur only on the side chain. Tertiary-carbon alkoxy radicals are suggested to play an important role in governing both the distribution of functionalization products (via alkoxy radical isomerization and reaction with oxygen) and the fragmentation products (via alkoxy radical decomposition). These results provide new insights into the oxidation mechanism of cyclic alkanes.
The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron unsaturated fatty acid particles in the presence of H2O2 and O2 is studied to explore how surface OH addition reactions initiate chain reactions that rapidly transform the chemical composition of an organic particle. In the presence of 20.7 ppm [H2O2] in a 10% mixture of O2 in N2, the effective uptake coefficients of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid are found to be 1.72 ± 0.08, 3.75 ± 0.18 and 5.73 ± 0.14, respectively. These effective uptake coefficients are larger than unity, providing clear evidence for particle-phase secondary chain chemistry. The effective uptake coefficient increases linearly with the number of C=C double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid molecule. Elemental composition analysis reveals that there is an addition of, on average, 0.57 ± 0.02, 0.61 ± 0.01 and 0.73 ± 0.04 O atoms per reactive loss of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, respectively, which suggests that OH addition to the C=C double bond is not the sole reaction pathway that consumes the molecular species. These results suggest the potential presence of secondary reactions that consume the unsaturated fatty acid molecular species without increasing the particulate oxygen content. As the unsaturated fatty acid particles become more oxygenated, volatilization also becomes significant. The magnitudes of the effective uptake coefficients are found to be dependent on the concentrations of OH, O2 and H2O2 in the flow reactor. A plausible reaction mechanism is presented to show how surface OH addition reactions initiate chain reactions that rapidly transform an unsaturated organic particles physicochemical properties.
Mucosal involvement of venous malformations can cause bleeding, pain, and functional impairment. Treatment options include surgery, sclerotherapy, or laser therapy. Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:Yag) laser therapy has been used to treat mucosal disease, but few studies have focused purely on the oral cavity. We present a retrospective review of 4 patients (5 subsites) with oral cavity venous malformations treated with the Nd:YAG laser using an underwater technique. Photographs of the venous malformations before and after treatment were evaluated by 2 blinded physicians. A visual analog scale was used to rate the treatment. The medical record was reviewed to assess change in symptoms and to note complications. Four sites were rated as having "significant improvement" and 1 site as "some improvement." Our study demonstrates that the Nd:YAG laser can be a feasible option in the treatment of venous malformations of the oral cavity.
The reactive uptake coefficients ?, for nitrate radical, NO(3), on ?100 nm diameter squalane and squalene aerosol were measured (1 atm pressure of N(2) and 293 K). For squalane, a branched alkane, ?(NO(3)) of 2.8 × 10(-3) was estimated. For squalene which contains 6 double bonds, ?(NO(3)) was found to be a function of degree of oxidation with an initial value of 0.18 ± 0.03 on fresh particles increasing to 0.82 ± 0.11 on average of over 3 NO(3) reactions per squalene molecule in the aerosol. Synchrotron VUV-ionization aerosol mass spectrometry was used to detect the particle phase oxidation products that include as many as 3 NO(3) subunits added to the squalene backbone. The fraction of squalene remaining in the aerosol follows first order kinetics under oxidation, even at very high oxidation equivalents, which suggests that the matrix remains a liquid upon oxidation. Our calculation indicates a much shorter chemical lifetime for squalene-like particle with respect to NO(3) than its atmospheric lifetime to deposition or wet removal.
The reactions of C2H radicals with C4H8 isomers 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene are studied by laser photolysis-vacuum ultraviolet mass spectrometry in a Laval nozzle expansion at 79 K. Bimolecular-reaction rate constants are obtained by measuring the formation rate of the reaction product species as a function of the reactant density under pseudo-first-order conditions. The rate constants are (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (2.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-10), and (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) for the reaction of C2H with 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene, respectively. Bimolecular rate constants for 1-butene and isobutene compare well to values measured previously at 103 K using C2H chemiluminescence. Photoionization spectra of the reaction products are measured and fitted to ionization spectra of the contributing isomers. In conjunction with absolute-ionization cross sections, these fits provide isomer-resolved product branching fractions. The reaction between C2H and 1-butene yields (65 ± 10)% C4H4 in the form of vinylacetylene and (35 ± 10)% C5H6 in the form of 4-penten-1-yne. The cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene reactions yield solely 3-penten-1-yne, and no discrimination is made between cis- and trans-3-penten-1-yne. Last, the isobutene reaction yields (26 ± 15)% 3-penten-1-yne, (35 ± 15)% 2-methyl-1-buten-3-yne, and (39 ± 15)% 4-methyl-3-penten-1-yne. The branching fractions reported for the C2H and butene reactions indicate that these reactions preferentially proceed via CH3 or C2H3 elimination rather than H-atom elimination. Within the experimental uncertainties, no evidence is found for the formation of cyclic species.
Sleepiness may account for up to 20% of crashes on monotonous roads, especially highways. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common medical disorder that causes excessive daytime sleepiness, increasing the risk for drowsy driving two to three times. The purpose of these guidelines is to update the 1994 American Thoracic Society Statement that described the relationships among sleepiness, sleep apnea, and driving risk.
Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectrometry is an atmospheric pressure ionization technique suitable for in situ chemical analysis of organic aerosols. Here, mass spectra are obtained by introducing a stream of nanometer-sized aerosols into the ionization region, which is an open space between the ion source and the atmospheric inlet of mass spectrometer. Model single component aerosols are used to show how the aerosol size and volatility influence the measured ion signals at different DART gas temperatures. The results show that for equivalent aerosol mass concentrations, the ion signal scales with particle surface area, with smaller diameter oleic acid aerosols yielding higher ion signals relative to larger diameter aerosols. For the aerosols of the same size, but different vapor pressures, the ion signal is larger for more volatile succinic acid aerosols than less volatile adipic and suberic acid particles. From the measured changes in aerosol size, produced by the DART source, the radial probing depth for these model aerosols range from 1 to 10 nm, the magnitude of which depends upon the physiochemical properties of the aerosols and DART gas temperature. An aerosol evaporation model reveals that the ion signal is correlated with changes in aerosol size and depends upon the total quantity of evaporated aerosol mass, consistent with a mechanism in which gas-phase molecules are first desorbed from the aerosol surface prior to ionization. The results of this work serve as a basis for future investigations of the mass spectra, ionization pathways, and probing depth of the aerosols using DART.
The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with chemically reduced organic aerosol comprised of either squalane or bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate are used as model systems to examine how cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity evolves with photochemical oxidation. Over the course of the reaction, the critical super-saturation evolves both by the formation of new oxygen functional groups and by changes in aerosol size through the formation of gas phase reaction products. A statistical model of the heterogeneous reaction reveals that it is the formation, volatilization, solubility, and surface activity of many generations of oxidation products that together control the average changes in aerosol hygroscopicity. The experimental observations and model demonstrate the importance of considering the underlying population or subpopulation of species within a particle and how they each uniquely contribute to the average hygroscopicity of a multi-component aerosol. To accurately predict changes in CCN activity upon oxidation requires a reduction in the surface tension of the activating droplet by a subpopulation of squalane reaction products. These results provide additional evidence that surface tension-concentration parameterizations based on macroscopic data should be modified for microscopic droplets.
Insights into the influence of molecular structure and thermodynamic phase on the chemical mechanisms of hydroxyl radical-initiated heterogeneous oxidation are obtained by identifying reaction products of submicrometer particles composed of either n-octacosane (C28H58, a linear alkane) or squalane (C30H62, a highly branched alkane) and OH. A common pattern is observed in the positional isomers of octacosanone and octacosanol, with functionalization enhanced toward the end of the molecule. This suggests that relatively large linear alkanes are structured in submicrometer particles such that their ends are oriented toward the surface. For squalane, positional isomers of first-generation ketones and alcohols also form in distinct patterns. Ketones are favored on carbons adjacent to tertiary carbons, while hydroxyl groups are primarily found on tertiary carbons but also tend to form toward the end of the molecule. Some first-generation products, viz., hydroxycarbonyls and diols, contain two oxygen atoms. These results suggest that alkoxy radicals are important intermediates and undergo both intramolecular (isomerization) and intermolecular (chain propagation) hydrogen abstraction reactions. Oxidation products with carbon number less than the parent alkanes are observed to a much greater extent for squalane than for n-octacosane oxidation and can be explained by the preferential cleavage of bonds involving tertiary carbons.
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise. EIB occurs in a substantial proportion of patients with asthma, but may also occur in individuals without known asthma.
Polylysine (PL) has been used to facilitate dendritic cell (DC) uptake of super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this work, we examined the effect of PL on cell toxicity and induction of cell maturation as manifested by the up-regulation of surface molecules. We found that PL became toxic to bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) at the 10 ?g/ml threshold. Incubation of BMDCs with 20 ?g/ml of PL for 1h resulted in approximately 90% cell death. However, addition of SPIO nanoparticles rescued DCs from PL-induced death as the combination of SPIO with PL did not cause cytotoxicity until the PL concentration was 1000 ?g/ml. Prolonged exposure to PL induced BMDC maturation as noted by the expression of surface molecules such as MHC class II, CD40, CCR7 and CD86. However, the combination of SPIO and PL did not induce BMDC maturation at 1h. However prolonged exposure to SPIO nanoparticles induced CD40 expression and protein expression of TNF? and KC. The data suggest that the use of PL to enhance the labeling of DCs with SPIO nanoparticles is a dedicated work. Appropriate calibration of the incubation time and concentrations of PL and SPIO nanoparticles is crucial to the development of MRI technology for noninvasive imaging of DCs in vivo.
Typically, full Bayesian estimation of correlated event rates can be computationally challenging since estimators are intractable. When estimation of event rates represents one activity within a larger modeling process, there is an incentive to develop more efficient inference than provided by a full Bayesian model. We develop a new subjective inference method for correlated event rates based on a Bayes linear Bayes model under the assumption that events are generated from a homogeneous Poisson process. To reduce the elicitation burden we introduce homogenization factors to the model and, as an alternative to a subjective prior, an empirical method using the method of moments is developed. Inference under the new method is compared against estimates obtained under a full Bayesian model, which takes a multivariate gamma prior, where the predictive and posterior distributions are derived in terms of well-known functions. The mathematical properties of both models are presented. A simulation study shows that the Bayes linear Bayes inference method and the full Bayesian model provide equally reliable estimates. An illustrative example, motivated by a problem of estimating correlated event rates across different users in a simple supply chain, shows how ignoring the correlation leads to biased estimation of event rates.
This report documents the first example of a specific inhibitor of protein kinases with preferential binding to the activated kinase conformation: 5H-benzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-5-one 11r (MK-8033), a dual c-Met/Ron inhibitor under investigation as a treatment for cancer. The design of 11r was based on the desire to reduce time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 (TDI) by members of this structural class. A novel two-step protocol for the synthesis of benzylic sulfonamides was developed to access 11r and analogues. We provide a rationale for the observed selectivity based on X-ray crystallographic evidence and discuss selectivity trends with additional examples. Importantly, 11r provides full inhibition of tumor growth in a c-Met amplified (GTL-16) subcutaneous tumor xenograft model and may have an advantage over inactive form kinase inhibitors due to equal potency against a panel of oncogenic activating mutations of c-Met in contrast to c-Met inhibitors without preferential binding to the active kinase conformation.
A retrospective review was performed to evaluate the outcomes and complications following heterotopic ossification (HO) resection and lysis of adhesion procedures for posttraumatic contracture, after combat-related open elbow fractures. From 2004 to 2011, HO resection was performed on 30 blast-injured elbows at a mean 10 months after injury. Injuries included 8 (27%) Gustilo-Anderson type II fractures, 8 (27%) type III-A, 10 (33%) III-B, and 4 (13%) III-C. Mean preoperative flexion-extension range of motion (ROM) was 36.4°, compared with mean postoperative ROM of 83.6°. Mean gain of motion was 47.2°. Traumatic brain injury, need for flap, and nerve injury did not appear to have a significant effect on preoperative or postoperative ROM. Complications included one fracture, six recurrent contractures, and one nerve injury. The results and complications of HO resection for elbow contracture following high-energy, open injuries from blast trauma are generally comparable to those reported for HO resection following lower energy, closed injuries.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To review long-term hearing results after intact canal wall mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty for treatment of cholesteatoma and to identify factors associated with improved hearing outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of all cases of cholesteatoma treated with intact canal wall mastoidectomy at a single institution by the senior author over a period of 9 years, for which at least 2 years of follow-up data exist. METHODS: Patient and disease information was collected retrospectively and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 148 patients with 156 affected ears treated and followed for a median of 5.3 years (interquartile range, 3.6-7.4 years). The majority of the operations (144/156, 92%) were staged. Hearing data were available for 150 ears. The overall postoperative mean air-bone gap was ?20 dB in 64% of patients. This was maintained long term in most patients, with 59% of patients still with an air-bone gap ?20 dB at a median follow-up of 5.3 years. The presence of an intact stapes did not affect initial hearing outcomes, but the group with an intact stapes had improved long-term hearing results compared to those without an intact stapes (71% vs. 42% air-bone gap ?20 dB, P?.001). The presence of a malleus handle also led to superior long-term hearing outcomes (72% vs. 48% air-bone gap ?20 dB, P?=?.005). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term hearing results from intact canal wall mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty are excellent, with the majority of patients maintaining a small air-bone gap long term. The presence of a stapes and/or malleus handle confers improved long-term hearing outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2013.
Hepatoblastomas often require neoadjuvant chemotherapy to facilitate partial hepatectomy, which necessitates freedom of tumor borders from the confluence of hepatic veins (COHV), portal vein bifurcation (PVB), and retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC). This study aimed to clarify the effect of incremental neoadjuvant cycles on the AHEP0731 protocol criteria of hepatoblastoma resectability.
To evaluate whether semi-quantitative analysis of high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) acquired early in treatment can predict the response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
Objective: To test a newly developed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method for abdominal fat depot quantification in subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN), normal weight, and obesity using CT as a gold standard. Design and Methods: 135 premenopausal women (overweight/obese: n = 89, normal-weight: n = 27, AN: n = 19); abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT) areas determined on CT and DXA. Results: There were strong correlations between DXA and CT measurements of abdominal fat compartments in all groups with the strongest correlation coefficients in the normal-weight and overweight/obese groups. Correlations of DXA and CT VAT measurements were strongest in the obese group and weakest in the AN group. DXA abdominal fat depots were higher in all groups compared to CT, with the largest % mean difference in the AN group and smallest in the obese group. Conclusion: A new DXA technique is able to assess abdominal fat compartments including VAT in premenopausal women across a large weight spectrum. However, DXA measurements of abdominal fat were higher than CT, and this percent bias was most pronounced in the AN subjects and decreased with increasing weight, suggesting that this technique may be more useful in obese individuals.
Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is used to analyze the surface chemical composition of nanometer-sized organic aerosol particles in real time at atmospheric pressure. By introducing a stream of particles in between the DART ionization source and the atmospheric pressure inlet of the mass spectrometer, the aerosol is exposed to a thermal flow of helium or nitrogen gas containing some fraction of metastable helium atoms or nitrogen molecules. In this configuration, the molecular constituents of organic particles are desorbed, ionized, and detected with reduced molecular ion fragmentation, allowing for compositional identification. Aerosol particles detected include alkanes, alkenes, acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and amino acids. The ion signal produced by DART-MS scales with the aerosol surface area rather than volume, suggesting that DART-MS is a viable technique to measure the chemical composition of the particle interface. For oleic acid, particle size measurements of the aerosol stream exiting the ionization region suggest that the probing depth depends upon the desorption temperature, and the probing depth is estimated to be on the order of 5 nm for a 185 nm diameter particle at a DART heater temperature of 500 °C with nitrogen as the DART gas. The reaction of ozone with submicrometer oleic acid particles is measured to demonstrate the ability of this technique to identify products and quantify reaction rates in a heterogeneous reaction.
Determining biophysical sensitivity and specificity of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging is essential to develop effective imaging metrics of neurodegeneration. Among these metrics, apparent pool size ratio (PSR) from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging and radial diffusivity (RD) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are both known to relate to histological measure of myelin density and integrity. However their relative sensitivities towards quantitative myelin detection are unknown. In this study, we correlated high-resolution quantitative magnetic resonance imaging measures of subvoxel tissue structures with corresponding quantitative myelin histology in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated animal model of MS. Specifically, we acquired quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics (on the same tissue sample) in an animal model system of type III oligodendrogliopathy which lacked prominent lymphocytic infiltration, a system that had not been previously examined with quantitative MRI. We find that the qMT measured apparent pool size ratio (PSR) showed the strongest correlation with a histological measure of myelin content. DTI measured RD showed the next strongest correlation, and other DTI and relaxation parameters (such as the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1f) or fractional anisotropy (FA)) showed considerably weaker correlations with myelin content.
Tetracycline resistance protein Tet(O), which protects the bacterial ribosome from binding the antibiotic tetracycline, is a translational GTPase with significant similarity in both sequence and structure to the elongation factor EF-G. Here, we present an atomic model of the Tet(O)-bound 70S ribosome based on our cryo-electron microscopic reconstruction at 9.6-Å resolution. This atomic model allowed us to identify the Tet(O)-ribosome binding sites, which involve three characteristic loops in domain 4 of Tet(O). Replacements of the three amino-acid tips of these loops by a single glycine residue result in loss of Tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. On the basis of these findings, the mechanism of Tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance can be explained in molecular detail.
The identification of amyloid-binding compounds is a crucial step in the development of imaging probes and therapeutics for the detection and cure of Alzheimers disease. Unfortunately, the process typically lags during the translation from in vitro to in vivo studies due to the impenetrable nature of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, we integrate fluorescence assay with MALDI imaging mass spectrometry to screen known compounds and repurpose their properties to enable the second function of binding to amyloid plaques. Through this approach, we identified an antihistamine compound, promethazine, that can bind to amyloid plaques. Finally, we demonstrate that promethazine is retained in the amyloid-burdened brain compared to a normal brain and that its distribution within the brain corroborates with that of amyloid plaques.
The heterogeneous reactions of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reaction products evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new (BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during the reaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products. In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could play important roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.
Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCLs) represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that affect the skin. The pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. For example, the signaling mechanisms contributing to the dysregulated growth of the neoplastic T cells are not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that loss of nuclear localization of pro-IL-16 facilitates CTCL cell proliferation by causing a decrease in expression of the cyclin dependent-kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. The decrease in p27Kip1 expression was directly attributable to an increase in expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2). Regulation of Skp2 is in part attributed to the nuclear presence of the scaffold protein pro-IL-16. T cells isolated from 11 patients with advanced CTCL, but not those from healthy controls or patients with T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL), demonstrated reduction in nuclear pro-IL-16 levels. Sequence analysis identified the presence of mutations in the 5 end of the PDZ1 region of pro-IL-16, a domain required for association of pro-IL-16 with the nuclear chaperone HSC70 (also known as HSPA8). HSC70 knockdown led to loss of nuclear translocation by pro-IL-16 and subsequent increases in Skp2 levels and decreases in p27Kip1 levels, which ultimately enhanced T cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate that advanced CTCL cell growth is facilitated, at least in part, by mutations in the scaffold protein pro-IL-16, which directly regulates Skp2 synthesis.
Multiple treatment options exist for management of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland. Our objective was to perform an analysis of outcomes in a cohort of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland treated identically with an orbitocranial approach.
Rhinitis is a familiar disorder affecting up to 20% of the general population. Chronic rhinitis can be broadly classified into allergic, infectious, or nonallergic or noninfectious, which are distinguished mainly by a careful history and allergy testing. The pathophysiology of nonallergic rhinitis likely involves a combination of inflammatory and neurogenic mechanisms that are poorly understood. Treatment involves avoiding the offending agent, when possible, and using appropriate medications to control the patients predominant symptoms.
The antibiotic fusidic acid potently inhibits bacterial translation (and cellular growth) by lodging between domains I and III of elongation factor G (EF-G) and preventing release of EF-G from the ribosome. We examined the functions of key amino acid residues near the active site of EF-G that interact with fusidic acid and regulate hydrolysis of GTP. Alanine mutants of these residues spontaneously hydrolyzed GTP in solution, bypassing the normal activating role of the ribosome. A conserved phenylalanine in the switch II element of EF-G was important for suppressing GTP hydrolysis in solution and critical for catalyzing translocation of the ribosome along mRNA. These experimental results reveal the multipurpose roles of an interdomain joint in the heart of an essential translation factor that can both promote and inhibit bacterial translation.
A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C(2)H with C(2)H(2) is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit.
The reaction of Cl atoms, in the presence of Cl(2) and O(2), with sub-micron squalane particles is used as a model system to explore how surface hydrogen abstraction reactions initiate chain reactions that rapidly transform the chemical composition of an organic particle. The heterogeneous reaction is measured in a photochemical flow tube reactor in which chlorine atoms are produced by the photolysis of Cl(2) at 365 nm. By monitoring the heterogeneous reaction, using a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer, the effective reactive uptake coefficient and the distributions of both oxygenated and chlorinated reaction products are measured and found to depend sensitively upon O(2), Cl(2), and Cl concentrations in the flow reactor. In the absence of O(2), the effective reactive uptake coefficient monotonically increases with Cl(2) concentration to a value of ?3, clearly indicating the presence of secondary chain chemistry occurring in the condensed phase. The effective uptake coefficient decreases with increasing O(2) approaching a diffusion corrected value of 0.65 ± 0.07, when 20% of the total nitrogen flow rate in the reactor is replaced with O(2). Using a kinetic model it is found that the amount of secondary chemistry and the product distributions in the aerosol phase are controlled by the competitive reaction rates of O(2) and Cl(2) with alkyl radicals. The role that a heterogeneous pathway might play in the reaction of alkyl radicals with O(2) and Cl(2) is investigated within a reasonable range of reaction parameters. These results show, more generally, that for heterogeneous reactions involving secondary chain chemistry, time and radical concentration are not interchangeable kinetic quantities, but rather the observed reaction rate and product formation chemistry depends sensitively upon the concentrations and time evolution of radical initiators and those species that propagate or terminate free radical chain reactions.
Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height(2); kg/m(2)) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P < 0.001) did. The ratio of percentage of fat in the trunk and legs was positively related with age in both the genders. The appendicular lean mass/height(2) (kg/m(2)) of Korean men was negatively related to age (P < 0.001). In women, this ratio increased with age (P < 0.001). When we defined obesity according to the FMI classification, the rates of obesity were 6.1% (FMI > 9 kg/m(2)) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m(2)) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women.
The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is implicated in oncogenesis and is the target for several small molecule and biologic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Binding of the hepatocyte growth factor to the cell surface receptor of c-Met induces activation via autophosphorylation of the kinase domain. Here we describe the structural basis of c-Met activation upon autophosphorylation and the selective small molecule inhibiton of autophosphorylated c-Met. MK-2461 is a potent c-Met inhibitor that is selective for the phosphorylated state of the enzyme. Compound 1 is an MK-2461 analog with a 20-fold enthalpy-driven preference for the autophosphorylated over unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain. The crystal structure of the unbound kinase domain phosphorylated at Tyr-1234 and Tyr-1235 shows that activation loop phosphorylation leads to the ejection and disorder of the activation loop and rearrangement of helix ?C and the G loop to generate a viable active site. Helix ?C adopts a orientation different from that seen in activation loop mutants. The crystal structure of the complex formed by the autophosphorylated c-Met kinase domain and compound 1 reveals a significant induced fit conformational change of the G loop and ordering of the activation loop, explaining the selectivity of compound 1 for the autophosphorylated state. The results highlight the role of structural plasticity within the kinase domain in imparting the specificity of ligand binding and provide the framework for structure-guided design of activated c-Met inhibitors.
Numerous organizations use performance measures to monitor the quality of care provided for a variety of clinical conditions. An appraisal of the evidence underlying such performance measures has never been reported. Our objective was to estimate the effects of interventions recommended by performance measures and to determine the quality of evidence from which those estimates derive, using the Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services performance measures for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as examples. We performed systematic reviews of the literature to identify evidence related to the performance measures for CAP. Metaanalyses were then performed to estimate the absolute and relative effects of the interventions recommended by the performance measures. The Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was used to determine the quality of evidence. The estimated effects favored the interventions recommended by five of the six performance measures. These included pneumococcal vaccination (incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia: relative risk [RR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.75), blood cultures, antibiotic administration within 6 hours, use of a guideline-compliant antibiotic regimen, and influenza vaccination (incidence of symptomatic influenza: RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.22-0.40). However, among these performance measures, only influenza vaccination was supported by high-quality evidence. One-step smoking cessation counseling was contradicted by moderate-quality evidence (smoking quit rate: RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.22). The evidence supporting performance measures is frequently not of high quality and occasionally contradictory.
A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earths climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state, a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of the average carbon oxidation state, using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number.
Several interrelated factors, including depression, influence adolescents chances of risky sexual behaviour. We examined the relation between depression and sexual risk-taking behaviours in adolescents after accounting for the effects of other variables.
The heterogeneous oxidation of pure erythritol (C(4)H(10)O(4)) and levoglucosan (C(6)H(10)O(5)) particles was studied in order to evaluate the effects of atmospheric aging on the mass and chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosol. In contrast to what is generally observed for the heterogeneous oxidation of reduced organics, substantial volatilization is observed in both systems. However, the ratio of the decrease in particle mass to the decrease in the concentration of the parent species is about three times higher for erythritol than for levoglucosan, indicating that details of chemical structure (such as carbon number, cyclic moieties, and oxygen-containing functional groups) play a governing role in the importance of volatilization reactions. The kinetics of the reaction indicate that while both compounds react at approximately the same rate, reactions of their oxidation products appear to be slowed substantially. Estimates of volatilities of organic species based on elemental composition measurements suggest that the heterogeneous oxidation of oxygenated organics may be an important loss mechanism of organic aerosol.
A novel instrument is described that quantifies total particle-phase organic nitrates in real time with a detection limit of 0.11 microg m(-3) min(-1), 45 ppt min(-1) (-ONO(2)). Aerosol nitrates are separated from gas-phase nitrates with a short residence time activated carbon denuder. Detection of organic molecules containing -ONO(2) subunits is accomplished using thermal dissociation coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection of NO(2). This instrument is capable of high time resolution (seconds) measurements of particle-phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in secondary organic aerosol generated from high-NO(x) photooxidation of limonene, alpha-pinene, Delta-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15% of the total SOA mass.
The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X(2)Pi) with pyrrole (C(4)H(5)N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 363 K, at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr(3)) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C(5)H(5)N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from (79)Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by H-elimination. The photoionization efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C(5)H(4)DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (d-pyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.
Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.
Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi(3)(+) indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have approximately 2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi(3)(+) ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.
Three-dimensional geometric and structural measurements of the proximal femur are of considerable interest in understanding the strength of the femur and its susceptibility to fracture. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with a small voxel size (?1?mm per side) is the current "gold standard" to examine the macrostructure of the femur, but it has a high effective radiation dose (approximately 2 to 5 mSv) and cost. Volumetric dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (VXA) uses a commercially available DXA system (Hologic Discovery A) to reconstruct the proximal femur from four DXA scans delivering an effective radiation dose of 0.04 mSv. VXA was compared with QCT (voxel size of 0.29?×?0.29?×?1?mm) in 41 elderly women (age 82?±?2.4 years) at slices located at the femoral neck and trochanteric regions of interest. For parameters of shape, the femoral neck axis length (FNAL) and the cross-sectional slice area (SA), accuracy and strong linear correlations (r?=?0.84 to 0.98) were demonstrated. Similar correlations (r?=?0.81 to 0.97) were observed for the density parameters, the cross-sectional bone area (CSA) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). VXA also demonstrated strong correlations (r?=?0.76 to 0.99) for the engineering parameters of the minimum, maximum, and polar cross-sectional moments of inertia (CSMIs) and the section modulus (Z). We conclude that VXA is capable of generating a variety of 3D geometric and structural measurements that are highly correlated with QCT in elderly subjects in vivo. Moreover, the VXA measurements can be made with a commercially available DXA device at a very low radiation dose.
Elongation factor G (EF-G) is one of several GTP hydrolytic proteins (GTPases) that cycles repeatedly on and off the ribosome during protein synthesis in bacterial cells. In the functional cycle of EF-G, hydrolysis of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) is coupled to tRNA-mRNA translocation in ribosomes. GTP hydrolysis induces conformational rearrangements in two switch elements in the G domain of EF-G and other GTPases. These switch elements are thought to initiate the cascade of events that lead to translocation and EF-G cycling between ribosomes. To further define the coupling mechanism, we developed a new fluorescent approach that can detect intramolecular movements in EF-G. We attached a fluorescent probe to the switch I element (sw1) of Escherichia coli EF-G. We monitored the position of the sw1 probe, relative to another fluorescent probe anchored to the GTP substrate or product, by measuring the distance-dependent, Förster resonance energy transfer between the two probes. By analyzing EF-G trapped at five different functional states in its cycle, we could infer the cyclical movements of sw1 within EF-G. Our results provide evidence for conformational changes in sw1, which help to drive the unidirectional EF-G cycle during protein synthesis. More generally, our approach might also serve to define the conformational dynamics of other GTPases with their cellular receptors.
The rate coefficient for the reaction of the ethynyl radical (C(2)H) with 1-butyne (H-C[triple bond]C-CH(2)-CH(3)) is measured in a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus. Ethynyl radicals are formed by laser photolysis of acetylene (C(2)H(2)) at 193 nm and detected via chemiluminescence (C(2)H + O(2) --> CH (A(2)Delta) + CO(2)). The rate coefficients are measured over the temperature range of 74-295 K. The C(2)H + 1-butyne reaction exhibits no barrier and occurs with rate constants close to the collision limit. The temperature-dependent rate coefficients can be fit within experimental uncertainties by the expression k = (2.4 +/- 0.5) x 10(-10)(T/295 K)(-(0.04+/-0.03)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Reaction products are detected at room temperature (295 K) and 533 Pa using a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer (MPIMS) coupled to the tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Two product channels are identified for this reaction: m/z = 64 (C(5)H(4)) and m/z = 78 (C(6)H(6)) corresponding to the CH(3)-loss and H-loss channels, respectively. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are used to analyze the isomeric composition of both product channels. The C(5)H(4) products are found to be exclusively linear isomers composed of ethynylallene and methyldiacetylene in a 4:1 ratio. In contrast, the C(6)H(6) product channel includes two cyclic isomers, fulvene 18(+/-5)% and 3,4-dimethylenecyclobut-1-ene (DMCB) 32(+/-8)%, as well as three linear isomers, 2-ethynyl-1,3-butadiene 8(+/-5)%, 3,4-hexadiene-1-yne 28(+/-8)%, and 1,3-hexadiyne 14(+/-5)%. Within experimental uncertainties, we do not see appreciable amounts of benzene and an upper limit of 10% is estimated. Diacetylene (C(4)H(2)) formation via the C(2)H(5)-loss channel is also thermodynamically possible but cannot be observed due to experimental limitations. The implications of these results for modeling of planetary atmospheres, especially of Saturns largest moon Titan and the relationships to combustion reactions, are discussed.
We discuss a new approach for the measurement of the surfaces of free aerosol particles with diameters from 50 to 1000 nm. Particles in this size range have significant influence on the heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere and affect human health. Interfacing an aerodynamic lens to an ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer permits measurement of the surface chemical composition of unsupported aerosol particles in real time. We discuss the basic considerations for the design of such an instrument, its current limitations and potentials for improvement. Results from a proof-of-principle experiment on silicon oxide particles with average diameters of 270 nm are shown.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based muscle fiber tracking enables the measurement of muscle architectural parameters, such as pennation angle (theta) and fiber tract length (L(ft)), throughout the entire muscle. Little is known, however, about the repeatability of either the muscle architectural measures or the underlying diffusion measures. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the repeatability of DTI fiber tracking-based measurements and theta and L(ft). Four DTI acquisitions were performed on two days that allowed for between acquisition, within day, and between day analyses. The eigenvalues and fractional anisotropy were calculated at the maximum cross-sectional area of, and fiber tracking was performed in, the tibialis anterior muscle of nine healthy subjects. The between acquisitions condition had the highest repeatability for the DTI indices and the architectural parameters. The overall inter class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were greater than 0.6 for both theta and L(ft) and the repeatability coefficients were theta < 10.2 degrees and L(ft) < 50 mm. In conclusion, under the experimental and data analysis conditions used, the repeatability of the diffusion measures is very good and repeatability of the architectural measurements is acceptable. Therefore, this study demonstrates the feasibility for longitudinal studies of alterations in muscle architecture using DTI-based fiber tracking, under similar noise conditions and with similar diffusion characteristics.
Observers cannot accurately discriminate the top halves of two sequentially presented three-letter words. One interpretation of this effect is that words, like faces, are processed holistically. Here we show, in three simple experiments, that this phenomenon is more consistent with the hypothesis that letters, not words, are processed holistically.
We present an ultrasonography (US)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coregistration technique and examine its application in a preliminary multimodal, multiparametric study in a preclinical model of breast cancer. Nine mice were injected with 67NR breast cancer cells and imaged 6 and 9 days later with 4.7 T MRI and high-frequency US. Tumor volumes from each data set were segmented independently by two investigators and coregistered using an iterative closest point algorithm. In addition to anatomic images, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) distribution images from the central tumor slice using VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) and measurements of perfusion and extravascular-extracellular volume fraction using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were acquired from five mice for multiparametric coregistration. Parametric maps from each modality were coregistered and examined for spatial correlation. Average registration root mean square (RMS) error was 0.36 +/- 0.11 mm, less than approximately two voxels. Segmented volumes were compared between investigators to minimize interobserver variability; the average RMS error was 0.23 +/- 0.09 mm. In the preliminary study, VEGFR2-targeted UCA data did not demonstrate direct spatial correlation with magnetic resonance measures of vascular properties. In summary, a method for accurately coregistering small animal US and MRI has been presented that allows for comparison of quantitative metrics provided by the two modalities.
The efficient Suzuki cross-coupling of pyrazoline nonaflates with organoboron reagents was achieved to afford diverse 3-substituted-2-pyrazolines in excellent yield. The nonaflates displayed improved reactivity over the corresponding triflates and smoothly coupled to a variety of aryl- and heteroarylboronic acids. This process and its broad scope constitute a rapid, divergent strategy for the synthesis of elaborated 2-pyrazolines that are not readily obtained via conventional methods.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.