JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of Age and Disease Status as Predictors of Thyroid Cancer-Specific Mortality Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Age at diagnosis is incorporated into all relevant staging systems for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). There is growing evidence that a specific age cutoff may not be ideal for accurate risk stratification. We sought to evaluate the interplay between age and oncologic variables in patients with DTC using the largest cohort to date. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify patients with DTC as their only malignancy for the period 1973 to 2009. Multivariate analyses using a range of age cutoffs and age subgroupings were utilized in order to search for an optimal age that would provide the most significant risk stratification between young and old patients. The primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS) and covariates included: age, race, sex, tumor/nodal/metastasis (TNM) stage, decade of diagnosis, and radioactive iodine therapy. Results: A total of 85,740 patients were identified. Seventy-six percent of patients were American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I, 8% were stage II, 7% were stage III, and 8% were stage IV. Age over 45 years (hazard ratio [HR] 19.2, p<0.001) and metastatic disease (HR 13.1, p<0.001) were the strongest predictors of DSS. Other factors that significantly predicted DSS included: not receiving radioactive iodine (RAI; HR 1.3, p=0.002), T3 (HR 2.6, p<0.001), and T4 disease (HR 3.3, p<0.001), and nodal spread (HR 2.6 to 3.3, p<0.001). Female sex showed a significant protective effect (HR 0.7, p=0.001). Adjusting the age-group cutoff from 25 to 55 years showed consistently high HRs for advanced age, without a distinct change at any point. Comparing HRs for T, N, and M stage between young and old patient subgroups showed that advanced disease increased the risk for DSS regardless of age, and was oftentimes a worse prognosticator in young patient groups. Conclusions: The contribution of age at diagnosis to a patient's DSS is considerable, but there is no age cutoff that affords any unique risk-stratification in patients with DTC.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for hematoma after thyroidectomy: results from the nationwide inpatient sample.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hematoma after thyroidectomy is a potentially lethal complication. We sought to evaluate risk factors for hematoma formation using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We hypothesized that certain risk factors could be identified and that this information would be useful to surgeons.
Related JoVE Video
Bilateral squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal sac.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 42-year-old man presented with right-sided epiphora, a fleshy lesion emanating from the right inferior punctum and a painless mass below the medial canthal tendon. Biopsy of the lacrimal sac mass disclosed papillary squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The patient underwent wide local excision with clear surgical margins and remained disease free until 28 months later when he returned with hemorrhagic epiphora of the OS and fullness overlying the left lacrimal sac. Biopsy confirmed papillary squamous cell carcinoma in situ. He underwent similar excision and has remained disease free for 6 months. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal sac.
Related JoVE Video
Recombinant human erythropoietin promotes the acquisition of a malignant phenotype in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies indicate an increase in tumor progression and recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of cancer patients taking recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) for anemia. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of rhEpo in invasion, proliferation, and cisplatin-induced cell death in HNSCC cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis diagnosed in a cervical lymph node: a case report.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is usually confined to the lungs and is therefore an unexpected finding in a cervical lymph node.
Related JoVE Video
Nicotine promotes acquisition of stem cell and epithelial-to-mesenchymal properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of nicotine to enhance the malignancy of cancer cells is known; however, the possibility that nicotine could regulate a cancer stem cell phenotype remains to be well-established. In this study we sought to determine whether long-term exposure to nicotine could promote cancer stem cell-like properties in two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, UMSCC-10B and HN-1. Nicotine treatment induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both cell lines by repressing E-cadherin expression, and led to the induction of stem cell markers Oct-4, Nanog, CD44 and BMI-1, which was reversed upon ectopic re-expression of E-cadherin. Nicotine-treated cells formed spheres at a higher efficiency than non-treated cells, formed larger tumors when injected into mice, and formed tumors with 4-fold greater efficiency compared to control cells when injected at limiting doses. Consistent with previous literature, nicotine-treated cells demonstrated a greater capacity for survival and also a higher tendency to invade. Comparison of microRNA profiles between nicotine and control cells revealed the upregulation of miR-9, a repressor of E-cadherin, and the downregulation of miR-101, a repressor of EZH2. Taken together, these results suggest that nicotine may play a critical role in the development of tobacco-induced cancers by regulating cancer stem cell characteristics, and that these effects are likely mediated through EMT-promoting, microRNA-mediated pathways. Further characterization of such pathways remains a promising avenue for the understanding and treatment of tobacco-related cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Total laryngectomy: national and regional case volume trends 1998-2008.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The management of advanced laryngeal cancer is evolving, with increasing use of chemoradiation as initial treatment. Recent reports confirm a decline in total laryngectomies (TLs) in the United States. A study was undertaken to evaluate national and regional trends in TLs performed over the most recent decade for which data were available and to use multivariate analysis to characterize these trends in more detail.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy: results from the nationwide inpatient sample.
ISRN Surg
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypocalcemia is a common complication following thyroidectomy. However, the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia varies widely in the literature, and factors associated with hypocalcemia after thyroid surgery are not well established. We aimed to identify incidence trends and independent risk factors of postoperative hypocalcemia using the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) database from 1998 to 2008. Overall, 6,605 (5.5%) of 119,567 patients who underwent thyroidectomy developed hypocalcemia. Total thyroidectomy resulted in a significantly higher increased incidence (9.0%) of hypocalcemia when compared with unilateral thyroid lobectomy (1.9%; P < .001). Thyroidectomy with bilateral neck dissection, the strongest independent risk factor of postoperative hypocalcemia (odds ratio, 9.42; P < .001), resulted in an incidence of 23.4%. Patients aged 45 years to 84 years were less likely to have postoperative hypocalcemia compared with their younger and older counterparts (P < .001). Hispanic (P = .003) and Asian (P = .027) patients were more likely, and black patients were less likely (P = .003) than white patients to develop hypocalcemia. Additional factors independently associated with postoperative hypocalcemia included female gender, nonteaching hospitals, and malignant neoplasms of thyroid gland. Hypocalcemia following thyroidectomy resulted in 1.47 days of extended hospital stay (3.33?versus?1.85 days P < .001).
Related JoVE Video
EGFR kinase promotes acquisition of stem cell-like properties: a potential therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma stem cells.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Members of the EGFR/ErbB family of tyrosine kinases are found to be highly expressed and deregulated in many cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The ErbB family, including EGFR, has been demonstrated to play key roles in metastasis, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and drug resistance. Recently, these characteristics have been linked to a small subpopulation of cells classified as cancer stem cells (CSCs) which are believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we investigated the possible role of EGFR as a regulator of "stemness" in HNSCC cells. Activation of EGFR by the addition of EGF ligand or ectopic expression of EGFR in two established HNSCC cell lines (UMSCC-22B and HN-1) resulted in the induction of CD44, BMI-1, Oct-4, NANOG, CXCR4, and SDF-1. Activation of EGFR also resulted in increased tumorsphere formation, a characteristic ability of cancer stem cells. Conversely, treatment with the EGFR kinase inhibitor, Gefinitib (Iressa), resulted in decreased expression of the aforementioned genes, and loss of tumorsphere-forming ability. Similar trends were observed in a 99.9% CD44 positive stem cell culture derived from a fresh HNSCC tumor, confirming our findings for the cell lines. Additionally, we found that these putative cancer stem cells, when treated with Gefitinib, possessed a lower capacity to invade and became more sensitive to cisplatin-induced death in vitro. These results suggest that EGFR plays critical roles in the survival, maintenance, and function of cancer stem cells. Drugs that target EGFR, perhaps administered in combination with conventional chemotherapy, might be an effective treatment for HNSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Metastases to the thyroid: a review of the literature from the last decade.
Thyroid
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although clinically evident metastases of nonthyroid malignancies (NTMs) to the thyroid gland are uncommon, it is important to suspect them in patients who present with a new thyroid mass and a history, however far back, of prior malignancy. In fact, metastases from NTMs to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4%-3% of all patients who have surgery for suspected cancer in the thyroid gland. Here we review the literature over the last decade regarding this topic.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.