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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Optical coherence tomography for guiding wire into a side branch coronary artery with flush total occlusion.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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We report a case of flush occlusion, where a novel use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) helped in successful crossing and stenting of the lesion.
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A novel allele of the P-starvation tolerance gene OsPSTOL1 from African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud) and its distribution in the genus Oryza.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We have developed allele-specific markers for molecular breeding to transfer the PSTOL1 gene from Kasalath to African mega-varieties, including NERICAs, to improve their tolerance to P-deficient soil. The deficiency of phosphorus (P) in soil is a major problem in Sub-Saharan Africa due to general nutrient depletion and the presence of P-fixing soils. Developing rice cultivars with enhanced P efficiency would, therefore, represent a sustainable strategy to improve the livelihood of resource-poor farmers. Recently the Pup1 locus, a major QTL for tolerance to P deficiency in soil, was successfully narrowed-down to a major gene, the protein kinase OsPSTOL1 (P-starvation tolerance), which was found to be generally absent from modern irrigated rice varieties. Our target is to improve the tolerance of African mega-varieties to P deficiency through marker-assisted introgression of PSTOL1. As a first step, we have determined the Pup1 haplotype and surveyed the presence or absence of PSTOL1 and other genes of the Pup1 locus in African mega-varieties, NERICAs (New Rice for Africa) and their Oryza glaberrima parents. Here, we report the presence of a novel PSTOL1 allele in upland NERICAs that was inherited from the O. glaberrima parent CG14. This allele showed a 35 base-pair substitution when aligned to the Kasalath allele, but maintained a fully conserved kinase domain, and is present in most O. glaberrima accessions evaluated. In-silico and marker analysis indicated that many other genes of the Kasalath Pup1 locus were missing in the O. glaberrima genome, including the dirigent-like gene OsPupK20-2, which was shown to be downstream of PSTOL1. We have developed several allele-specific markers for the use for molecular breeding to transfer the PSTOL1 gene from Kasalath to African mega-varieties, including NERICAs.
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The PAR index for evaluation of treatment outcomes in orthodontics: a clinical audit of 50 cases.
Int Orthod
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In the context of this study, a clinical audit of cases treated by a single orthodontist was carried out to illustrate one practical application of the PAR index. Fifty pairs of dental casts taken from the patient group before and at the end of orthodontic treatment were evaluated by an orthodontist trained in the use of the PAR index. This evaluation shows that the average overall PAR score for the subjects included in the study fell from an initial value of 25.64 ± 11.73 points to 1.78 ± 2.79 points at the end of orthodontic treatment. The average reduction attributable to orthodontic treatment was 23.86 ± 0.95 points, for an average percentage reduction of 93.36 ± 9.02%. When cases were classified according to the degree of improvement suggested by the nomogram of the PAR index, 23 (46%) were in the "Improved" category after treatment, and 27 cases (54%) in the "Greatly improved" category. This adds up to a total of 100% in these two categories, with none in the "No better" or "Worse" categories. It should be recalled that a high standard of orthodontic treatment is considered to be reached when the average percentage reduction of the PAR score exceeds 70% and when the number of cases in the "Worse or no better" category is below 5%.
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Association of inconclusive sera for human immunodeficiency virus infection with malaria and Epstein-Barr virus infection in Central Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Among 464 sera from adults in Cameroon, 56 (12.1%) gave inconclusive HIV serology. All were negative for HIV-1 DNA; 44.6% (n = 25) were significantly associated with Plasmodium (42.8%) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (17.8%) infections. In Central Africa, sera giving inconclusive results for HIV are frequently associated with malaria, EBV infection, or both.
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Circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin and gingival crevicular fluid tumour necrosis factor-? in children.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Osteocalcin, a protein secreted by osteoblasts during bone formation, is negatively associated with adult periodontal disease. Little is known about this association in children.
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A gacS deletion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolate CHA shapes its virulence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic pathogen, is capable of provoking acute and chronic infections that are associated with defined sets of virulence factors. During chronic infections, the bacterium accumulates mutations that silence some and activate other genes. Here we show that the cystic fibrosis isolate CHA exhibits a unique virulence phenotype featuring a mucoid morphology, an active Type III Secretion System (T3SS, hallmark of acute infections), and no Type VI Secretion System (H1-T6SS). This virulence profile is due to a 426 bp deletion in the 3' end of the gacS gene encoding an essential regulatory protein. The absence of GacS disturbs the Gac/Rsm pathway leading to depletion of the small regulatory RNAs RsmY/RsmZ and, in consequence, to expression of T3SS, while switching off the expression of H1-T6SS and Pel polysaccharides. The CHA isolate also exhibits full ability to swim and twitch, due to active flagellum and Type IVa pili. Thus, unlike the classical scheme of balance between virulence factors, clinical strains may adapt to a local niche by expressing both alginate exopolysaccharide, a hallmark of membrane stress that protects from antibiotic action, host defences and phagocytosis, and efficient T3S machinery that is considered as an aggressive virulence factor.
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The case for addressing primary resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to treat children born from mothers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations (DRMs) was estimated in 25 untreated infants who were living with HIV-1, younger than 13 months and living in Senegal. Antiretroviral DRMs were detected in 8 of 25 (32%) children. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) DRMs were present in all (100%) children whose viruses harboured DRMs: K103N in 43%; Y181C, K101E and V106M each in 29%; and Y188L in 14%. The D67N thymidine-analogue mutation was observed in only two children whose mothers had received chemoprophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). The proportion of children whose viruses harboured DRMs was then 6.5-fold higher in children whose mother-child couples had received nevirapine (NVP)-based chemoprophylaxis than in other couples without prophylaxis [7 of 13 (53.8%) vs. 1 of 12 (8.3%)]. These findings point to the absolute need to address primary resistance mutations in case of virological failure in young children treated by antiretroviral drugs, and to make more effective treatment regimens available to NVP-exposed infants living with HIV-1 in Senegal.
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Dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping in decentralized settings in Senegal.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use for HIV-1 drug resistance testing dried blood spots collected in remote areas and sent under field conditions to a reference laboratory and also to document virological failure in patients with suspected treatment failure. Samples were collected from patients receiving first line ART at 11 hospital sites around country, kept at room temperature (<37°C) and sent within 15 days maximum to the reference laboratory. Viral nucleic acids were obtained by magnetic extraction with NucliSENS (bioMérieux, Marcy lEtoile, France). Genotyping of HIV-1 pol gene was performed using the ANRS protocol. Drug resistance mutations were analyzed according to the Stanford University HIV database version 6.0.8. Two hundred thirty one HIV-infected adults on HAART first line regimen composed study population. The median time on ART was 18 months (range 6-68). Regardless of the treatment duration, the overall rate of virological failure (VL???3?log10 ?cp/ml) was 23.8% (n?=?55/231). HIV genotypes were obtained successfully in 94.5% (n?=?52/55). Drug resistance mutation was found in 41/52 patients in virological failure, for 17.7% (n?=?41/231) an overall rate of drug resistance mutations. M184V/I was the most frequent mutation occurring, followed by K103N. Phylogenetic analysis of the 52 genotyped viral isolates showed the predominance of CRF02_AG with 62% (n?=?32/52). Use of a DBS specimen is suitable to assist national programs for monitoring in remote areas HIV drug resistance in resources limited-settings.
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Metabolic syndrome and gingival inflammation in Caucasian children with a family history of obesity.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with gingival inflammation in children.
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Socio-cultural aspects of oral health among the Fulani in Ferlo (Senegal): a qualitative study.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Health is a subjective concept that considers the social, cultural, environmental and behavioural problems of the individual. This study was conducted with the objective of better understanding the sociocultural aspects related to the oral health of the Fulani populations of Ferlo, Senegal.
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Tumor necrosis factor- ? and interleukin-6: potential interorgan inflammatory mediators contributing to destructive periodontal disease in obesity or metabolic syndrome.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)--both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease--in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- ? and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.
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Association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in prepubertal caucasian children.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for bone growth. The independent association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in children is not yet known. We aim to examine the association between each of lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in 8- to 10-year-old prepubertal Caucasian children.
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Investigating Potential Associations between Cervical Procedures and HIV Acquisition.
ISRN Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Objective. Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in populations with a high prevalence of both infections. Procedures performed in the management of cervical dysplasia may facilitate HIV entry via mechanical injury. We sought to investigate the association between cervical procedures and incident HIV. Methods. Data on cervical cancer screening and procedures were collected in a cohort study evaluating the diaphragm for HIV prevention in 2040 women. In this secondary analysis, we investigated the association between cervical procedures and HIV acquisition. Results. Out of 2027 HIV-negative women at baseline, 199 underwent cervical procedures. Cumulative risk of HIV was 4.3% over 21 months of median followup (n = 88). Compared with women without cervical procedures, we observed no difference in HIV incidence after a cervical biopsy (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.39-2.16), endocervical curettage (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07-1.22), or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.30-3.30). Conclusions. In this cohort, cervical procedures were not associated with HIV incidence. This lack of association could be due to the small number of events.
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) and factors associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman in Senegal.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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Men who have sex with other men (MSM) are a vulnerable population in Africa that has been insufficiently explored. Given the high rate of bisexuality among MSM (73% in the past year), it is important to understand their risk-taking behaviors regarding both men and women.
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Validated liquid chromatographic-fluorescence method for the quantitation of gemifloxacin in human plasma.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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A highly selective, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated to quantify gemifloxacin in human plasma. The gemifloxacin and internal standard (ciprofloxacin) were extracted by ultrafiltration technique followed by injection into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C(18) column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (20:80, v/v) using isocratic elution (at flow rate 1 mL min(-1)). The analytes were detected at 269 and 393 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear range of 25-5000 ng mL(-1) for gemifloxacin in human plasma. The lower limit of detection was 10 ng mL(-1). The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and selectivity following FDA guidelines. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed 7.6% deviation of the nominal concentration. The recovery of gemifloxacin from plasma was greater than 97.0%. Stability of gemifloxacin in plasma was excellent with no evidence of degradation during sample processing (auto-sampler) and at least 3 months storage in a freezer at -70 °C. This validation method is applied for clinical study of the gemifloxacin in human volunteers.
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History of asthma or eczema and cancer risk among men: a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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Epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between a history of allergic diseases and different cancer types has been inconsistent.
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Predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use in chronic pain patients.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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We used Andersens behavioral model of healthcare utilization to assess the relationship between sociodemographic, physical and psychosocial factors, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among chronic pain patients. Three practitioner-based alternative therapies were considered: acupuncture, biofeedback/relaxation training, and manipulation services.
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Reduction in risk-taking behaviors among MSM in Senegal between 2004 and 2007 and prevalence of HIV and other STIs. ELIHoS Project, ANRS 12139.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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An epidemiological survey conducted in Senegal in 2004 among men having sex with men (MSM) revealed high HIV prevalence and a high rate of risky behaviors within this population. Consequently, several prevention campaigns targeting MSM were implemented. A second survey was carried out in 2007 to assess the impact of these measures. This paper aims to examine trends in HIV and STI prevalence and in sexual behaviors between 2004 and 2007. The two surveys were conducted in four urban sites among 440 and 501 MSM--recruited using the snowball sampling method--in 2004 and 2007, respectively. A similar methodology was applied for both surveys. This consisted of a closed-ended questionnaire concerning socio-demographic, behavioral, and biomedical information plus a clinical examination including urine and blood tests to detect STIs and HIV infection. Between 2004 and 2007, the frequency of different sexual practices reported by MSM remained stable, but condom use for each type of sexual practice rose. The percentage of men who reported consistent condom use during previous-month anal sex has increased by about 35% (p<0.01). The percentage of men who reported consistent condom use during previous-month non-commercial sex with women has increased by 14% (p<0.01). HIV prevalence remained stable from 22.4% [95% CI: 18.6-26.8] in 2004 to 21.8% [95% CI: 18.3-25.7] in 2007 (adjusted OR = 1.05, p=0.8). Gonorrhea prevalence decreased from 5.5% [95% CI: 3.6-8.3] in 2004 to 2.6% [95% CI: 1.5-4.5] in 2007 (adjusted OR=0.5, p=0.07). The prevention campaigns, STI and HIV care and support programs conducted in Senegal among MSM have been followed by a reduction of risk-taking behaviors and STI prevalence among this population. Specific targeting of this group within HIV/STI prevention programs seems to be effective in decreasing sexual infections.
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Essential surgery at the district hospital: a retrospective descriptive analysis in three African countries.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for critical conditions for rural populations. This study investigated the scope of surgery conducted at district hospitals in three sub-Saharan African countries.
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Human resource and funding constraints for essential surgery in district hospitals in Africa: a retrospective cross-sectional survey.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study described the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries.
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Hypermethylation of the human proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) minimal transcriptional regulatory region in an antifolate-resistant HeLa cell line.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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This laboratory recently identified a novel proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) that mediates intestinal folate absorption and transport of folates into the central nervous system. The present study focuses on the definition of the minimum transcriptional regulatory region of this gene in HeLa cells and the mechanism(s) underlying the loss of PCFT expression in the methotrexate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cell line. The PCFT transcriptional regulatory controls were localized between -42 and +96 bases from the transcriptional start site using a luciferase-reporter gene system. The promoter is a G + C rich region of 139 nucleotides contained in a CpG island. HeLa R1-11 cells have no mutations in the PCFT open reading frame and its promoter; the transcription/translation machinery is intact because transient transfections in HeLa R1-11 and wild-type HeLa cells produced similar luciferase activities. Hypermethylation at CpG sites within the minimal transcriptional regulatory region was shown in HeLa R1-11 cells as compared with the parental PCFT-competent HeLa cells, using bisulfite conversion and sequence analysis. Treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in a substantial restoration of transport and PCFT mRNA expression and small but significant decreases in methylation in the promoter region. In vitro methylation of the transfected reporter plasmid inhibited luciferase gene expression. Cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated a loss of half the PCFT gene copies in HeLa R1-11 as compared with PCFT-competent HeLa cells. Taken together, promoter silencing through methylation and gene copy loss accounted for the loss of PCFT activity in antifolate-resistant HeLa R1-11 cells.
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Sleep problems in a racially diverse chronic pain population.
Clin J Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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This study describes and compares sleep disturbances in chronic pain patients while assessing the role of age, race, gender, and psychological health on sleep.
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Adiposity and gingival crevicular fluid tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in children.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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To investigate whether adiposity is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in children. We also examined whether this relationship is mediated through plasma fasting insulin.
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Performance of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system v2.0 on HIV-1 strains circulating in Senegal.
J. Virol. Methods
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The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 on HIV-1 non-B strains identified in Senegalese patients. The study involved 150 patients, and genotyping was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 or an in-house method developed by the French National Agency on AIDS Research AC11 when the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 failed. The sequences were edited to assess the performance of sequencing primers at their presumed binding regions. The Polymorphism was studied in the regions between the sequences of Senegalese patients and the subtype B strains used as references. The phylogenetic analysis showed a predominance of CRF02_AG (88/150; 58.7%) and the circulation of 11 subtypes/CRFs, 16 unique recombinant forms (URFs) and one unclassified sample. The amplification and sequencing rates were 98% (147/150) and 96.6% (142/147), respectively. This study showed that only primer B exhibited 100% success, while the failure rate ranged from 1.4% to 71.4% for the other primers (D: 71.4%, A and H: 12.2%, F: 7.5%, G: 5.5% and C: 1.4%). These findings suggest the need for an alternative method or alternative primers for non-B strains that were not sequenced successfully using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0.
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Parity and institutional delivery in rural Tanzania: a multilevel analysis and policy implications.
Health Policy Plan
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We assess the extent to which the use of healthcare facilities for childbirth varies by parity, conditional on socio-economic, psychological and health characteristics. We also assess differences in the determinants of institutionalized delivery for first-time mothers and multiparous, and explore village-level variations in observed relationships.
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Cloning, characterization and differential expression of a Bowman-Birk inhibitor during progressive water deficit and subsequent recovery in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves.
J. Plant Physiol.
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Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) genes encode serine protease inhibitors well known for their anticarcinogenic properties and roles in plant defense against insects and pathogens. Here we investigated the expression of a BBI gene in response to water deficit, recovery and phytohormones. A full length cDNA encoding a novel BBI (AhBBI) was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) leaves. The deduced protein is a polypeptide of 11.5kDa containing a signal peptide of 20 amino acids which is missing from peanut seed full-length BBI. Sequence analysis showed that AhBBI presents the characteristic features of BBIs but its first inhibitory loop is unique among the Fabaceae species. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that in peanut leaves, AhBBI is upregulated by water deficit and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) but repressed by abscissic acid (ABA) after 24h of treatment. The transcripts accumulation patterns during water deficit differed between two cultivars studied in relation to their tolerance levels to drought. AhBBI transcripts accumulated earlier and stronger in the tolerant cultivar (cv. Fleur11) compared to the susceptible one (cv. 73-30) suggesting that BBI genes are involved in drought stress tolerance. Subsequent rehydration reversed the accumulation of AhBBI transcripts in both cultivars but at different levels. The overall role of BBI in abiotic stress tolerance and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed.
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Female genital cutting and HIV transmission: is there an association?
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
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Female Genital Cutting (FGC) refers to the practice of surgically removing all or part of the female external genitalia for non-medical purposes. It is a common practice in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, and to a lesser extent, Asia. Over 130 million women worldwide have undergone this procedure, and over 2 million women and girls are subject to it every year. Various complications have been described, including infection, hemorrhage, genitourinary and obstetric complications, as well as psychological sequelae. Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, a few reports have also described a potentially elevated risk of HIV transmission among women with FGC. In this report, we aim to review the evidence and identify unanswered questions and research gaps regarding a potential association between FGC and HIV transmission.
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High rate of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1-infected Senegalese children in virological failure on first-line treatment according to the World Health Organization guidelines.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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The rates of virological failure (VF) and HIV-1 drug resistance were evaluated in a cross-sectional study in HIV-1-infected children living in Dakar, and taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) according to WHO recommendations. The plasma HIV-1 RNA load was measured using the Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay. The full-length protease gene and partial reverse transcriptase gene were sequenced, and resistance mutations were assessed by reference to the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database. Of 125 included children (median age, 7 years) taking first-line ART for a median duration of 20 months, 82 (66%) showed detectable HIV-1 RNA load, and 70 (56%) met the 2010 revised WHO criteria of VF (defined as plasma HIV-1 RNA load ?3.7 log(10) copies/ml). Drug resistance results were available for 52 children with plasma HIV-1 RNA load ?3.0 log(10) copies/ml, and viruses carrying resistance mutations were found in 48 (92%) children. Among these 48, mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) were found in 42 (88%) and 47 (99%) children, respectively. The NRTI-resistant viruses harbored the M184V/I (95%), Q151M (2%), and thymidine-analogue mutations (40%), and the NNRTI-resistant viruses harbored the K103N (34%), Y181C (32%), G190A (23%), and K101E (21%) mutations. A high rate (56%) of VF was demonstrated in Senegalese children after 20 months of first-line ART and therapeutic failure was assessed by the presence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in 9 out of 10 children in VF. These findings point out the difficulties of optimizing ART in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, and the crucial need of laboratory monitoring reinforcement.
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An ABC transporter and an outer membrane lipoprotein participate in posttranslational activation of type VI secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Environ. Microbiol.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of injecting protein toxins into other bacterial cells through one of its three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). The activity of this T6SS is tightly regulated on the posttranslational level by phosphorylation-dependent and -independent pathways. The phosphorylation-dependent pathway consists of a Threonine kinase/phosphatase pair (PpkA/PppA) that acts on a forkhead domain-containing protein, Fha1, and a periplasmic protein, TagR, that positively regulates PpkA. In the present work, we biochemically and functionally characterize three additional proteins of the phosphorylation-dependent regulatory cascade that controls T6S activation: TagT, TagS and TagQ. We show that similar to TagR, these proteins act upstream of the PpkA/PppA checkpoint and influence phosphorylation of Fha1 and, apparatus assembly and effector export. Localization studies demonstrate that TagQ is an outer membrane lipoprotein and TagR is associated with the outer membrane. Consistent with their homology to lipoprotein outer membrane localization (Lol) components, TagT and TagS form a stable inner membrane complex with ATPase activity. However, we find that outer membrane association of T6SS lipoproteins TagQ and TssJ1, and TagR, is unaltered in a ?tagTS background. Notably, we found that TagQ is indispensible for anchoring of TagR to the outer membrane fraction. As T6S-dependent fitness of P. aeruginosa requires TagT, S, R and Q, we conclude that these proteins likely participate in a trans-membrane signalling pathway that promotes H1-T6SS activity under optimal environmental conditions.
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Multiparametric approach for assessing environmental quality variations in West African aquatic ecosystems using the black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) as a sentinel species.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
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The study highlights the potential of the black-chinned tilapia to be used as a sentinel to assess environmental contaminants based on the use of a set of biomarkers. The usefulness of fish species as sentinels for assessing aquatic environment contamination was tested using a set of biomarkers in Senegalese environments characterized by multi-pollution sources. The black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) was selected as a sentinel because of its abundance, wide distribution in all coastal aquatic ecosystems and physiological properties. The potential influence of confounding factors such as salinity on biomarker in the tilapia has been examined. Individuals were sampled during two seasons (dry and wet) in eight sites characterized by various degrees of anthropogenic contamination and different salinities (from 0 to 102 psu). Biomarkers-including growth rate (GR), condition factor (CF), biotransformation enzymes such as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-were measured. Chemical contaminant [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)] levels showed different sources of contamination with relatively high concentrations of PAHs in the Hann Bay and Foundiougne locations. The most sensitive biomarker present in different sites according to the principal component analysis is EROD. Few variations of the AChE activity and TBARS levels were found. No clear relationship was found between biomarker responses and salinity, but GR and CF were lower in hypersaline conditions. Tilapia is responsive to environmental contaminants such as PAHs, OCPs and PCBs. The S. melanotheron multiparametric approach showed a better discrimination of sites.
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New Success With Microbicides and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Is Female-Controlled Prevention the Answer to the HIV Epidemic?
Rev Obstet Gynecol
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Women who cannot negotiate condom use with their partners, often due to socioeconomic factors and sexual abuse, have no means of preventing themselves from acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is a need to develop HIV-preventive methods initiated and controlled by women. Microbicides and other pre-exposure prophylaxis may help fill that need. Although two decades of research on broad-spectrum microbicides have generally been disappointing, recent trials with HIV-specific agents have yielded promising initial results. A new era of clinical research involves novel biochemical prevention methods, including HIV-specific vaginal microbicides and oral antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis; PrEP) that may help provide more control for women.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.