JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Phase I, Dose-Escalation Study of the Multi-Targeted Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Golvatinib, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and Ron transduce signals regulating cell migration and matrix invasion. This phase I dose-escalation trial tested golvatinib, a highly potent, small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor of c-Met and multiple members of the Eph receptor family plus c-Kit and Ron. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid tumors received golvatinib orally, once daily, continuously. Using a "3+3" design, dosing started at 100 mg once daily, escalating to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) defined by dose-limiting toxicities. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and preliminary antitumor activity was assessed during dose escalation and in a MTD expansion cohort. Results: Thirty-four patients were treated at 6 dose levels. The MTD was determined as 400 mg once daily. Three dose-limiting toxicities were observed: grade 3 increased gamma glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase (200 mg), repeated grade 2 fatigue, and grade 3 fatigue (450 mg). Frequent treatment-related adverse events (with incidence >10%) included diarrhea (58.8%), nausea (50%), vomiting (44.1%), fatigue (41.2%), decreased appetite (32.4%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (32.4%), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (20.6%), dry skin (11.8%), and dysgeusia (11.8%). Best overall response was stable disease (median duration 85 days, range 85-237). Pharmacokinetics demonstrated high variability, although maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve increased with dose. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, VEGFR2, c-Met, and angiopoietin-2 levels increased post-dose. Post-treatment decrease in either p-c-Met or p-ERK was observed in 3 of 4 paired biopsies at MTD. Conclusions: Golvatinib at the MTD of 400 mg once daily was well tolerated with pharmacodynamic evidence of c-Met target modulation.
Related JoVE Video
Neuropathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis in a primate model.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity for which there is no treatment. In addition to direct viral cytopathology, the inflammatory response is postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis. Our goal was to determine the contribution of bystander effects and inflammatory mediators to neuronal cell death.
Related JoVE Video
West Nile virus documented in Indonesia from acute febrile illness specimens.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the presence of West Nile virus in a cryopreserved, dengue-negative serum specimen collected from an acute fever case on Java in 2004-2005. The strain belongs to genotype lineage 2, which has recently been implicated in human outbreaks in Europe.
Related JoVE Video
Field evaluation of HRP2 and pan pLDH-based immunochromatographic assay in therapeutic monitoring of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Myanmar.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are used for diagnostic purpose in malaria-endemic areas where reliable microscopy is not available. Persistence of the antigenaemia causes over-diagnosis and may limit the usefulness of the RDT in monitoring treatment. In this study, the usefulness of histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) and pan-specific or species-specific Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in treatment monitoring of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was carried out in an endemic setting in Myanmar. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal, single-arm, cohort study was done by microscopy to confirm Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected cases. After direct treatment with an artemether-lumefantrine combination, patients were followed up on day 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and any other day of recurrent fever. Blood film examination and RDT were carried out on day 0 and all follow-up days. RESULTS: Out of 77 recruited falciparum cases, 63 became adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) cases, and 60.3% of them were still positive for HRP2 up to day 28. Eleven out of 12 treatment failure cases (91.6%) were detected by pan pLDH. The mean duration required to become negative of HRP2 was 20 days (SD +/- 6.03) and that of pan pLDH was six days with or without gametocytes and 3.7 days without gametocytes. CONCLUSION: Although treatment monitoring cannot be performed by HRP2, it can be assessed by pan pLDH-based assay after day 3 if a gametocidal drug has been administered and after day 7 if the presence of gametocytes was not excluded. The pan pLDH-based assay was a suitable test to monitor the treatment response of uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients.
Related JoVE Video
Mapping and pyramiding of two major genes for resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [Stål]) in the rice cultivar ADR52.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most serious and destructive pests of rice, and can be found throughout the rice-growing areas of Asia. To date, more than 24 major BPH-resistance genes have been reported in several Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivars and wild relatives. Here, we report the genetic basis of the high level of BPH resistance derived from an Indian rice cultivar, ADR52, which was previously identified as resistant to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera [Horváth]). An F(2) population derived from a cross between ADR52 and a susceptible cultivar, Taichung 65 (T65), was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Antibiosis testing showed that multiple loci controlled the high level of BPH resistance in this F(2) population. Further linkage analysis using backcross populations resulted in the identification of BPH-resistance (antibiosis) gene loci from ADR52. BPH25 co-segregated with marker S00310 on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 6, and BPH26 co-segregated with marker RM5479 on the long arm of chromosome 12. To characterize the virulence of the most recently migrated BPH strain in Japan, preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs) and a preliminary pyramided line (pre-PYL) carrying BPH25 and BPH26 were evaluated. Although both pre-NILs were susceptible to the virulent BPH strain, the pre-PYL exhibited a high level of resistance. The pyramiding of resistance genes is therefore likely to be effective for increasing the durability of resistance against the new virulent BPH strain in Japan.
Related JoVE Video
Biochemical and enzymatic study of rice BADH wild-type and mutants: an insight into fragrance in rice.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) is believed to be involved in the accumulation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), one of the major aromatic compounds in fragrant rice. The enzyme can oxidize ?-aminoaldehydes to the corresponding ?-amino acids. This study was carried out to investigate the function of wild-type BADHs and four BADH2 mutants: BADH2_Y420, containing a Y420 insertion similar to BADH2.8 in Myanmar fragrance rice, BADH2_C294A, BADH2_E260A and BADH2_N162A, consisting of a single catalytic-residue mutation. Our results showed that the BADH2_Y420 mutant exhibited less catalytic efficiency towards ?-aminobutyraldehyde but greater efficiency towards betaine aldehyde than wild-type. We hypothesized that this point mutation may account for the accumulation of ?-aminobutyraldehyde/?(1)-pyrroline prior to conversion to 2AP, generating fragrance in Myanmar rice. In addition, the three catalytic-residue mutants confirmed that residues C294, E260 and N162 were involved in the catalytic activity of BADH2 similar to those of other BADHs.
Related JoVE Video
Serological response to Bartonella species in febrile patients from Nepal.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Bartonella-associated illnesses are spread world-wide and involve a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms in humans. Several Bartonella species have been shown to be responsible for cases of febrile illnesses. Little information exists on distribution of Bartonella species and their role in human diseases in Nepal. Our preliminary study, a retrospective serological survey of archived specimens, suggests that Bartonella antibodies are prevalent among febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.
Related JoVE Video
The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The programs ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia.
Related JoVE Video
Department of Defense influenza and other respiratory disease surveillance during the 2009 pandemic.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Centers Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supports and oversees surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, including respiratory diseases, of importance to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). AFHSC-GEIS accomplishes this mission by providing funding and oversight to a global network of partners for respiratory disease surveillance. This report details the systems surveillance activities during 2009, with a focus on efforts in responding to the novel H1N1 Influenza A (A/H1N1) pandemic and contributions to global public health. Active surveillance networks established by AFHSC-GEIS partners resulted in the initial detection of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the U.S. and several other countries, and viruses isolated from these activities were used as seed strains for the 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine. Partners also provided diagnostic laboratory training and capacity building to host nations to assist with the novel A/H1N1 pandemic global response, adapted a Food and Drug Administration-approved assay for use on a ruggedized polymerase chain reaction platform for diagnosing novel A/H1N1 in remote settings, and provided estimates of seasonal vaccine effectiveness against novel A/H1N1 illness. Regular reporting of the systems worldwide surveillance findings to the global public health community enabled leaders to make informed decisions on disease mitigation measures and controls for the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. AFHSC-GEISs support of a global network contributes to DoDs force health protection, while supporting global public health.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella species detected in different tissues of small mammals in Nepal.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bartonellae were detected in a total of 152 (23.7%) of 642 tissues from 108 (48.4%) of 223 small mammals trapped in several urban areas of Nepal. Based on rpoB and gltA sequence analyses, genotypes belonging to seven known Bartonella species and five genotypes not belonging to previously known species were identified in these animals.
Related JoVE Video
Improved detection of Bartonella DNA in mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors by real-time PCR using the NADH dehydrogenase gamma subunit (nuoG).
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used a whole-genome scanning technique to identify the NADH dehydrogenase gamma subunit (nuoG) primer set that is sensitive and specific enough to detect a diverse number of Bartonella species in a wide range of environmental samples yet maintains minimal cross-reactivity to mammalian host and arthropod vector organisms.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis E seroprevalence and seroconversion among US military service members deployed to Afghanistan.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been recognized as a threat to military forces since its discovery. Although HEV seroprevalence in Afghanistan is not known, HEV infection is thought to be highly endemic in that country. This study determined the incidence of HEV seroconversion among United States (US) service members who were deployed to Afghanistan, as well as the prevalence of antibodies to HEV prior to the deployment.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence of leptospirosis in a select population in Nepal.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The geographic distribution of leptospirosis is widespread but no national surveillance program exists in Nepal to establish the incidence of leptospirosis or the disease burden. This study reports the incidence of symptomatic leptospirosis in military personnel participating in an efficacy study of a hepatitis E virus vaccine in Nepal. Among the 1566 study volunteers who completed follow-up, we evaluated 271 illnesses over 2.2 years for the presence of leptospira IgM antibodies by ELISA. Positive ELISA results were confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test. The annual incidence of disease was between 3.5 and 6.1 cases/1000. The prevalence of confirmed leptospirosis was 9% among hepatitis cases and 8% among febrile cases. The most reactive serovars were Bratislava, Autumnalis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Sejroe. Leptospirosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses and icteric syndromes in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to establish the broader distribution and the spectrum of disease in Nepal.
Related JoVE Video
Practical metabolomics in drug discovery.
Expert Opin Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Importance of the field: Metabolomics is increasingly becoming an important field in the pharmaceutical industry to support the discovery and development of therapeutic agents. It allows the comprehensive and simultaneous profiling of hundreds of discrete biologically important molecules, including amino acids, sugars, lipids and exogenous substances from biological fluids and tissues. Metabolomics is the omics field that most represents the interplay of internal biological regulation and external environmental influences on disease, thereby being of particular importance to disease mitigation and management. Areas covered in this review: Technological advances in the experimental work flow, analytical detection strategies and bioinformatics tools have enabled metabolomics studies to become increasingly comprehensive, robust and informative for the understanding of disease, drug action and the development of biomarkers. This review will focus on the practical aspects of metabolomics studies as they have been applied to the study of mammalian biological systems, specifically targeted to the steps of experimental design with regard to sample preparation, sample analysis and data analysis of both polar and non-polar metabolites. What the reader will gain: The reader will gain an overview of the field of metabolomics as it applies to drug development and the practical issues involved with experimental design. We will discuss the various methods of sample preparation and analysis as they apply to different classes of metabolites and highlight recent advances in the field that illustrate these methods. Take home message: The field of metabolomics is a rapidly expanding discipline that is being applied to various aspects of drug development. The large diversity of metabolites found in nature dictates that different methods be developed for the investigation of different classes of metabolites. As the field of metabolomics continues to mature, it is likely that it will play an increasingly important role in the characterization of disease and the future development of biomarkers to assess drug efficacy and safety.
Related JoVE Video
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid increases identification rate of phosphoproteomics in real biological samples.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a novel approach to enhance phosphopeptide identification in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based phosphoproteomics. After enrichment of phosphopeptides with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) microcolumns, samples were coinjected with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) into LC/MS. This procedure decreased the MS peak intensity of nonphosphorylated peptides, but not that of phosphopeptides, and as a result, the number of identified phosphopeptides was increased. EDTA appeared to have no effect on liquid chromatographic separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated peptides. Although the mechanism of the positive effect of EDTA on identification of phosphopeptides is unknown, and we have never observed metal ion adduct peaks in LC/MS spectra, coinjection of EDTA seemed to enhance phosphopeptide recovery from the LC/MS system. This simple technique was successfully applied to the identification of phosphopeptides in mouse brain (2938 phosphopeptides), human plasma (127 phosphopetides), and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (123 phosphopeptides). We also identified nonphosphopeptides in the same samples using a two-dimensional (2D) LC/MS-based shotgun approach. The results overall indicated that 20-25% of brain proteins were phosphorylated, while only 1-2% of proteins in plasma and CSF were phosphorylated. These ratios were almost constant throughout the range of protein expression levels. In addition, EDTA-enhanced phosphoproteomics could identify low-abundance proteins in the samples, because nonphosphoproteins corresponding to more than one-third of the identified phosphoproteins could not be identified by 2D-LC/MS. Finally, we were able to find that the newly developed approach was very effective for the phosphoproteome analysis in Alzheimer disease model mice brain.
Related JoVE Video
Etiology of enterically-transmitted hepatitis among foreigners in Nepal.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the etiology of hepatitis in travelers over a ten year period from January 1994 December 2003. Clinics catering to expatriates and tourists in endemic Nepal provided sera for diagnostic testing from persons with signs and symptoms compatible with clinical hepatitis and alanine transaminase levels 2 1/2 times greater than normal. Hepatitis E was determined with anti-HEV IgM, and HEV RT-PCR, and hepatitis A was determined using HAV-IgM. Thirty-seven cases of hepatitis A and 30 cases of hepatitis E were diagnosed during the study period. The frequency of hepatitis A cases decreased with the increasing use of hepatitis A vaccine while the frequency of hepatitis E cases remained stable. A hepatitis E vaccine would be of benefit for travelers to high to high risk areas.
Related JoVE Video
Polar anionic metabolome analysis by nano-LC/MS with a metal chelating agent.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a practical method for the comprehensive analysis of polar anionic metabolites in biological samples with the use of a nano-LC/MS system. A polyamine-bonded polymer-based apHera NH2 column, which is compatible with ammonium carbonate buffer, effectively retained anionic polar metabolites, such as organic acids, sulfates, and phosphates, but multiply phosphorylated or carboxylated compounds showed highly distorted peak shapes on chromatograms. We found that addition of a trace amount of the metal chelating reagent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the sample solution dramatically improved peak shapes of multiply charged anionic compounds, even though the mass spectra showed no trace of adduct ions in the absence of EDTA. The detection limits of typical polar anionic metabolites in the full-scan mode were from 0.19 to 2.81 pmol. After optimization of all the procedures from sample preparation to nano-LC/MS analysis, we applied our method to real biological samples: Hela cells, mouse brain, human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and human plasma. Our results indicated that phosphorylated metabolites were abundant in Hela cells and brain, while plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mostly contained organic acids. Phosphorylated compounds might not be secreted into CSF/plasma or might be unstable in CSF/plasma. Finally, the method was used to examine the mode of action of the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX), which inhibits purine de novo biosynthesis and thymidine biosynthesis. In addition of the expected changes of metabolite levels, we found that a previously unreported metabolite, probably a methylated uridine 5-triphosphate (UTP), was produced by MTX-treated Hela cells.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) for longitudinal evaluation of body composition changes with two dietary regimens.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have recently reported a validation study of a prototype low-field strength quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) instrument for measurement of human body composition (EchoMRI-AH). QMR was very precise, but underreported fat mass (FM) by 2-4 kg when compared to a 4-compartment (4C) model in this cross-sectional study. Here, we report the performance of an updated instrument in two longitudinal studies where FM was decreasing. Healthy obese volunteers were given a modest energy deficit diet for 8 weeks (study A) and obese patients with heart failure and/or at high cardiovascular risk were prescribed a low energy liquid diet for 6 weeks (study B). FM was measured at the start and end of these periods by QMR, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 4C. A higher proportion of the weight lost came from fat in study A compared with study B, where loss of total body water (TBW) played a greater part. The intraclass correlation between QMR and 4C estimates of FM loss (DeltaFat) was 0.95, but 20 of 22 estimates of DeltaFat by QMR were lower than the corresponding estimate by the 4C model. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that estimates of FM loss by QMR were ~1.0 and 0.7 kg lower than those obtained with 4C (P = 0.0008) and DXA (P = 0.049), respectively. Measurement precision remained high. QMR measurement should prove valuable for quantifying modest changes of FM in small trials.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatitis antibody profile of Royal Thai Army nursing students.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on a viral hepatitis serosurvey done on 381 nursing students in Bangkok; 360 (94%) were female. The mean age was 20 (+/-3.6) years (range 16-41 years); 143, 92, 86 and 59 students came from Thailands Central, North, Northeast and South provinces, respectively. The overall prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C and E antibody in the students was 8.9%, 10.8%, 0.5% and 11.5%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence to hepatitis A was observed in cadets from the southern region of Thailand. Seroprevalence rates to hepatitis A and B were less than in other reported studies in Thailand.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative profiling of polar cationic metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid by reversed-phase nanoliquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reversed-phase (RP) nanoliquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for proteome analysis, but hydrophilic metabolites are poorly retained on RP columns. We describe here the development and application of an efficient, robust, and quantitative nano-LC/MS method for cationic metabolome analysis in the positive ionization mode without any derivatization of analytes. Various stationary phases for nano-LC, coating of the internal wall of the capillary column, and various mobile phases were evaluated in terms of separation and peak shapes for 33 hydrophilic metabolites, including nonderivatized amino acids. Polar cationic compounds were strongly bound to mixed-functional RP with cation exchange mode resin, and the best separation was obtained with hydrophilic internal wall coating and a two-step trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) gradient in methanol as the mobile phase. Simple, but optimized, sample processing and the use of a high content of methanol allowed robust nano-LC/MS analysis. Our developed method was applied for biomarker discovery in Alzheimers disease (AD). Several hundred peaks were detected from 10 microL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In a principal component analysis (PCA) plot using peak intensities without normalization, peak separation depended on the experimental date, not disease state. Therefore, constant amounts of two stable isotope-labeled amino acids, Val and Lys, were added as internal standards (ISs) to each sample before processing. These ISs were eluted in different gradient slopes in the two-step gradient, and the normalized peak ratios using the corresponding ISs gave a unique group of PCA scores which could distinguish AD CSF samples from age-matched control CSF samples.
Related JoVE Video
A PCR-based marker for a locus conferring the aroma in Myanmar rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Theor. Appl. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aromatic rice is an important commodity for international trade, which has encouraged the interest of rice breeders to identify the genetic control of rice aroma. The recessive Os2AP gene, which is located on chromosome 8, has been reported to be associated with rice aroma. The 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is an aromatic allele that is present in most aromatic accessions, including the most popular aromatic rice varieties, Jasmine and Basmati. However, other mutations associated with aroma have been detected, but the other mutations are less frequent. In this study, we report an aromatic allele, a 3-bp insertion in exon 13 of Os2AP, as a major allele found in aromatic rice varieties from Myanmar. The insertion is in frame and causes an additional tyrosine (Y) in the amino acid sequence. However, the mutation does not affect the expression of the Os2AP gene. A functional marker for detecting this allele was developed and tested in an aroma-segregating F(2) population. The aroma phenotypes and genotypes showed perfect co-segregation of this population. The marker was also used for screening a collection of aromatic rice varieties collected from different geographical sites of Myanmar. Twice as many aromatic Myanmar rice varieties containing the 3-bp insertion allele were found as the varieties containing the 8-bp deletion allele, which suggested that the 3-bp insertion allele originated in regions of Myanmar.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.