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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The contributions of arousal and self-focused attention to avoidance in social anxiety.
Anxiety Stress Coping
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Background: Socially anxious individuals are theorized to avoid social cues and engage in safety behaviors to prevent negative evaluation, which prevents disconfirmation of social fears. Cognitive models propose that this avoidance is driven by (1) self-focused attention (SFA) and (2) physiological arousal. Design: To examine these proposed mechanisms, we compared high socially anxious (HSA; n =29) and low socially anxious (LSA; n = 28) participants on a view-time task involving faces. Method: Participants engaged in a task in which they viewed socially threatening (i.e., disgust, anger) and nonthreatening (i.e., happy, neutral) faces. Results: Results revealed that HSA participants endorsed greater SFA during the view-time task and spent less time viewing angry, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions relative to LSA participants. Regression analyses revealed that arousal, as indexed by salivary ?-amylase, was a unique predictor of increased face-viewing time among HSA participants. In contrast, arousal predicted decreased face-viewing time among LSA participants. Conclusions: Findings underscore the need for further investigation of avoidance mechanisms in social anxiety.
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Reduced amygdala and ventral striatal activity to happy faces in PTSD is associated with emotional numbing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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There has been a growing recognition of the importance of reward processing in PTSD, yet little is known of the underlying neural networks. This study tested the predictions that (1) individuals with PTSD would display reduced responses to happy facial expressions in ventral striatal reward networks, and (2) that this reduction would be associated with emotional numbing symptoms. 23 treatment-seeking patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were recruited from the treatment clinic at the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, Westmead Hospital, and 20 trauma-exposed controls were recruited from a community sample. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during the presentation of happy and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. PTSD participants rated happy facial expression as less intense than trauma-exposed controls. Relative to controls, PTSD participants revealed lower activation to happy (-neutral) faces in ventral striatum and and a trend for reduced activation in left amygdala. A significant negative correlation was found between emotional numbing symptoms in PTSD and right ventral striatal regions after controlling for depression, anxiety and PTSD severity. This study provides initial evidence that individuals with PTSD have lower reactivity to happy facial expressions, and that lower activation in ventral striatal-limbic reward networks may be associated with symptoms of emotional numbing.
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The impact of 5-HTTLPR on acute serotonin transporter blockade by escitalopram on emotion processing: Preliminary findings from a randomised, crossover fMRI study.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Benefit from antidepressant treatment such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may depend on individual differences in acute effects on neural emotion processing. The short ('S') allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with both negative emotion processing biases and poorer treatment outcomes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the impact of the SSRI escitalopram during processing of positive and negative emotional images, as well as neutral stimuli.
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Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to antidepressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI.
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Interaction of noradrenaline and cortisol predicts negative intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Neurobiol Learn Mem
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Recent evidence suggests that an interaction of noradrenaline (NE) and cortisol (CORT) during encoding leads to greater consolidation of emotional memories. Convergent models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest the release of CORT and NE lead to greater intrusive memories in PTSD. This study examined the effect of NE and CORT during encoding on recall and intrusive memories in PTSD. Fifty-eight participants (18 participants with PTSD, 20 trauma-exposed controls, and 20 non-trauma exposed controls) provided saliva samples of NE (indexed by salivary alpha amylase; sAA) and CORT at (a) baseline and (b) after viewing negative emotional stimuli. Delayed memory recall and number of intrusive memories of negative, neutral and positive stimuli were recorded two days after this initial testing session. The PTSD group had greater NE levels to negative stimuli and reported greater numbers of intrusive memories of negative stimuli than controls. Regression analyses revealed that the interaction of CORT and NE significantly predicted negative intrusive memories in the PTSD group. The trauma-exposed group reported significantly greater recall of negative images compared to controls, but did not differ significantly from the PTSD group. The PTSD group reported greater levels of suppression of negative images during encoding compared to the other groups. Our results confirm that the interaction of NE and CORT significantly predicts greater negative intrusive memories, but this occurs specifically in the PTSD group. This suggests that a level of heightened arousal is required for the relationship between stress hormones and emotional memory to manifest in PTSD.
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The role of estrogen in intrusive memories.
Neurobiol Learn Mem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Intrusive memories are highly vivid, emotional and involuntary recollections which cause significant distress across psychological disorders including posttraumatic disorder (PTSD). Recent evidence has potentially extended our understanding of the development of intrusive memories by identifying biological factors which significantly impact on memories for emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigated the role of stress on the development of intrusions for negative and neutral images, and indexed the potential contributions of sex (estrogen and progesterone) and stress (noradrenaline and cortisol) hormones. Whilst viewing the images, half the participants underwent a cold pressor stress (CPS) procedure to induce stress while the control participants immersed their hands in warm water. Saliva samples were collected to index estrogen, progesterone and noradrenergic and cortisol response. Participants (55 university students, 26 men, 29 women) viewed a series of negatively arousing and neutral images. Participants completed recall and intrusions measures 2days later. Negative images resulted in greater recall and more intrusions than neutral images. In the cold water condition females recalled fewer neutral memories than males. Cortisol increase predicted decreased recall of negative memories in males, and estrogen predicted increased intrusions of negative images in women. These findings are consistent with evidence that circulating levels of ovarian hormones influence memory for emotionally arousing events, and provides the first evidence of the influence of sex hormones on intrusive memories. These results provide one possible explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women.
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Inhibitory neural activity predicts response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Despite cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) being an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), many patients do not respond to CBT. Understanding the neural bases of treatment response may inform treatment refinement, thereby improving treatment response rates. Adequate working memory function is proposed to enable engagement in CBT.
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The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism predicts response to exposure therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The most effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is exposure therapy, which aims to facilitate extinction of conditioned fear. Recent evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) facilitates extinction learning. This study assessed whether the Met-66 allele of BDNF, which results in lower activity-dependent secretion, predicts poor response to exposure therapy in PTSD.
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Sex differences and emotion regulation: an event-related potential study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Difficulties in emotion regulation have been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying anxiety and mood disorders. It is possible that sex differences in emotion regulation may contribute towards the heightened female prevalence for these disorders. Previous fMRI studies of sex differences in emotion regulation have shown mixed results, possibly due to difficulties in discriminating the component processes of early emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine sex differences in N1 and N2 components (reflecting early emotional reactivity) and P3 and LPP components (reflecting emotion regulation). N1, N2, P3, and LPP were recorded from 20 men and 23 women who were instructed to "increase," "decrease," and "maintain" their emotional response during passive viewing of negative images. Results indicated that women had significantly greater N1 and N2 amplitudes (reflecting early emotional reactivity) to negative stimuli than men, supporting a female negativity bias. LPP amplitudes increased to the "increase" instruction, and women displayed greater LPP amplitudes than men to the "increase" instruction. There were no differences to the "decrease" instruction in women or men. These findings confirm predictions of the female negativity bias hypothesis and suggest that women have greater up-regulation of emotional responses to negative stimuli. This finding is highly significant in light of the female vulnerability for developing anxiety disorders.
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Dysregulation in cortical reactivity to emotional faces in PTSD patients with high dissociation symptoms.
Eur J Psychotraumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms.
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The roles of noradrenergic and glucocorticoid activation in the development of intrusive memories.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Intrusive memories are a common feature of many psychological disorders. Recent evidence has potentially extended cognitive models of intrusions by identifying the role of biological markers of arousal at the time of consolidation in subsequent memory for emotional events. This study investigated the role of arousal during consolidation in the development of intrusive memories. Seventy-eight university students (37 men and 41 women) viewed 20 negative and 20 neutral images. Half the participants then underwent a cold pressor test (High Stress), immersing their hand in ice water, while the remaining participants immersed their hand in warm water (Low Stress). Samples of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were collected from participants at baseline and following the stressor challenge. Participants completed a delayed free recall test and intrusion questionnaires two days later. Participants in the High Stress condition reported more intrusions of negative images than participants in the Low Stress condition. An interaction variable in a linear regression of increased noradrenergic and cortisol values predicted intrusive memories of emotional stimuli for men but not women. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of the combined effects of noradrenaline and corticoid responses to stress on emotional memories, and also with increasing evidence of gender differences in how stress hormones influence formation of emotional memories. These findings point to possible mechanisms by which development of intrusions may be prevented after consolidation of traumatic experiences.
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Eye tracking and physiological reactivity to threatening stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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This study tested the vigilance-avoidance model of anxiety and attention bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study used eye tracking technology to record initial fixations, pupil dilation, fixation time and concurrent skin conductance response to examine initial orienting towards threat stimuli and subsequent fixations. Twenty-one traumatized participants (11 diagnosed with PTSD and 10 trauma-exposed participants without PTSD) viewed 32 stimuli (with four words in each quadrant). Sixteen trials contained a trauma-relevant word in one quadrant and 16 had four neutral words. PTSD patients reported significantly greater number of initial fixations to trauma words, and a greater number of skin conductance responses to initial threat fixations. There were no significant differences in subsequent fixations to trauma words between groups. Although this study provides evidence of attentional bias towards threat that is accompanied by specific autonomic arousal, it does not indicate subsequent avoidance of threat stimuli in PTSD.
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The association between menstrual cycle and traumatic memories.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Women in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle have been shown to have stronger emotional memories than other women. We investigated the extent to which experiencing a traumatic event during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with stronger traumatic flashback memories.
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Neural responses to masked fear faces: sex differences and trauma exposure in posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Although women have a greater propensity than men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma, sex differences in neural activations to threat have received little investigation. This study tested the prediction that trauma would heighten activity in automatic fear-processing networks to a greater extent in women than in men. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded in 23 participants with PTSD (13 women, 10 men), 21 trauma-exposed controls (9 women, 12 men), and 42 non-trauma-exposed controls (22 women, 20 men) while they viewed masked facial expressions of fear. Exposure to trauma was associated with enhanced brainstem activity to fear in women, regardless of the presence of PTSD, but in men, it was associated only with the development of PTSD. Men with PTSD displayed greater hippocampal activity to fear than did women. Both men and women with PTSD showed enhanced amygdala activity to fear relative to controls. The authors conclude that greater brainstem activation to threat stimuli may contribute to the greater prevalence of PTSD in women, and greater hippocampal activation in men may subserve an enhanced capacity for contextualizing fear-related stimuli.
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Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysis.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Depression is associated with an increase in the likelihood of cardiac events; however, studies investigating the relationship between depression and heart rate variability (HRV) have generally focused on patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of the current report is to examine with meta-analysis the impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on HRV in depressed patients without CVD.
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Preliminary evidence of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene predicting poor response to cognitive behavior therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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This study was intended to assess the extent to which the low-expression alleles of the serotonin transporter gene promoter predict poor response to cognitive behavior therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
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Duration of posttraumatic stress disorder predicts hippocampal grey matter loss.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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To examine the impact of environmental stress on grey matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we investigated the relationship between duration of PTSD and grey matter volume of hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one participants with PTSD and 17 trauma-exposed controls, matched for age and sex and with no history of substance dependence, underwent a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and voxel-based morphometry was employed. After controlling for age, depression and whole-brain volume, analysis of covariance revealed significant reductions in hippocampus and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in PTSD, and there was a significant negative correlation between right hippocampal volume and PTSD duration. This pattern suggests that prolonged PTSD may have cumulative adverse effects on hippocampal volume, highlighting the potential role of genetic-environmental interactions.
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Anterior cingulate activity to salient stimuli is modulated by autonomic arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Reduced ventral anterior cingulate (vACC) activity to threat is thought to reflect an impairment in regulating arousal networks in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance response (SCR) recording were used to examine neural functioning when arousal networks are engaged. Eleven participants with PTSD and 11 age- and sex-matched non-traumatized controls performed an oddball task that required responding to salient, non-trauma-related auditory target tones embedded in lower frequency background tones. Averaged target-background analyses revealed significantly greater dorsal ACC, supramarginal gyrus, and hippocampal activity in PTSD relative to control participants.With-SCR target responses resulted in increased vACC activity in controls, and dorsal ACC activity in PTSD. PTSD participants had reduced vACC activity relative to controls to target tones when SCR responses were present. This reduction in vACC in PTSD relative to controls was not apparent in without-SCR responses. These findings suggest that a reduction in vACC in PTSD occurs specifically when arousal networks are engaged.
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Heterogeneity of non-conscious fear perception in posttraumatic stress disorder as a function of physiological arousal: an fMRI study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often characterised by an excessive fear response and hyperarousal, research has generally neglected other clinical characteristics including hypoarousal. Findings indicate that concurrent autonomic activity is associated with increased non-conscious processing of fear, highlighting that autonomic responsivity may be an important determinant in the degree of activation within the brainstem-amygdala-MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) network.
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The functional epistasis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on emotion processing: a preliminary study.
Brain Behav
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An epistatic interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms has been implicated in the structure of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and amygdala (AMY): key regions associated with emotion processing. However, a functional epistasis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on overt emotion processing has yet to be determined. Twenty-eight healthy, Caucasian female participants provided saliva samples for genotyping and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which an emotion processing protocol were presented. Confirming the validity of this protocol, we observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity consistent with fMRI meta-analyses on emotion processing. Region-of-interest analysis of the rACC and AMY revealed main effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met, and an interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met. The effect of the BDNF Met66 allele was dependent on 5-HTTLPR alleles, such that participants with S and Met alleles had the greatest rACC and AMY activation during the presentation of emotional images relative to other genetic groupings. Increased activity in these regions was interpreted as increased reactivity to emotional stimuli, suggesting that those with S and Met alleles are more reactive to emotional stimuli relative to other groups. Although limited by a small sample, this study contributes novel and preliminary findings relating to a functional epistasis of the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met genes in emotion processing and provides guidance on appropriate methods to determine genetic epistasis in fMRI.
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The impact of depression heterogeneity on cognitive control in major depressive disorder.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
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Depressed patients display a variety of deficits in neuropsychological function, and contradictory findings in the literature may be due to disorder heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of severity, subtype and symptoms on cognitive control.
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The impact of progesterone on memory consolidation of threatening images in women.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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Recent findings suggest that consolidation of emotional memories is influenced by menstrual phase in women. In contrast to other phases, in the mid-luteal phase when progesterone levels are elevated, cortisol levels are increased and correlated with emotional memory. This study examined the impact of progesterone on cortisol and memory consolidation of threatening stimuli under stressful conditions. Thirty women were recruited for the high progesterone group (in the mid-luteal phase) and 26 for the low progesterone group (in non-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle). Women were shown a series of 20 neutral or threatening images followed immediately by either a stressor (cold pressor task) or control condition. Participants returned two days later for a surprise free recall test of the images and salivary cortisol responses were monitored. High progesterone levels were associated with higher baseline and stress-evoked cortisol levels, and enhanced memory of negative images when stress was received. A positive correlation was found between stress-induced cortisol levels and memory recall of threatening images. These findings suggest that progesterone mediates cortisol responses to stress and subsequently predicts memory recall for emotionally arousing stimuli.
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Autonomic and cortical reactivity in acute and chronic posttraumatic stress.
Biol Psychol
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This study investigated attention (P300 amplitude) and orienting (skin conductance amplitude) to auditory tones in a standard oddball task in early trauma-exposed groups (Acute Stress Disorder: ASD) (n=12) or no ASD (n=13), compared to individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=17) and non-trauma-exposed controls (n=17). Individuals with ASD displayed significantly higher SCR and P3 amplitudes to target tones than individuals with PTSD, non-traumatized controls, and traumatized controls. These findings suggest that attention and orienting responses are greater to neutral, task-relevant target tones in ASD than PTSD and traumatized and non-traumatized controls.
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Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular risk.
PLoS ONE
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There is evidence that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate about whether this effect is caused by medication or the disorder per se. MDD is associated with a two to fourfold increase in the risk of cardiac mortality, and HRV is a robust predictor of cardiac mortality; determining a direct link between HRV and not only MDD, but common comorbid anxiety disorders, will point to psychiatric indicators for cardiovascular risk reduction.
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Gender differences in the maintenance of response to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Consult Clin Psychol
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To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
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Sex differences in emotional memory consolidation: the effect of stress-induced salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol.
Biol Psychol
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This study examined sex differences in the emotional memory consolidation, and the impact of stress-induced cortisol and salivary alpha amylase responses on emotional memory recall. Following baseline salivary measures, 39 healthy women and 41 men viewed 20 neutral and 20 negative arousing images, and then underwent either a cold pressor stress test or control condition, followed by further salivary measures. Participants returned two days later for a free recall test. The stress condition induced greater cortisol response, and negative images were better recalled than neutral. Whereas women displayed greater recall of negative images under stress than men, they recalled fewer negative images in the control condition. Stress-induced cortisol predicted recall of negative images in women, and neutral images in men. This suggests there is an enhanced consolidation of negative images under stress in women that may be a potential mechanism for the greater female prevalence for developing anxiety disorders.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.