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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor LY2090314 in rats, dogs, and humans: a case study in rapid clearance by extensive metabolism with low circulating metabolite exposure.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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LY2090314 (3-[9-fluoro-2-(piperidin-1-ylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[6,7,1-hi]indol-7-yl]-4-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) is an intravenous glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor in oncology trials. Drug disposition was characterized after intravenous infusion of [(14)C]LY2090314 to rats and dogs, and was related to available clinical data. LY2090314 exhibited high clearance (approximating hepatic blood flow) and a moderate volume of distribution (?1-2 l/kg) resulting in rapid elimination (half-life ?0.4, 0.7, and 1.8-3.4 hours in rats, dogs, and humans, respectively). Scaled clearance from liver microsomes accurately predicted perfusion-limited clearance across species. LY2090314 was cleared by extensive metabolism, and the numerous metabolites were rapidly excreted into feces via bile (69-97% of dose; 62-93% within 0-24 hours); urinary recovery of drug-related material was low (?3% of dose). Despite extensive metabolism, in rats and humans the parent compound was the sole identifiable drug-related moiety in plasma. Even in Mdr1a-, Bcrp-, and Mrp2-knockout rats, LY2090314 metabolites did not appear in circulation, and their urinary excretion was not enhanced, because the hypothesized impaired biliary excretion of metabolites in the absence of these canalicular transporters was not observed. Canine metabolite disposition was generally similar, with the notable exception of dog-unique LY2090314 glucuronide. This conjugate was formed in the dog liver and was preferentially excreted into the blood, where it accounted for the majority of circulating radioactivity at later times, and was predominantly recovered in urine (16% of dose). In conclusion, LY2090314 was rapidly cleared by extensive metabolism with negligible circulating metabolite exposures due to biliary excretion of metabolites into feces with no apparent intestinal reabsorption.
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A multicenter, inpatient, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of LY2140023 monohydrate in patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 1 or more dose levels of LY2140023 monohydrate, an oral prodrug of the potent metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 receptor agonist LY404039, given to patients with schizophrenia for 4 weeks would demonstrate significantly greater efficacy than placebo. The HBBI study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Male and female patients aged 18 to 65 years who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for schizophrenia were randomized in a 2:2:2:2:2:1 ratio to receive 5-, 20-, 40-, or 80-mg LY2140023 monohydrate twice daily, placebo twice daily, or placebo (am) and 15 mg of olanzapine (pm) daily. Efficacy was defined as the change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score assessed at 4 weeks. The primary analysis did not show that any of the 4 LY2140023 monohydrate doses were more efficacious than placebo as measured by the PANSS total score. Similarly, olanzapine did not significantly separate from placebo. A higher-than-anticipated treatment effect (14.6-point improvement) in the placebo group was observed on PANSS total score. LY2140023 monohydrate was generally well tolerated, although 4 patients reported the serious adverse event of convulsion. LY2140023 monohydrate-treated patients showed little change in dopamine-related adverse events and weight. The results of the HBBI study are considered to be inconclusive because LY2140023 monohydrate and the active control olanzapine did not separate from placebo in the treatment of patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. Additional efficacy, safety, and tolerability testing are needed.
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Effects of a novel mGlu?/? receptor agonist prodrug, LY2140023 monohydrate, on central monoamine turnover as determined in human and rat cerebrospinal fluid.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Accumulating evidence suggests that the primary symptoms of schizophrenia may be associated with altered central glutamate transmission. LY2140023 monohydrate is the methionine prodrug of the selective mGlu(2/3) receptor agonist LY404039 and is currently being assessed for the treatment of schizophrenia.
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N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 potentiator with potential anxiolytic/antidepressant properties: in vivo profiling suggests a link betw
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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The normalization of excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission through the activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors may have therapeutic potential in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety/depression and schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the pharmacological properties of N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a structurally novel, potent, and selective allosteric potentiator of human and rat mGlu2 receptors (EC(50) = 23 and 13 nM, respectively). THIIC produced anxiolytic-like efficacy in the rat stress-induced hyperthermia assay and the mouse stress-induced elevation of cerebellar cGMP and marble-burying assays. THIIC also produced robust activity in three assays that detect antidepressant-like activity, including the mouse forced-swim test, the rat differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s assay, and the rat dominant-submissive test, with a maximal response similar to that of imipramine. Effects of THIIC in the forced-swim test and marble burying were deleted in mGlu2 receptor null mice. Analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that THIIC had a sleep-promoting profile with increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) and decreased REM sleep. THIIC also decreased the dark phase increase in extracellular histamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreased levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator THIIC has robust activity in models used to predict anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy, substantiating, at least with this molecule, differentiation in the biological impact of mGlu2 potentiation versus mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonism. In addition, we provide evidence that sleep EEG and CSF t-MeHA might function as viable biomarker approaches to facilitate the translational development of THIIC and other mGlu2 potentiators.
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Desipramine, substrate for CYP2D6 activity: population pharmacokinetic model and design elements of drug-drug interaction trials.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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To develop a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the pharmacokinetics of desipramine in healthy subjects, after oral administration of a 50mg dose. Additional objectives were to develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic model for desipramine, which allowed simulation of CYP2D6-mediated inhibition, when using desipramine as a probe substrate, and to evaluate certain study design elements, such as duration of desipramine pharmacokinetic sampling, required sample size and optimal pharmacokinetic sampling schedule for intermediate, extensive and ultrarapid metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates.
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Large-scale ex vivo expansion and characterization of natural killer cells for clinical applications.
Cytotherapy
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Interest in natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy has resurged since new protocols for the purification and expansion of large numbers of clinical-grade cells have become available.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.