Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor LY2090314 in rats, dogs, and humans: a case study in rapid clearance by extensive metabolism with low circulating metabolite exposure.
LY2090314 (3-[9-fluoro-2-(piperidin-1-ylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[1,4]diazepino[6,7,1-hi]indol-7-yl]-4-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) is an intravenous glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor in oncology trials. Drug disposition was characterized after intravenous infusion of [(14)C]LY2090314 to rats and dogs, and was related to available clinical data. LY2090314 exhibited high clearance (approximating hepatic blood flow) and a moderate volume of distribution (?1-2 l/kg) resulting in rapid elimination (half-life ?0.4, 0.7, and 1.8-3.4 hours in rats, dogs, and humans, respectively). Scaled clearance from liver microsomes accurately predicted perfusion-limited clearance across species. LY2090314 was cleared by extensive metabolism, and the numerous metabolites were rapidly excreted into feces via bile (69-97% of dose; 62-93% within 0-24 hours); urinary recovery of drug-related material was low (?3% of dose). Despite extensive metabolism, in rats and humans the parent compound was the sole identifiable drug-related moiety in plasma. Even in Mdr1a-, Bcrp-, and Mrp2-knockout rats, LY2090314 metabolites did not appear in circulation, and their urinary excretion was not enhanced, because the hypothesized impaired biliary excretion of metabolites in the absence of these canalicular transporters was not observed. Canine metabolite disposition was generally similar, with the notable exception of dog-unique LY2090314 glucuronide. This conjugate was formed in the dog liver and was preferentially excreted into the blood, where it accounted for the majority of circulating radioactivity at later times, and was predominantly recovered in urine (16% of dose). In conclusion, LY2090314 was rapidly cleared by extensive metabolism with negligible circulating metabolite exposures due to biliary excretion of metabolites into feces with no apparent intestinal reabsorption.