We reinvestigated rearrangements occurring in region q13 of chromosome 11 aiming to: (i) describe heterogeneity of the observed structural alterations, (ii) estimate amplicon size and (iii) identify of oncogenes involved in laryngeal cancer progression as potential targets for therapy. The study included 17 cell lines derived from laryngeal cancers and 34 specimens from primary laryngeal tumors. The region 11q13 was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression microarray. Next, quantitative real time PCR was used for chosen genes to confirm results from aCGH and gene expression microarray. The observed pattern of aberrations allows to distinguish three ways, in which gain and amplification involving 11q13 region may occur: formation of a homogeneously staining region; breakpoints in/near 11q13, which lead to the three to sevenfold increase of the copy number of 11q13 region; the presence of additional copies of the whole chromosome 11. The minimal altered region of gain and/or amplification was limited to ~1.8 Mb (chr.11:69,395,184-71,209,568) and comprised mostly 11q13.3 band which contain 12 genes. Five, out of these genes (CCND1, ORAOV1, FADD, PPFIA1, CTTN) had higher expression levels in comparison to healthy controls. Apart from CCND1 gene, which has an established role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, CTTN, ORAOV1 and FADD genes appear to be oncogene-candidates in laryngeal cancers, while a function of PPFIA1 requires further studies.
Many classical tumor suppressor genes (TSG) were identified by delineation of bi-allelic losses called homozygous deletions. To identify systematically homozygous deletions in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to unravel novel putative tumor suppressor genes, we screened 10 LSCC cell lines using high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) and array based expression analysis. ArrayCGH identified altogether 113 regions harboring protein coding genes that showed strong reduction in copy number indicating a potential homozygous deletion. Out of the 113 candidate regions, 22 novel homozygous deletions that affected the coding sequences of 15 genes were confirmed by multiplexPCR. Three genes were homozygously lost in two cell lines: PCDH17/PCH68, PRR20, and PTPRD. For the 15 homozygously deleted genes, four showed statistically significant downregulation of expression in LSCC cell lines as compared with normal human laryngeal controls. These were ATG7 (1/10 cell line), ZMYND11 (BS69) (1/10 cell line), PCDH17/PCH68 (9/10 cell lines), and PTPRD (7/10 cell lines). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the downregulation of the candidate genes in 10 expression array-studied cell lines and an additional cohort of cell lines; statistical significant downregulation of PCDH17/PCH68 and PTPRD was observed. In line with this also Western blot analyses demonstrated a complete absence of the PCDH17 and PTPRD proteins. Thus, expression profiling confirmed recurrent alterations of two genes identified primarily by delineation of homozygous deletions. These were PCDH17/PCH68, the protocadherin gene, and the STAT3 inhibiting receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPRD. These genes are good candidates for novel TSG in LSCC.
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