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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Atherogenic phenotype remains in elderly diabetic patients.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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It is known that plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels tend to decrease with age. Thus, most elderly diabetic patients often show normal LDL-C levels. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine whether elderly diabetic patients show "the atherogenic phenotype" even if their LDL-C is not elevated.
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The Dual Role of Scavenger Receptor Class A in Development of Diabetes in Autoimmune NOD Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic ? cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I?C)) was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I?C). In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I?C) to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I?C) than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I?C) treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.
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Bleeding from the small intestine and aortic regurgitation in Noonan syndrome.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of melena. On admission physical examination revealed that he had typical features of Noonan syndrome (NS). Investigation via upper endoscopy with the single balloon demonstrated oozing from the small intestine. Bleeding sometimes occurs in patients with NS. We speculated that coagulation defects or vascular malformations might have been present at the first visit in this case. However, coagulation function was normal. By upper endoscopy with the single balloon we clearly revealed the angioectasia in the small intestine. This case documents the first association among NS, aortic regurgitation and angioectasia in the small intestine.
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Guidelines for non-medical care providers to manage the first steps of emergency triage of elderly evacuees.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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On 11 March 2011, a strong earthquake occurred off of Japans Pacific coast and hit northeastern Japan. The earthquake was followed by huge tsunamis, which destroyed many coastal cities. As a result, the Study Group on Guidelines for the First Steps and Emergency Triage to Manage Elderly Evacuees quickly established guidelines enabling non-medical care providers (e.g. volunteer, helpers, and family members taking care of elderly relatives), public health nurses, or certified social workers to rapidly detect illnesses in elderly evacuees, and 20?000 booklets were distributed to care providers in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. The aim of this publication is to reduce susceptibility to disaster-related illnesses (i.e. infectious diseases, exacerbation of underlying illnesses, and mental stress) and deaths in elderly evacuees.
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Predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving of the aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan.
Kobe J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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To identify predictive factors for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving among a group of aged patients with diabetes mellitus in Japan, retrospective chart review was performed in 288 diabetic subjects aged 65 years or older. Independent variables, based on the chart review, were age, sex, diagnosis, diabetic control and complications. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed to obtain information on the functional capacity and demographic variables, including physical and mental function, and socioeconomic status. 131 diabetic patients were considered as frail elderly and characterized for their higher age, longer duration of diabetes, higher frequency of insulin use, lower cognitive function, and lower QOL, in comparison with those of non-frail patients. All non-frail diabetic patients were independently treated at their homes, while 38 subjects out of 131 frail diabetic patients were hospitalized or institutionalized. Apparent clinical features of hospitalized/institutionalized patients were higher age, higher serum creatinine, and higher prevalence of stroke episodes, advanced cognitive decline and absence of key caregiver in the family members, in comparison with those of in-home frail diabetic patients. The predicted probabilities from the multivariate logistic regression analysis in predicting hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving were as follows: Log p/(1 - p) = -19.801x1 - 54.269x2 + 721.405; where x1 = cognitive function (score), x2 = social support (score). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a satisfactory discrimination for hospitalized and institutionalized care-giving in frail diabetic elderly with 92.9% of sensitivity and 91.4% of specificity, when the cutoff point of the model was set at 0.992. We concluded that cognitive decline and low social support are the predictive for hospital and institutional care-giving, and that demographic and mental information as well as diagnostic data should be analyzed to predict the hospitalization/institutionalization among frail diabetic elderly.
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Role of the mTOR complex 1 pathway in the in vivo maintenance of the intestinal mucosa by oral intake of amino acids.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Oral intake of nutrients is often compromised in elderly, multimorbid patients, but parenteral nutrition causes intestinal atrophy and impairs intestinal function. To uncover the molecular mechanisms by which amino acids are involved in intestinal atrophy and recovery, we studied whether the rapamycin-sensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is involved in this process.
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Effects of insulin and amyloid ?(1-42) oligomers on glucose incorporation and mitochondrial function in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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The molecular basis for impaired glucose metabolism in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) has not been fully clarified. We tested whether insulin and amyloid (A)?(1-42) oligomers would regulate glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis directly in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and evaluated possible interactions between insulin signaling and A?(1-42) oligomers.
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Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for diagnosis of asymptomatic giant cell arteritis in a patient with Alzheimers disease.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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It is often difficult to diagnose disease in elderly patients, in particular those with dementia, who do not present with typical symptoms. This report describes our experience of an elderly patient (an 83-year-old woman) who presented with a chief complaint of memory loss, showed a marked inflammatory response, and was diagnosed with large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) on the basis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings. She had no symptoms typical of GCA including jaw claudication, visual field defect and heavy headed feeling. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in a trend toward improvement in the inflammatory response and then she first recognized that she might have experienced slight dull headache before treatment of GCA. This was probably because this patient had large-vessel GCA, which produces a few symptoms in the head and neck, and because she had Alzheimers disease and could not accurately describe her symptoms. Our experience suggests the usefulness of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of GCA, particularly in elderly patients without typical symptoms.
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Increased brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is independently associated with white matter hyperintensities.
Neuroepidemiology
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a risk factor for stroke. Their etiology is considered to be cerebral microvascular abnormality. However, the association between WMHs and arteriosclerosis is not yet clear. The aim of this hospital-based cohort study was to identify the arteriosclerotic characteristics associated with WMHs.
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Acceleration of autoimmune diabetes in Rheb-congenic NOD mice with ?-cell-specific mTORC1 activation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The protein Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is a Ras-like small GTPase that activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes cell growth. We previously generated transgenic C57BL/6 mice overexpressing Rheb in ?-cells (B6(Rheb)), which exhibited increased ?-cell size and improved glucose tolerance with higher insulin secretion than wild type C57BL/6 mice. The mice also showed resistance to obesity-induced hyperglycemia, a model of type 2 diabetes, and to multiple low-dose-streptozotocin (MLDS)-induced hyperglycemia, a model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). To investigate whether the effects of mTORC1 activation by Rheb in B6(Rheb) mice would also be evident in NOD mice, a spontaneous autoimmune T1D model, we created two NOD mouse lines overexpressing Rheb in their ?-cells (NOD(Rheb); R3 and R20). We verified Rheb overexpression in ?-cells, the relative activation of mTORC1 and ?-cell enlargement. By 35 weeks of age, diabetes incidence was significantly greater in the R3 line and tended to be greater in the R20 line than in NOD mice. Histological analysis demonstrated that insulitis was significantly accelerated in 12-week-old R3 NOD(Rheb) mice compared with NOD mice. Furthermore, serum insulin autoantibody (IAA) expression was significantly higher than that of NOD mice. We also examined whether complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) treatment alone or with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog would reverse the hyperglycemia of NOD(Rheb) mice; unexpectedly, almost none achieved normoglycemia. In summary, diabetes progression was significantly accelerated rather than prevented in NOD(Rheb) mice. Our results suggest that the ?-cell enlargement might merely enhance the autoimmunity of pathogenic T-cells against islets, leading to acceleration of autoimmune diabetes. We conclude that not only enlargement but also regeneration of ?-cells in addition to the prevention of ?-cell destruction will be required for the ideal therapy of autoimmune T1D.
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IL-10-conditioned dendritic cells prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD and humanized HLA-DQ8/RIP-B7.1 mice.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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This study was to determine whether BMDCs cultured in the presence of IL-10 (G/10-DCs) could promote T cell tolerance and prevent autoimmune diabetes in two different animal models of T1D. Our results showed that G/10-DCs suppressed both insulitis and spontaneous diabetes in NOD and HLA-DQ8/RIP-B7.1 mice. The suppression was likely to be mediated by T cells, as we found that regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells were significantly increased in G/10-DC treated animals. In vivo, the G/10-DCs inhibited diabetogenic T cell proliferation; in vitro, they had reduced expression of costimulatory molecules and produced little IL-12/23 p40 or IL-6 but a large amount of IL-10 when compared with DCs matured in the presence of IL-4 (G/4-DC). We conclude that IL-10-treated DCs are tolerogenic and induce islet-directed immune tolerance, which was likely to be mediated by T regulatory cells. This non-antigen-specific DC-based approach offers potential for a new therapeutic intervention in T1D.
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Causes of decreased activity of daily life in elderly patients who need daily living care.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL.
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Re-evaluation of clinical features and risk factors of acute ischemic stroke in Japanese longevity society.
Kobe J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Age is an important factor correlated with stroke prevalence and independently influences stroke outcome especially in Japanese longevity society. To re-evaluate the characteristics of acute ischemic stroke in the old-old, analyses of clinical data on 426 patients registered at a Japanese tertiary emergency hospital were performed under appropriate statistical methods. Clinical features, stroke subtypes, current-known risk factors for stroke, time from onset to arrival, the National Institute of Health Stroke scale (NIHSS) score on admission, length of hospital stay, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge were compared between two stratified groups by age-at-onset (?75 and < 75 years old). Significant differences were demonstrated in categories of sex, NIHSS score, length of hospital stay and m-RS. Current-known risk factors for stroke except atrial fibrillation were not prominent in the elderly group. Our study revealed that clinical phenotype and outcome in stroke patients would have been modified and re-evaluation of risk factors is necessary for prevention of ischemic stroke in Japanese longevity society.
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Clinical features of a first-ever lacunar infarction in Japanese patients: poor outcome in females.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Lacunar infarction (LI) remains an important stroke subtype in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of outcome determinants in LI. This study was a single center observational study and included 163 consecutive patients (108 male, 55 female; mean age 69 years). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at discharge were used to evaluate stroke severity. We determined the location of the infarct, the grade of white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and the prevalence of silent brain infarcts, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and smoking. We compared 2 groups, good outcome (mRS score 0-2) and poor outcome (mRS score 3-5), using multiple logistic regression analysis. We found significant differences between the 2 groups according to female sex (P = .04), WMH (P = .04), and NIHSS score (P < .001). After multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-11.4; P = .03), and NIHSS score (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.7-3.3; P < .001) were independently associated with poor outcome. Elderly onset, poor outcome, and hypercholesterolemia were more common in female patients, whereas smoking was more prevalent in males. Our data indicate that sex differences exist in Japanese LI patients with regard to risk factors and outcome. The treatment of risk factors based on sex differences is important to the management of LI.
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Amyloid-? neurotoxicity restricts glucose window for neuronal survival in rat hippocampal slice cultures.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Diabetes may increase the risk of Alzheimers disease (AD). However, a preventive strategy to combat cognitive decline in diabetic elderly with preexisting AD has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of metabolic perturbation on amyloid-? (A?) neurotoxicity and the optimal glucose range for improved neuronal survival, which is referred to as the "glucose window". Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were incubated in either normoglycemic or hyperglycemic medium for 48 h, and subsequently treated in experimental media containing 0-30 mM glucose, with and without A?(25-35). Neuronal survival was evaluated by the propidium iodide method. A? neurotoxicity was exacerbated during hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia (?2 mM/?30 mM) without A? and ?3 mM/?20 mM with A?. ROS elevated in the respective glucose ranges and supplementation of ROS scavengers effectively improved neuronal survival. Interestingly, a sharp and sudden drop in glucose levels from preceding hyperglycemia further increased A? neurotoxicity. Supplementation of pyruvate protected exacerbated A? neurotoxicity. These results indicate that increased oxidative stress during severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and fluctuation of blood glucose enhances neuronal cell death, resulting in the extremely limited glucose window, and therefore suggest that careful management of glucose avoiding hypoglycemia is needed to prevent brain degeneration in diabetic patients with AD.
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Regulatory CD8+ T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-beta suppress autoimmune diabetes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Antigen-specific regulatory CD4(+) T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8(+) T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8(+) T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8(+) T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-beta, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5days. CD8(+) T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-beta and ATRA had low Foxp3(+) expression (1.7+/-0.9% and 3.2+/-4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8(+) T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-beta, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3(+) in IGRP-reactive CD8(+) T cells (36.1+/-10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8(+) T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-beta, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8(+) T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8(+) T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-beta induces CD8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Administration of a determinant of preproinsulin can induce regulatory T cells and suppress anti-islet autoimmunity in NOD mice.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be an ideal strategy for treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a peptide in the leader sequence of preproinsulin, which was selected because of its binding affinity to the MHC I-A(g7) molecule. Preproinsulin-1 L7-24 peptide (L7-24) emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant was administered subcutaneously to NOD mice. Administration of L7-24 increased the proportion of regulatory T cells in the spleen. Splenocytes of NOD mice immunized with this peptide secreted IL-4 and IL-10 in response to L7-24. This peptide also significantly prevented the development of diabetes and cured some newly diabetic NOD mice without recurrence. L7-24 peptide, which has a high affinity for pockets of I-A(g7), induced regulatory T cells and showed therapeutic effects. This peptide may provide a new approach for developing antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune diabetes.
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[Anti-aging medicine: the evidence to the value of the antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic drugs and statins].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of arteriosclerotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease. Prevention of arteriosclerosis is a major challenge in order to increase longevity of populations. Hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are known as lifestyle-related diseases and risk factors for arteriosclerosis. The tight control of blood pressure, glucose and LDL cholesterol is important in preventing arteriosclerosis. Many clinical trials have been revealed pleiotropic effects among antihypertensive drugs, hypoglycemic drugs and statins, and these effects are useful for anti-aging. Selection of appropriate medicines to manage the risk factors would be a way to prevent senescence.
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Dilation of perforating arteries in rat brain in response to systemic hypotension is more sensitive and pronounced than that of pial arterioles: simultaneous visualization of perforating and cortical vessels by in-vivo microangiography.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Autoregulatory responses of perforating arteries play a key role in the maintenance of microcirculation of the deep brain regions. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that autoregulatory vasodilatation of perforating arteries is more effective than that of cortical arteries. We performed cerebral microangiography in adult Wistar rats using monochromatic synchrotron radiation at SPring-8 and for the first time radiographically visualized perforating arteries and cortical arteries simultaneously in a single view. In response to hypotension induced by arterial bleeding, both arteries showed significant vasodilatation. Steady-state responses of increments in caliber to stepwise hypotension revealed that perforating arteries exhibited significant vasodilatation at blood pressure below 80-99 mm Hg. Cortical arteries, on the other hand, showed a gradual and smaller vasodilatation beginning at 60-79 mm Hg. For the lowest blood pressure range at 40-59 mm Hg, the smallest arteries with a diameter of 20-40 microm showed maximal dilation in both groups, but perforating arteries showed significantly larger dilatation (185.0% of baseline diameter) than cortical arteries (152.7%; P=0.003). Our results indicate that vasodilatation of perforating arteries is more sensitive and pronounced in response to systemic hypotension than that of pial arteries, which explains how cerebral microcirculation is maintained efficiently in the deep brain regions.
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Predictors of gastric myoelectrical activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Previous studies have clearly demonstrated the delayed gastric emptying of solid meals in diabetics, whereas their gastric myoelectrical activity, which primarily determines gastric motility, has not yet been fully confirmed.
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Age-associated increase in abdominal obesity and insulin resistance, and usefulness of AHA/NHLBI definition of metabolic syndrome for predicting cardiovascular disease in Japanese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Gerontology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) seems to constitute an efficient strategy to attain successful ageing. Although the clinical entity of MetS in patients with diabetes mellitus has been discussed, there is very little information on MetS-type cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in diabetic elderly.
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Upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ras homolog enriched in brain in pancreatic beta-cells leads to increased beta-cell mass and prevention of hyperglycemia.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Components of insulin/IGF-1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways in pancreatic beta-cells have been implicated in the development of diabetes, in part through the regulation of beta-cell mass in vivo. Studies in vitro have shown that the protein Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) plays a key role as a positive upstream regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in integrating inputs from nutrients and growth factors for cell growth. Our objective was to investigate the role of the mTORC1 pathway in the regulation of beta-cell mass in vivo.
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NO-mediated cytotoxicity contributes to multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes but not to NOD diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused mostly by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells, the precise mechanism of which remains unclear. Two major effector mechanisms have been proposed: direct cell-mediated and indirect cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity. Cytokine-mediated beta-cell destruction is presumed mainly caused by NO production. To evaluate the role of iNOS expression in T1D, this study used a novel iNOS inhibitor ONO-1714. ONO-1714 significantly reduced cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity and NO production in both MIN6N9a cells and C57BL/6 islets in the presence of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. To evaluate whether NO contributes to diabetes progression in vivo, ONO-1714 was administered to four different mouse models of autoimmune diabetes: multiple low-dose STZ (MLDS)-induced C57BL/6, CY-induced, adoptive transfer and spontaneous NOD diabetes. Exposure to STZ in vitro induced NO production in MIN6N9a cells and C57BL/6 islets, and in vivo injection of ONO-1714 to MLDS-treated mice significantly reduced hyperglycemia and interestingly, led to complete suppression of cellular infiltration of pancreatic islets. In contrast, when ONO-1714 was injected into spontaneous NOD mice and CY-induced and adoptive transfer models of NOD diabetes, overt diabetes could not be inhibited in these models. These findings suggest that NO-mediated cytotoxicity significantly contributes to MLDS-induced diabetes but not to NOD diabetes.
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A case of an elderly patient with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes who developed severe nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia without predisposing events.
Intern. Med.
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A 72-year-old woman with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes (SPIDDM) was admitted to our hospital because of increasing abdominal pain and diarrhea. The patient was diagnosed with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), and a subtotal colonectomy was performed successfully. The resected sample revealed transmural gangrenous necrosis of the colon and rectum. This case is interesting because the severe NOMI occurred in a SPIDDM patient without common predisposing events such as hypoperfusion. Prolonged generation of reactive oxygen species in SPIDDM, together with the decline in adaptive response to oxidative stress with aging, might be an exacerbating factor for ischemic injury in the elderly.
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Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: an important predictor of stroke and diabetes-related mortality in Japanese elderly diabetic patients.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
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To evaluate the association of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the risk of stroke, diabetes-related vascular events and mortality in elderly diabetes patients.
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