Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare form of interstitial pneumonia and sometimes coexists with a histologic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. This study aimed to describe the distinct clinical features of PPFE with UIP pattern compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
We herein describe the first case of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) induced by waterproofing spray, which was proven by a surgical lung biopsy. A 45-year-old male smoker heavily used a waterproofing spray gas, and presented with chills and fever that was followed by progressive dyspnea. Because steroid pulse therapy did not improve his symptoms, he was referred to our hospital. High-resolution chest CT showed diffuse pan-lobular ground-glass opacities in both lungs. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed a DIP pattern. Acute short-time exposure to waterproofing spray can thus be a potential cause of DIP.
Objectives. We evaluated histological changes occurring in renal biopsy specimens, between the time before initial induction therapy and after 12 months' maintenance therapy, as well as changes in laboratory parameters, SLE disease activity (SLEDAI), and dosage of corticosteroid (CS) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on nine patients diagnosed with childhood-onset SLE and lupus nephritis. They were treated with pulsed mPSL and intravenous cyclophosphamide as induction therapy and MMF (500-1500 mg/day) plus CS as maintenance therapy. Renal biopsy was performed before the initial induction therapy and after 12 months' maintenance therapy. Results. Pathological findings at second biopsy were improved in eight of nine patients (89%). The findings of SLEDAI, urinalysis, and blood tests also showed improvement. CS doses could be tapered satisfactorily. Adverse events were observed in two patients. No patients treated with MMF experienced any disease flares during maintenance therapy. Conclusions. MMF as maintenance therapy might be useful in that not only the histological findings of lupus nephritis were improved, but also CS doses could be beneficially tapered. Nonetheless, this is a retrospective report of only nine cases and further prospective multicenter studies are necessary.
A 67-year-old woman who was followed as a patient with bronchial asthma for 1.5 years visited our hospital with progressive dyspnea. Although the chest radiography findings were normal, a chest computed tomography scan revealed a mass obliterating the intrathoracic tracheal lumen. The patient's symptoms disappeared immediately after tumor excision, and no recurrence was observed during a 1.5-year follow-up period. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of densely packed polygonal-, oval- and spindle-shaped cells that were positive for pan-cytokeratin, ?-smooth muscle actin and p63. These pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign myoepithelioma. Chest physicians should recognize that benign myoepithelioma can develop in the trachea, although it is very rare.
We herein describe a case of a benign pulmonary tumor with distinctive histopathological features. A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a well-demarcated tumor in the left upper lobe of his lung, which gradually increased in size from 18 to 21?mm over 24 months. The resected tumor consisted of an epithelial component of compact irregular glands and mesenchymal component of fascicles between the glands. The differentiation of pneumocytes and smooth muscle cells was immunohistochemically detected in the epithelial component and the mesenchymal component, respectively. No mitosis, necrosis, bleeding, or invasion was observed. A histopathologic diagnosis of fibroleiomyomatous hamartoma was made. We also review previously reported tumors with similar histopathological features and discuss their differential diagnosis and histogenesis.
We present two cases of extensive goblet cell metaplasia in the peripheral lung. The first case was a 72-year-old male with a nodule (12 × 10?mm) detected by CT. Macroscopically, it contained abundant mucin; histopathologically, goblet cells were predominant, whereas ciliated and basal cells were sparse. A KRAS?G12V mutation was detected. In the pulmonary background of this case, scattered tiny foci of goblet cell metaplasia were present. The second case was a 71-year-old female with a nodule (7 × 5?mm) detected by CT. It contained abundant mucin, and microscopically, various cell types were intermingled. Although the nodule mainly comprised goblet cells, ciliated and basal cells were also easily identified. No KRAS mutation was found in this patient. Dispersed minute foci of goblet cell metaplasia were identified in the pulmonary background. Therefore, we suspect that airway irritants may have contributed to the changes that occurred in the pulmonary background of both cases. We propose that the tendency of goblet cells to overwhelm other cell types in the metaplastic epithelium may be an indicator of precancerous molecular changes.
The aim of this study was to explore prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastases (BM) on the basis of EGFR mutation status. Among 779 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent EGFR mutation screening, all 197 patients with BM were divided according to the EGFR mutation status. The prognostic factors, including patient characteristics at the time of BM diagnosis, treatment history, and radiologic features, were analyzed. Of 197 patients with BM, 108 had wild-type EGFR and 89 had EGFR mutation. The patients with EGFR mutation presented longer overall survival after BM diagnosis (OS) than those with wild-type EGFR, regardless of whether BM was synchronous or metachronous. For the patients with EGFR mutation, favorable prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were age<65 (p=0.037), good performance status (PS) (p<0.0001), cranial radiotherapy (p=0.020), previous chemotherapy?1 regimen (p=0.009), stable extracranial disease at BM diagnosis (p=0.022), and erlotinib therapy after BM diagnosis (p=0.0015). On the other hand, favorable prognostic factors for the patients with wild-type EGFR were only good PS (p=0.0037) and cranial radiotherapy (p=0.0005). Among patients treated with erlotinib after BM diagnosis, the patients with exon 19 deletion showed longer OS than those with exon 21 point mutation (p=0.019). The prognostic factors for NSCLC patients with BM were different according to the EGFR mutation status. Particularly in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and stable extracranial disease, regular cranial evaluation for detecting asymptomatic BM would lead to good prognosis. In addition, erlotinib therapy would be preferable in NSCLC patients with BM and EGFR mutation, especially those with exon 19 deletion.
Ectopic thymoma arising from organs other than the thymus, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, lung and pericardium, is rare. To date, there have been only seven other cases of pericardial thymoma reported in the English literature. We herein report a case of pericardial ectopic thymoma that presented with cardiac tamponade. A 72-year-old Japanese male noticed body weight gain and leg edema. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed pericardial effusion and an irregularly shaped mass in the pericardial space compressing the right atrium. He was considered to have cardiac tamponade due to a paracardiac tumor that developed following acute cardiac failure. The intraoperative frozen diagnosis was thymoma. Pericardectomy of the thickened pericardium, tumorectomy and thymectomy via a median sternotomy were performed. The final pathological diagnosis was pericardial ectopic thymoma associated with constrictive pericarditis. The differential diagnosis and complete resection of mediastinal tumors such as this rare case of thymoma are important to obtain a better prognosis, as patients with such tumors often present in a state of shock.
A 71-year-old female with Stage IIIB primary adenocarcinoma was administered a three-drug combination therapy consisting of docetaxel, cisplatin and bevacizumab as a first-line treatment based on the Phase II clinical trial. On the 32nd day after the fourth course of chemotherapy, the patient developed bloody sputum. She was found dead at home on the 34th day. Autopsy revealed a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage without diffuse alveolar damage. Endothelial cells of the small arteries and capillaries were swollen and desquamated, indicating that alveolar capillaries were injured. The similar pathological changes in blood vessels were also observed in the kidney and the digestive tract. Because diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by cisplatin and docetaxel has never been reported apart from interstitial pneumonitis, bevacizumab is the most suspicious drug for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in our case. Chest physicians and oncologists should be aware that although it is very rare, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage can develop during any course of chemotherapy with bevacizumab.
We herein report two unusual cases of sarcoidosis presenting with similar subpleural reticular shadows predominantly in the lower lobes with quite different pathological findings. In one patient, the lower lobe specimen contained typical epithelioid cell granulomas with subpleural and paraseptal fibrosis. However, the other patient exhibited usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in the lower lobe and sarcoidosis lesions in the upper lobe. Therefore, the latter patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis complicated with UIP. Our results indicate that performing a surgical lung biopsy is necessary in order to provide appropriate management when lower lobe subpleural reticular shadows are present, even in patients with suspected sarcoidosis.
Small non-protein coding RNAs that regulate messenger RNA levels, namely microRNAs (miRNAs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify essential miRNAs involved in lung carcinogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS could be used as a strategy to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer; therefore, we examined the expression profiles of mRNAs modulated by oncogenic KRAS in the present study. We focused on miR-31 from the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, and evaluated its potential role in the development of lung cancer. miR-31 was upregulated not only by oncogenic KRAS, but also by oncogenic EGFR. The expression of miR-31 was markedly attenuated in some lung cancer cell lines by deleting its host gene locus. The restoration of miR-31 in lung cancer cell lines that lost its expression attenuated their growth activities. The knockdown of miR-31 expression in lung cancer cell lines retaining its expression enhanced anchorage-independent growth activity. These results suggest that miR-31 may be a suppressor that regulates an essential oncogenic pathway, the loss of which may promote lung carcinogenesis.
The different characteristics of usual interstitial pneumonia in patients with primary Sjögren?s syndrome (UIP/pSS) compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (UIP/IPF) are not fully understood. This study aimed to compare characteristics, prognosis, and treatment responses in these patients.
With the progress of antibiotic therapy, the mortality of lung abscess has been improved, and surgical intervention has declined. However, surgery is still required in selected cases that are intractable to antibiotic treatment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is beneficial for treatment and/or diagnosis of pulmonary disease as it provides a less invasive surgical technique and reduces prolongation of post-operative recovery. However, the indication of VATS lobectomy for lung abscess is controversial as a result of particular complications, i.e. wet lung, intrapleural adhesion and ease of bleeding. We herein report a rare combination of lung abscess and osteomyelitis of mandible resulting from the same pathogen successfully treated with VATS lobectomy. We propose VATS lobectomy for lung abscess. This procedure might be the best treatment candidate for selected cases of lung abscess.
Morphological detection of cancer cells in the rabbit VX2 allograft transplantation model is often difficult in a certain region such as serosal cavity where reactive mesothelial cells mimic cancer cells and both cells share common markers such as cytokeratins. Therefore, tagging VX2 cells with a specific and sensitive marker that easily distinguishes them from other cells would be advantageous. Thus, we tried to establish a successively transplantable, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing VX2 model. Cancer cells obtained from a conventional VX2-bearing rabbit were cultured in vitro and transfected with an EGFP-encoding vector, and then successively transplanted in Healthy Japanese White rabbits (HJWRs) (n = 8). Besides, conventional VX2 cells were transplanted in other HJWRs (n = 8). Clinicopathological comparison analyses were performed between the two groups. The success rate of transplantation was 100 % for both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of EGFP for immunohistochemical detection of VX2 cells were 84.3 and 100 %, respectively. No significant differences in cancer cell morphology, tumor size (P = 0.742), Ki-67 labeling index (P = 0.878), or survival rate (P = 0.592) were observed between the two. VX2 cells can be genetically altered, visualized by EGFP, and successively transplanted without significant alteration of morphological and biological properties compared to those of the conventional model.
Small non-protein coding RNA, microRNA (miR), which regulate messenger RNA levels, have recently been identified, and may play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The present study focused on miR-31 and investigated its potential involvement in lung carcinogenesis. The expression of miR-31 was altered in lung cancer cells through either the amplification or loss of the host gene locus. The strong expression of miR-31 in large cell carcinomas was attributed to the gene amplification. Meanwhile, the loss of miR-31 expression was more frequently observed in aggressive adenocarcinomas. Thus, miR-31 may play a pleiotropic role in the development of lung cancers among different histological types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show the potential causative mechanism of the altered expression of miR-31 and suggest its potentially diverse significance in the different histological types of lung cancers.
This study investigated the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS in immortalized airway epithelial cells. Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4), S100 proteins (S100A2 and S100A11), tropomyosin 2, cathepsin L1, integrins?3, eukaryotic elongation factor 1, vimentin, and others were discriminated. We here focused on CLIC4 to investigate its potential involvement in carcinogenesis in the lung because previous studies suggested that some chloride channels and chloride channel regulators could function as tumor suppressors. CILC4 protein levels were reduced in some lung cancer cell lines. The restoration of CLIC4 in lung cancer cell lines in which CLIC4 expression was reduced attenuated their growth activity. The immunohistochemical expression of the CLIC4 protein was weaker in primary lung cancer cells than in non-tumorous airway epithelial cells and was occasionally undetectable in some tumors. CLIC4 protein levels were significantly lower in a subtype of mucinous ADC than in others, and were also significantly lower in KRAS-mutated ADC than in EGFR-mutated ADC. These results suggest that the alteration in CLIC4 could be involved in restrictedly the development of a specific fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. The potential benefit of the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS to lung cancer research has been demonstrated.
Our previous studies identified important molecules involved in lung carcinogenesis through a comprehensive search for the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, and these findings suggested that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS might represent a useful strategy for elucidating the common molecular bases of lung cancer. Among the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, a focus was placed on HDAC9, a member of the histone deacetylase family, in the present study because epigenetic modification of DNA or the histone proteins is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The immunohistochemical expression of HDAC9 was examined in surgically resected primary lung cancers (130 adenocarcinoma, 49 squamous cell carcinomas, one large cell carcinoma, and 6 small cell carcinomas) and potential associations between its expression level and pathologic factors were analyzed. The results showed that HDAC9 expression levels were lower in lung cancer cells than in non-tumor epithelial cells, and were also significantly lower in adenocarcinomas among the histological types. Moreover, HDAC9 expression levels were significantly lower in adenocarcinomas with lymphatic canal involvement. The restoration of HDAC9 in lung cancer cells losing its expression severely attenuated their growth activity in vitro. These results suggest that HDAC9 may be a suppressor and its downregulation might promote the progression process, especially in lung adenocarcinomas.
Nuclear atypia is one of the most important morphological features used to diagnose malignant neoplasms. The potential molecular alteration that causes nuclear atypia remains unknown. P53 and p16INK4A play crucial roles in cell cycle checkpoints and repairing DNA damage to maintain integrity of the genome. Thus, inactivation of p53 and p16INK4A has been hypothesized to alter the chromatin structure and result in nuclear atypia. This study examined 201 primary lung cancers for the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and p16INK4A, and analyzed potential associations with the essential elements of nuclear atypia, such as nuclear size, circularity of the outline, and the density and granularity of chromatin. Tumors that expressed high levels of p53 had larger nuclei with higher chromatin density and distorted nuclear outlines. Tumors that expressed low levels of p16INK4 had larger nuclei with distorted nuclear outlines. Thus, alterations in p53 and p16INK4A may be the potential cause of nuclear atypia in neoplastic cells.
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) have been recognized recently as a heterogeneous group, and are subclassified according to genotype as well as morphological characteristics. We report a case of a 35-year-old Japanese woman who exhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1?-inactivated HCA in the background of the congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV). On a dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT) scan, the hypovascular tumor enlarged from 1 cm to 3 cm and another tumor emerged in the course of 7 years. Because the possibility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple metastases was not excluded, partial hepatectomy was performed. On a cut section, two well-demarcated tumors were observed and one tumor had a central fibrous scar. The histological features of these tumors were similar to those of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with a central scar and HCA; however, these tumors were diagnosed as HNF-1?-inactivated HCA by immunohistochemistry according to the criteria of the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In non-tumorous liver tissue, an abnormal architecture of the vessels and a vague nodular appearance of lobuli were observed, which were likely to be those of nodular regenerated hyperplasia (NRH). We discuss its pathogenesis and relationship with CAPV.
The present study evaluated the potential clinicopathologic significance of elevated microsatellite alteration at selected tetra-nucleotide (EMAST) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty-five NSCLCs (19 squamous cell carcinomas, 39 adenocarcinomas, one adenosquamous cell carcinoma, and 6 large cell carcinomas) were examined for EMAST in the ten selected tetra-nucleotide markers. Traditional microsatellite instability (MSI) in the five mono- or di-nucleotide markers of the Bethesda panel was also examined, and compared with EMAST. The incidence of EMAST was higher than that of traditional MSI, as 64.6% (42/65) and 12.3% (8/65) tumors respectively exhibited EMAST and traditional MSI in at least one marker. EMAST and traditional MSI appear to occur independently, as no significant association in their incidence was found (Fishers exact test, P = 0.146). Subjects who exhibited EMAST in two or more markers had a significantly higher incidence of history of other malignant neoplasms (42.9% [9/21]), compared to those with less than two markers (16.3% [7/43] (Chi-square test, P = 0.021)). Taken together, impairment of molecular machinery for maintaining stable replication of the tetra-nucleotide-repeating regions, which would differ from machinery for mono- or di-nucleotide-repeating regions, may elevate susceptibility to NSCLCs and certain neoplastic diseases. Elucidation of the potential molecular mechanism of EMAST is expected to lead to a discovery of a novel genetic background determining susceptibility to NSCLC and other multiple neoplasms. This is the first report describing a clinicopathologic significance of EMAST in NSCLC.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by fibrofolliculomas, renal tumors and pulmonary cysts with repeated pneumothorax. This disorder is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes folliculin (FLCN). FLCN is known to be involved in the signaling of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We investigated the lung of a BHD patient who presented with a unique mutation. A 33-year-old woman visited our hospital due to repeated pneumothorax. Histopathologic study of the resected lung demonstrated multiple epithelial cysts. An increase of blood vessels was observed in the vicinity of subpleural cysts. Genomic DNA analysis revealed heterozygous mutation at the 3 end of intron 5 of the FLCN gene. Total mRNA and protein were extracted from the resected lung tissue. RT-PCR and sequence analysis demonstrated the production of exon 6-skipped FLCN mRNA. In Western blotting, the band intensities of phospho-mTOR, phospho-S6, phospho-Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were increased in the BHD lung compared with normal lungs. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated strong immunostainings of mTOR signaling molecules in cyst-lining cells. Collective data indicates that dysregulation of mTOR signaling facilitates S6-mediated protein synthesis and HIF-1?-mediated angiogenesis, which may contribute to the development of pulmonary cysts in this disorder.
We report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) in which the patient had been diagnosed with severe obliterative bronchitis. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with a high fever and a widespread vesicular rash. She was diagnosed with SJS and betamethasone administration was started. After one month, her vesicular skin rash improved; however, she developed respiratory failure and was assisted with mechanical ventilation. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a hyperlucent lung with narrowing of the peripheral vessels. Bronchoscopy revealed an occlusion of the bronchus when the patient exhaled. The flow-volume curve revealed a severe obstructive pattern. The patient was diagnosed with obliterative bronchitis following SJS. She was treated with a bronchodilator and steroids, but could not breathe adequately without the ventilator. During the following year, her PaCO(2) increased to 100 torr and her heart function also continued to worsen. Despite intensive treatment, she died one year and seven months after the onset of SJS. In SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patients, chronic pulmonary complications are rare, but there is no effective therapy for obliterative bronchitis following SJS/TEN. Therefore, early awareness of this condition is needed and lung transplantation must be considered at an early stage of this disease.
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) arising in the peripheral lung is the prototype of human lung adenocar-cinoma and is considered to develop, at least in part, from its precursor atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH). Molecular genetics investigations have revealed the significant roles of mutations in KRAS and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes in the pathogenesis of AAH and BAC. Recently, selective molecular targeting therapies, such as those using EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have been introduced with remarkable success. In spite of the accumulation of research results into BAC/AAH, there remain three important issues to be addressed; 1) the etiology of BAC and AAH, 2) the genetic and/or epigenetic alteration(s) responsible for the progression of AAH to BAC, 3) the genetic backgrounds speculated as the cause of multiple AAH/BAC. These three issues are briefly reviewed and discussed, along with the murine pulmonary carcinogenesis model which is potentially useful for solving these issues.
CD133 is one of the most representative cancer stem cell markers. This study evaluated the potential prognostic value of CD133 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). Tumors from 177 patients were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression, and their associations with disease recurrence were analyzed. Also, the potential prognostic value of combining CD133 expression with proliferating activity measured by immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and vessel involvement was evaluated. CD133 high expressers showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than CD133 low expressers: 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate 77.2% vs. 95.1% (p=0.004), adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) 4.37, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.30-14.71 (p=0.017). CD133 high expressers having strong proliferating activity and/or with vessel invasion showed a higher risk of recurrence: 5-year DFS rate 66.5% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers vs. 93.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 8.39, 95% CI 2.65-26.54 (p<0.001): 5-year DFS rate 51.0% in CD133 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 92.9% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 4.50, 95% CI 1.51-13.34 (p=0.007): 5-year DFS rate 53.9% in CD133 high/Ki-67 high expressers with vessel invasion vs. 91.2% in the other types (p<0.001), adjusted HR 9.32, 95% CI 3.42-25.39 (p<0.001). In conclusion, the level of CD133 expression is an independent prognostic marker and its combination with proliferating activity and/or vessel invasion could have excellent prognostic value to predict postoperative recurrence in patients with stage I lung ADC.
Gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in molecular pathogenesis. We previously reported that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), which inhibits IGF-dependent growth, is expressed via early growth response-1 (EGR-1) and is often silenced in cultivated lung cancer cells. The purpose of the present study was to clarify clinicopathological factors associated with IGFBP-4 gene silencing in lung adenocarcinomas. Seventy-six surgically resected adenocarcinomas (20 well-, 35 moderately-, and 21 poorly-differentiated) were subjected to methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for EGR-1-binding sites located in the IGFBP-4 promoter and immunohistochemistry for IGFBP-4, EGR-1, and Ki-67. Thirty-two adenocarcinomas (42%) revealed IGFBP-4 promoter hypermethylation, and the severity inversely correlated with the level of IGFBP-4 expression (P < 0.0001) and tumor differentiation (well versus poor, P = 0.0278; well/moderate versus poor, P = 0.0395). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and IGFBP-4 expression (P = 0.0361). These findings suggest that the expression of IGFBP-4 in adenocarcinoma cells in vivo is downregulated by epigenetic silencing in association with tumor differentiation, resulting in disruption of the mechanism of IGFBP-4-mediated growth inhibition.
Lung cancer, like other cancers, is considered to develop through the accumulation of genetic alterations. Mutation of the KRAS gene is one of the most important events in carcinogenesis of the lung. The KRAS gene, belonging to the RAS gene family, encodes a membrane-bound 21-kd guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein. Single point mutations in this protein result in continuous activation to transmit excessive signals, promoting a variety of biological events. In lung cancers, the mutations concentrate at codon 12 and mostly affect adenocarcinomas (ADCs). They also affect atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, the precursor of ADCs. Therefore, mutation of the KRAS gene is suggested to confer a growth advantage to airway epithelial cells enabling them to expand clonally early in the development of ADCs. The mutation is also a reliable marker of an unfavorable response to certain molecular-targeting therapies. Furthermore, patients with ADCs affected by mutations have been reported to exhibit a significantly higher risk of postoperative disease recurrence. Thus, the significance of KRAS gene mutations has been investigated extensively. However, not all the details emerged. In this review, particulars that have been established are introduced, and important issues remaining to be resolved are discussed, with special reference to carcinogenesis of the lung.
A 46-year-old man was referred to our department complaining of anterior chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed an anterior mediastinal tumor measuring 38 x 35 x 50 mm. Suspecting a thymoma, we performed extended thymectomy through a median sternotomy under general anesthesia. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells arranged in a storiform pattern, with marked inflammatory cell infiltration. The tumor was contiguous with the thymus tissue. Based on these findings, we made the diagnosis of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma originating from the thymus. Until now, 12 months later, the patient has shown no evidence of tumor recurrence.
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is crucial for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and metastasis during tumor development. We demonstrate here that early growth response-1 (EGR-1), which is induced by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, activates VEGF-A in lung cancer cells. Increased EGR-1 expression was found in adenocarcinoma cells carrying mutant K-RAS or EGFR genes. Hypoxic culture, siRNA experiment, luciferase assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and quantitative RT-PCR using EGR-1-inducible lung cancer cells demonstrated that EGR-1 binds to the proximal region of the VEGF-A promoter, activates VEGF-A expression, and enhances hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha)-mediated VEGF-A expression. The EGR-1 modulator, NAB-2, was rapidly induced by increased levels of EGR-1. Pathology samples of human lung adenocarcinomas revealed correlations between EGR-1/HIF-1alpha and VEGF-A expressions and relative elevation of EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression in mutant K-RAS- or EGFR-carrying adenocarcinomas. Both EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression increased as tumors dedifferentiated, whereas HIF-1alpha expression did not. Although weak correlation was found between EGR-1 and NAB-2 expressions on the whole, NAB-2 expression decreased as tumors dedifferentiated, and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase/histone deacetylase increased NAB-2 expression in lung cancer cells despite no epigenetic alteration in the NAB-2 promoter. These findings suggest that EGR-1 plays important roles on VEGF-A expression in lung cancer cells, and epigenetic silencing of transactivator(s) associated with NAB-2 expression might also contribute to upregulate VEGF-A expression.
We have established a concise sub-typing system suitable for predicting the postoperative outcome in cases of stage I lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), using morphometric profiling. The association between postoperative disease recurrence and a variety of morphological features including histological architecture, cell type, cytoplasmic color/internal structure, nuclear shape/size, chromatin pattern, and nucleoli count/remarkableness, was analyzed. Histological architecture had the most prognostic value and could be subdivided into low-grade (bronchioloalveolar, papillary and tubular: "tubular" in this paper is defined as a tubular or glandular structure lined with single-layered neoplastic cells) and high-grade (acinar and solid: "acinar" is defined as a tubular or glandular structure lined with poly-layered neoplastic cells or as a fused glandular structure such as the cribriform pattern) components. The subgroups separated based on a cut-off value, 71.5% of the high-grade component comprised by a tumor, which was calculated according to a relative operating characteristic curve, exhibited a significant difference in disease recurrence [estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate, 95.3% in the low-grade group versus 66.7% in the high-grade group, hazard ratio 7.35, Log-rank test p = 0.002]. The sub-grouping system is concise and suitable for practical use. It will improve the histological classification of ADC.
EPHA7 is a member of the EPHA family of receptor kinases, among which several members are known to be involved in human lung carcinogenesis. We report here a novel spliced variant, the so-called secreted form of EPHA7, recently reported in malignant lymphoma, in human lung cancer cell lines and primary lung cancer. In contrast to the EPHA7 down-regulation in colorectal cancer by promoter hypermethylation, EPHA7 is expressed at a substantial level in most human lung cancers and the secreted form of EPHA7 mRNA was found in a fraction of primary lung cancer tissues, lung cancer cell lines, and immortalized bronchogenic epithelial cell lines. Interestingly, the secreted form of EPHA7 message was predominantly detected in non-adeno type lung carcinoma. The mechanistic role of the secreted form of EPHA7 in human lung carcinogenesis is not clear, but the presence of this form could distinctly exclude adenocarcinoma of the lung from the other categories, i.e., squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma, which have strong association with smoking. This is the first study to detect the secreted form of EPHA7 in human epithelial tissues. EPHA7 warrants further investigation to determine its possible involvement in smoking related lung carcinogenesis.
The traditional histologic classification of lung cancer is not satisfactory to describe the morphologic characteristics of individual tumors, because it does not fully cover cytologic features. This paper describes a novel typing system using morphometric profiling that covers a variety of morphologic features including histologic architecture, cell type, cytoplasmic color and internal structure, nuclear outline, chromatin pattern, nucleoli count and remarkableness, and average and deviation of nuclear size and circularity. In all, 201 cases of lung tumors (whose sizes are <20 mm) were examined. Results of a hierarchical clustering analysis were used to draw a dendrogram. We here tentatively focused on 8 morphometric clusters and analyzed their potential association with a variety of clinicopathologic and molecular genetic features. Significant differences in postoperative recurrent risk, growth activity, oncogenic mutation (EGFR or KRAS), impairments of tumor suppressors (p53 and p16), sex predisposition, and smoking status were found among the 8 clusters. The system has the potential to improve histopathologic diagnosis and our understanding of carcinogenesis in the lung.
FXYD3 is a FXYD-containing Na,K-ATPase ion channel regulator first identified as a protein overexpressed in murine breast tumors initiated by oncogenic ras or neu. However, our preliminary study revealed that FXYD3 expression was down-regulated in oncogenic KRAS-transduced airway epithelial cells. This contradiction led us to investigate the role of FXYD3 in carcinogenesis of the lung. FXYD3 mRNA and protein levels were lower in most of the lung cancer cell lines than in either the noncancerous lung tissue or airway epithelial cells. Protein levels were also lower in a considerable proportion of primary lung cancers than in nontumoral airway epithelia; FXYD3 expression levels decreased in parallel with the dedifferentiation process. Also, a somatic point mutation, g55c (D19H), was found in one cell line. Forced expression of the wild-type FXYD3, but not the mutant, restored the well-demarcated distribution of cortical actin in cancer cells that had lost FXYD3 expression, suggesting FXYD3 plays a role in the maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity. However, no association between FXYD3 expression and its promoters methylation status was observed. Therefore, inactivation of FXYD3 through a gene mutation or unknown mechanism could be one cause of the atypical shapes of cancer cells and play a potential role in the progression of lung cancer.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) exhibits insulin-like growth factor-dependent growth. SCLC is the most aggressive among known in vivo lung cancers, whereas in vitro growth of SCLC is paradoxically slow as compared with that of non-SCLC (NSCLC). In this study, we demonstrate that SCLC cells overexpress insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 via NeuroD, a neuroendocrine cell-specific transcription factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift, and IGFBP-2 promoter assays all revealed that NeuroD binds to the E-box in the 5-untranslated region of IGFBP-2. A NeuroD transgene in both airway epithelial and NSCLC cells up-regulated the transcription of IGFBP-2 and retarded cell growth. Recombinant IGFBP-2 repressed the growth of both airway epithelial and NSCLC cells in a dose-dependent manner. A NeuroD-specific small interfering RNA repressed IGFBP-2 expression in SCLC, and neutralization of IGFBP-2 and an IGFBP-2-specific small interfering RNA increased SCLC cell growth. Pathological samples of SCLC also expressed IGFBP-2 abundantly, as compared with NSCLC, and showed only rare (8%) IGFBP-2 promoter methylation, whereas the IGFBP-2 promoter was methylated in 71% of adenocarcinomas and 29% of squamous cell carcinomas. These findings suggest that 1) SCLC has an IGFBP-2 overexpression mechanism distinct from NSCLC, 2) secreted IGFBP-2 contributes to the slow growth of SCLC in vitro, and 3) the epigenetic alterations in the IGFBP-2 promoter contribute to the striking differences in IGFBP-2 expression between SCLC and NSCLC in vivo.
Our preliminary studies revealed that oncogenic KRAS (KRAS/V12) dramatically suppressed the growth of immortalized airway epithelial cells (NHBE-T, with viral antigen-inactivated p53 and RB proteins). This process appeared to be a novel event, different from the so-called premature senescence that is induced by either p53 or RB, suggesting the existence of a novel tumor suppressor that functions downstream of oncogenic KRAS. After a comprehensive search for genes whose expression levels were modulated by KRAS/V12, we focused on DUSP6, a pivotal negative feedback regulator of the RAS-ERK pathway. A dominant-negative DUSP6 mutant, however, failed to rescue KRAS/V12-induced growth suppression, but conferred a stronger anchorage-independent growth activity to the surviving subpopulation of cells generated from KRAS/V12-transduced NHBE-T. DUSP6 expression levels were found to be weaker in most lung cancer cell lines than in NHBE-T, and DUSP6 restoration suppressed cellular growth. In primary lung cancers, DUSP6 expression levels decreased as both growth activity and histological grade of the tumor increased. Loss of heterozygosity of the DUSP6 locus was found in 17.7% of cases and was associated with reduced expression levels. These results suggest that DUSP6 is a growth suppressor whose inactivation could promote the progression of lung cancer. We have here identified an important factor involved in carcinogenesis through a comprehensive search for downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is currently central to the field of cancer research, because it is not only a matter of academic interest but also crucial in cancer therapy. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in terms of self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their tumorigenic activity. Thus, CSCs are also termed cancer initiating cells. In this paper, we briefly review hitherto described study results and refer to some excellent review articles to understand the basic properties of CSCs. In addition, we focus upon CSCs of lung cancers, since lung cancer is still increasing in incidence worldwide and remains the leading cause of cancer deaths. Understanding the properties of, and exploring cell markers and signaling pathways specific to, CSCs of lung cancers, will lead to progress in therapy, intervention, and improvement of the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. In the near future, the evaluation of CSCs may be a routine part of practical diagnostic pathology.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) exhibits highly aggressive behavior and has a poor prognosis. While numerous investigations have been carried out, the exact mechanism of its carcinogenesis and aggressiveness is still unclear. SCLC is categorized as a neuroendocrine neoplasia and has a genetic profile characterized by universal alterations of the RB and TP53 genes. Epidemiological studies indicate the majority of SCLCs to be caused by smoking and the TP53 mutational pattern to be consistent with that evoked by smoke carcinogens; however, there is no direct evidence that such carcinogens induce alterations to RB in SCLC. While the importance of these alterations in the carcinogenesis of SCLC is strongly suggested, the exact molecular mechanism has been only little elucidated. SCLC cells almost always express mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1 (MASH1) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). MASH1 plays a critical role in neuroendocrine differentiation. TTF-1 is a characteristic marker of distal airway cells and pulmonary adenocarcinomas, but is also expressed in extrapulmonary neuroendocrine cancers. Thus, TTF-1 may well play a significant role in the development of neuroendocrine cancers. Recent studies indicate that the airway stem cell is committed to the neuroendocrine lineage through MASH1 and Notch signaling and that only RB-deleted neuroendocrine cells selectively proliferate in response to E2F3, eventually undergoing transformation to neuroendocrine cancer cells, probably in concert with TP53 gene aberrations. Thus, alterations of both the RB and TP53 genes are central to the carcinogenesis of SCLC, while many other factors including MASH1 and TTF-1 contribute to the development and biological behavior of SCLC.
The present study investigated the potential difference between EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and KRAS-mutated ADC in relation to past illness and family history. Among the 153 tumors examined, 33 (21.6%) were EGFR-mutated, and 22 (14.4%) were KRAS-mutated. The EGFR-mutated cases showed a significantly higher prevalence of past illness involving the gastric cancer in males (EGFR 3/8 (37.5%), KRAS 0/13 (0.0%), no mutation (NONE) 1/57 (1.8%); Fishers exact test, P=0.0064) or uterine myoma in females (EGFR 8/25 (32.0%), KRAS 0/9 (0.0%), NONE 3/41 (7.3%); Fishers exact test, P=0.0139). No association between the mutations and family history was found. The EGFR-mutated ADC is therefore likely to develop through a distinct carcinogenetic pathway from the others, but genetic backgrounds seemed unlikely to be determinant predisposing to the EGFR-mutated ADC.
We present a case of a polypoid tumor located in the right middle lobe bronchus. The tumor was composed of bi-layered glandular or ductular structures consisting of inner cuboidal cells and outer multipolar cells. Immunohistochemical examinations confirmed epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation in the inner and outer components, respectively. Consequently, the tumor was diagnosed as an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas of the bronchus are very rare neoplasms with low-grade malignant potential. To date, including our case, only 27 cases have been reported in the English literature. Here, we review the reported cases and compare them with other salivary gland-type carcinomas regarding clinical, biological, and genetic features.
The purpose of the present study was to establish accurate prognostic markers to predict the post-operative recurrence of stage I lung adenocarcinomas (ADC). One-hundred and ninety cases of stage I ADC were examined for KRAS mutations and Ki-67 expression, and their associations with disease recurrence were analyzed. KRAS-mutated cases showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than cases without mutations (5-year disease-free survival (DFS) 61.0% vs. 85.8%, P=0.017: adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) 4.55, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.61-12.82, P=0.004). Ki-67 high-expressers (labeling index >10%) also showed a higher risk of recurrence than low-expressers (5-year DFS 68.7% vs. 93.2%, P<0.001: adjusted HR 3.84, 95% CI 1.18-12.45, P=0.025). Ki-67 high-expressers with KRAS mutations showed an additional higher risk of recurrence compared to low-expressers without mutations (5-year DFS 37.5% vs. 93.3%, P<0.001: adjusted HR 16.82, 95% CI 3.77-74.98, P<0.001) and their 5-year DFS was nearly equivalent to that of stage II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in our facility (37.5% vs. 37.2% for stage II NSCLC, p=0.577). The combined use of KRAS status and Ki-67 expression level could be an excellent prognostic marker to predict the post-operative recurrence of stage I ADC.
The authors previous study demonstrated that oncogenic KRAS modulates the shape and motility of airway epithelial cells. To explore detailed mechanism mediating these events, the possible involvement of phosphatidylinositides (PIP) was investigated. The intracellular localization of PIP was visualized with a pleckstrin homology domain-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) construct. PIP accumulated at the leading edges of polarizing epithelial cells, while they co-localized with cortical actin at cell-cell contacts, suggesting that PIP play important roles in the cytoskeletal organization. Transduction of oncogenic KRAS induced multiple pseudopodia and disrupted cortical actin, enhancing motility. A mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reduced the accumulation of PIP at membranes and development of pseudopodia, and restored stable cortical actin, reducing the motility. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor also reduced accumulation of PIP at membranes, formation of pseudopodia and motility, but its effect on cortical actin was indistinct. The KRAS V12/S35 mutant, activating only the MEK pathway, induced multiple pseudopodia and disrupted the cortical actin. The KRAS V12/C40 mutant, activating only the PI3K pathway, also induced pseudopodia, but its effect on cortical actin was obscure. Taken together, oncogenic KRAS could cause the accumulation of PIP via the PI3K and MEK pathways and modulate the cell shape and migration.
The present study investigated expression profiles of the potential CSC markers including CD133, CD44, ALDH1, and ?-catenin, and evaluated their prognostic value in lung adenocarcinomas. One-hundred-and-seventy-seven tumors (stage I) were immunohistochemically examined for the expression of these markers, and thresholds to subdivide expression levels were determined using receiver operating characteristics curves. Tumors with high levels of CD133 (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 4.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-16.40, P?=?0.021), CD44 (HR 3.73, 95% CI 1.20-11.58, P?=?0.023) or ALDH1 (HR 3.61, 95% CI 1.09-12.3, P?=?0.036), but not ?-catenin (HR 2.43, 95% CI 0.59-10.8, P?=?0.220), showed a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the corresponding low expressers. In conclusion, levels of CD133, CD44, and ALDH1 had independent prognostic value to predict the recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma.
A new classification of adenocarcinoma (ADC) was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) in 2011. The present study evaluates its prognostic value in stage I disease of Japanese cases. One-hundred-and-seventy-nine cases with pathological stage I ADC were classified according to the new classification system and their association with disease recurrence was analyzed. Eighteen (10.1%) and 24 (13.4%) cases were adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), respectively. One-hundred-and-thirty-seven cases (76.5%) were invasive adenocarcinoma (IVA), in which 43 (24.0%) were lepidic (LEP), 59 (33.0%) were acinar (ACN), 16 (8.9%) were papillary (PAP), 1 (0.6%) was micropapillary (MPAP), 12 (6.7%) were solid predominant subtypes (SOL), and 6 (3.4%) were invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC). The5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) of patients with AIS and MIA were 100%. Those of LEP, ACN, PAP, SOL and MUC were 93.5%, 83.7%, 75.0%, 44.4% and 62.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that high-histological grade (SOL, MPAP, MUC) had an independent prognostic value to predict post-operative recurrence (HR 3.661, 95% CI 1.421-9.437, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a prognostic value of the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of ADC in Japanese cases.
ALDH1A1 metabolizes a variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde, and also oxidizes retinol to synthesize retinoic acid and modulate cell differentiation. Moreover, ALDH1A1 is also suggested to participate in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. To investigate the potential role of ALDH1A1 in carcinogenesis of the lung, the present study examined two hundred and sixty eight cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for its immunohistochemical expression and analyzed associations between ALDH1A1 levels and a series of clinicopathologic parameters. Also, the biological significance of the aberrant expression of ALDH1A1 was investigated in vitro. ALDH1A1 expression was markedly reduced in 39.9% (107/268) of NSCLCs. The incidence of this reduction was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas (ADC: 41.6%, 85/207) and large cell carcinomas (61.1%, 11/18) than squamous cell carcinomas (25.5%, 11/43). Among ADCs, the downregulation tended to be more remarkable in high grade, poorly differentiated tumors, and tumors with stronger proliferating activity. It also occurred with a significantly higher incidence in smokers than non-smokers. Forced expression of ALDH1A1 in NSCLC cell lines, which had lost ALDH1A1 expression, markedly attenuated their growth. Taken together, loss of ALDH1A1 expression is suggested to promote carcinogenesis especially in the smoking-related ADCs.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant carcinoma that develops in men in Western countries. MicroRNA (miRNA) have the potential to be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cancers. We found significantly higher expression of miR-30d in 3 PCa cell lines (PC3, DU145 and LNCaP) compared with 2 normal prostate cell lines (RWPE-1 and PrSc) using miRNA microarrays and qPCR. Clinicopathological study revealed that miR-30d expression levels were significantly higher in cancer tissue samples than in the paired normal controls (P = 0.03). Furthermore, the miR-30d-high group had shorter time to biochemical recurrence (P = 0.026). MiR-30d overexpressed PCa cells promoted proliferation and invasion in vitro. Inoculation of miR-30d depleted PCa cells dramatically reduced tumor volumes in vivo. Using reporter gene assay, we identified miR-30d as a downregulator of SOCS1 expression by directly binding to 3-UTR of SOCS1. MiR-30d regulated the expression of phospho-STAT3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 through the downregulation of SOCS1. The levels of SOCS1 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. Consistently, miR-30d expression was inversely correlated with SOCS1 expression (P = 0.03). The miR-30d-high/SOCS1-low group was associated with an increased risk of early biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0057). Taken together, miR-30d appears to be a novel independent prognostic marker of PCa progression that allows clinicians to identify patients who need more intensive treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.