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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A590T mutation in KCNQ1 C-terminal helix D decreases IKs channel trafficking and function but not Yotiao interaction.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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KCNQ1 encodes the ? subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal ? helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao.
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Sudden unexpected death owing to unilateral medial medullary infarction with early involvement of the respiratory center.
Leg Med (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A 64-year-old woman was found dead in her home. At autopsy, although relatively fresh bruises were found on her body, no lethal injury was observed in an internal observation. Mild edematous swelling of the right half of the medulla oblongata was observed. There was acute medial medullary infarction (MMI), which mainly involved the nucleus hypoglossi, medial lemniscus, hypoglossal root, inferior olivary nucleus, and pyramidal tract. Subacute infarction of the lower part of the cerebellum was also found, and severe atherosclerosis of the right vertebral artery containing thrombi was found as the culprit lesion. Immunohistochemistry using amyloid precursor protein (APP) was positive in neuronal tissue in the nucleus ambiguus, despite not showing coagulative necrosis in the nucleus. Therefore, acute ischemic necrosis of the nucleus ambiguus, which is considered to be a component of the dorsal respiratory group, may be a significant finding for her expected death. Immunohistochemistry of APP may be useful for confirming the precise extent of acute ischemia in brain stem infarction, such as unilateral MMI.
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Glycine/Serine polymorphism at position 38 influences KCNE1 subunit's modulatory actions on rapid and slow delayed rectifier K+ currents.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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?KCNE1 encodes a modulator of KCNH2 and KCNQ1 delayed rectifier K(+) current channels. KCNE1 mutations might cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) by impairing KCNE1 subunit's modulatory actions on these channels. There are major and minor polymorphismic KCNE1 variants whose 38(th) amino acids are glycine and serine [KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S) subunits], respectively. Despite its frequent occurrence, the influence of this polymorphism on the K(+) channels' function is unclear.
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An autopsy case of infantile-onset vanishing white matter disease related to an EIF2B2 mutation (V85E) in a hemizygous region.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report a rare autopsy case of early infantile-onset vanishing white matter disease, with a submicroscopic deletion of 14q24.3, which included EIF2B2 and a missense mutation of EIF2B2 (V85E) of the remaining allele. The patient was a 4-year-old boy, who was found to have suddenly died during sleep. Physical and mental development began to deteriorate after convulsions at 10 month of age, and did not recover to baseline measurements. At autopsy, the brain showed a marked decrease in volume of white matter, with no typical cystic rarefaction. Histopathologically, the affected white matter showed diffuse loss of myelin fibers, meager astrogliosis with dysmorphic astrocytes, and loss of oligodendrocytes. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were negative for oligodendrocytes in the severely affected area. These findings may be related to the severity of the disease, and might be a feature of the EIF2B2 mutation pattern of the patient. Additionally, unusual fatty infiltration of both ventricles of the heart was found. These findings were suspected as early pathology of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to characteristic gene mutation in the present case. In the present case, the defect EIF2B2 caused by hemizygosity may be related to early onset of the disease and the unusual pathological changes with vulnerability of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, as well as cardiac abnormalities and sudden unexpected death.
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Characterization of a novel mutant KCNQ1 channel subunit lacking a large part of the C-terminal domain.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A mutation of KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha subunit of the channel mediating the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current in cardiomyocytes may cause severe arrhythmic disorders. We identified KCNQ1(Y461X), a novel mutant gene encoding KCNQ1 subunit whose C-terminal domain is truncated at tyrosine 461 from a man with a mild QT interval prolongation. We made whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from HEK-293T cells transfected with either of wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)], KCNQ1(Y461X), or their mixture plus KCNE1 auxiliary subunit gene. The KCNQ1(Y461X)-transfected cells showed no delayed rectifying current. The cells transfected with both KCNQ1(WT) and KCNQ1(Y461X) showed the delayed rectifying current that is thought to be mediated largely by homomeric channel consisting of KCNQ1(WT) subunit because its voltage-dependence of activation, activation rate, and deactivation rate were similar to the current in the KCNQ1(WT)-transfected cells. The immunoblots of HEK-293T cell-derived lysates showed that KCNQ1(Y461X) subunit cannot form channel tetramers by itself or with KCNQ1(WT) subunit. Moreover, immunocytochemical analysis in HEK-293T cells showed that the surface expression level of KCNQ1(Y461X) subunit was very low with or without KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings suggest that the massive loss of the C-terminal domain of KCNQ1 subunit impairs the assembly, trafficking, and function of the mutant subunit-containing channels, whereas the mutant subunit does not interfere with the functional expression of the homomeric wild-type channel. Therefore, the homozygous but not heterozygous inheritance of KCNQ1(Y461X) might cause major arrhythmic disorders. This study provides a new insight into the structure-function relation of KCNQ1 channel and treatments of cardiac channelopathies.
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Identification and characterization of a novel genetic mutation with prolonged QT syndrome in an unexplained postoperative death.
Int. J. Legal Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the ?-subunit of a cardiac potassium channel. Various mutations of hERG, including missense mutations, have been reported to cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and severe arrhythmic disorders such as sudden cardiac death. We identified a novel hERG frameshift mutation (hERG(?AT)) in the S5-pore region from a LQTS patient who died suddenly and analyzed its genetic profile and the molecular and electrophysiological behaviors of the protein product to assess the pathogenicity of hERG(?AT).
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Identification of antigen-specific B cells by concurrent monitoring of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and antigen binding with microwell array chip system equipped with a CCD imager.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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B cells are very heterogeneous, consisting of more than 10(9) B-cell clones with distinct specificities for antigens in each individual. To identify single B cells with antigen specificity, we have been developing cell microarray technology using microwell array chips whose microwells each capture a single B cell. Using microwell array chips, we detected antigen-specific B cells by monitoring antigen-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization with a CCD scanner (MAC-CCD system) or the binding of fluorescence-labeled antigen to cells with a confocal laser scanner. We retrieved target cells from the chip, cloned immunoglobulin genes, and produced antigen-specific antibodies. However, these methods present some difficulties: the former technique could not detect cells whose frequency was less than 0.05% and the latter one took a long time to identify the objective cells although it could detect cells at a frequency of 0.01%. Here, we have combined the advantages of these two methods. Monitoring antigen-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilizations and the binding of fluorescence-labeled antigens simultaneously with a MAC-CCD system enabled us to detect rapidly, antigen-specific B cells whose frequency was less than 0.01% with high efficiency. Our system provides a superior screening system for antigen-specific B cells and extends the horizons of multiparameter single-cell analysis in heterogeneous cell populations.
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A rapid and efficient single-cell manipulation method for screening antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells from human peripheral blood.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are key candidates for therapeutic agents. However, the availability of a suitable screening system for antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) is limited in humans. Here we present a unique method for detecting individual ASCs using microwell array chips, which enables the analysis of live cells on a single-cell basis and offers a rapid, efficient and high-throughput (up to 234,000 individual cells) system for identifying and recovering objective ASCs. We applied the system to detect and retrieve ASCs for hepatitis B virus and influenza viruses from human peripheral blood lymphocytes and produced human mAbs with virus-neutralizing activities within a week. Furthermore, we show that the system is useful for detecting ASCs for multiple antigens as well as for selection of ASCs secreting high-affinity antibodies on a chip. Our method can open the way for the generation of therapeutic antibodies for individual patients.
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A novel missense mutation causing a G487R substitution in the S2-S3 loop of human ether-à-go-go-related gene channel.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
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Mutations of human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG), which encodes a cardiac K(+) channel responsible for the acceleration of the repolarizing phase of an action potential and the prevention of premature action potential regeneration, often cause severe arrhythmic disorders. We found a novel missense mutation of hERG that results in a G487R substitution in the S2-S3 loop of the channel subunit [hERG(G487R)] from a family and determined whether this mutant gene could induce an abnormality in channel function.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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