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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk of Cigarette Smoking Initiation During Adolescence Among US-Born and Non-US-Born Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Objectives. We assessed risk of cigarette smoking initiation among Hispanics/Latinos during adolescence by migration status and gender. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) surveyed persons aged 18 to 74 years in 2008 to 2011. Our cohort analysis (n?=?2801 US-born, 13?200 non-US-born) reconstructed participants' adolescence from 10 to 18 years of age. We assessed the association between migration status and length of US residence and risk of cigarette smoking initiation during adolescence, along with effects of gender and Hispanic/Latino background. Results. Among individuals who migrated by 18 years of age, median age and year of arrival were 13 years and 1980, respectively. Among women, but not men, risk of smoking initiation during adolescence was higher among the US-born (hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.73, 2.57; P?
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Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease, stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and current smoking) in the multisite Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-2011).
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The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health - skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status.
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Social stressors and alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in a nontraditional settlement state.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking.
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Economic and Political Influence on Tobacco Tax Rates: A Nationwide Analysis of 31 Years of State Data.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Objectives. We evaluated state-level characteristics associated with cigarette excise taxes before and after the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). Methods. We gathered annual cigarette excise tax rates for all US states and the District of Columbia, between 1981 and 2011, and matched each state-year tax rate with economic, political, attitudinal, and demographic characteristics, creating a data set of 1581 observations. We used panel data regression techniques to assess relationships between key characteristics and state cigarette excise tax levels. Results. Cigarette excise tax rates grew at more than 6 times the rate of inflation between 1981 and 2011; growth varied by time period and region. We found strong negative associations between Republican Party control of state legislatures and governors offices and state cigarette tax rates. Tobacco production, citizens attitudes toward taxes and tobacco control, and cigarette tax rates in neighboring states were significantly associated with cigarette tax rates. We found no association between unemployment and tax rates. Conclusions. Future excise tax growth rate may depend more on the political leanings of state legislators, and the attitudes of the people they represent, than on economic circumstances. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 12, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301537).
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Validation of Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12) Scores Among English- and Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinos From the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbachs alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions. The total score of the ISEL-12 can be recommended for use among Hispanics/Latinos. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Painful Passages: Traumatic Experiences and Post-Traumatic Stress among Immigrant Latino Adolescents and their Primary Caregivers.
Int Migr Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Using data from a stratified random sample of 281 foreign-born adolescents and their parents, this study provides data on migration-related trauma exposures and examines how the migration process influences the risk of experiencing trauma and developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We find that 29% of foreign-born adolescents and 34% of foreign-born parents experienced trauma during the migration process. Among those that experienced trauma, 9% of adolescents and 21% of their parents were at risk for PTSD. Pre-migration poverty combined with clandestine entry into the US increased the risk of trauma and the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms. Post-migration experiences of discrimination and neighborhood disorder further exacerbated this risk, while social support and familism mitigated it. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding how factors prior to, during, and after migration combine to influence the health of immigrants.
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Theoretical foundations of the Study of Latino (SOL) Youth: implications for obesity and cardiometabolic risk.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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This article describes the conceptual model developed for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth, a multisite epidemiologic study of obesity and cardiometabolic risk among U.S. Hispanic/Latino children.
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The Hispanic Community Childrens Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth): design, objectives, and procedures.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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This article describes the design and methodology of the Study of Latino Youth (SOL Youth) study, a multicenter study of Hispanic/Latino children living in the United States.
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Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.
J Interpers Violence
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased womens risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote womens economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.
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The role of migration in the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents in the USA.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Nearly one out of every four children in the US is a child of immigrants. Yet few studies have assessed how factors at various stages of migration contribute to the development of health problems in immigrant populations. Most focus only on post-migration factors influencing health. Using data from the Latino Adolescent Migration, Health, and Adaptation Project, this study assessed the extent to which pre-migration (e.g., major life events, high poverty), migration (e.g., unsafe and stressful migration experiences), post-migration (e.g., discrimination, neighborhood factors, family reunification, linguistic isolation), and social support factors contributed to depressive symptoms among a sample of Latino immigrant parents with children ages 12-18. Results indicated that high poverty levels prior to migration, stressful experiences during migration, as well as racial problems in the neighborhood and racial/ethnic discrimination upon settlement in the US most strongly contribute to the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents. Family reunification, social support, and familism reduce the likelihood of depressive symptoms.
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The physical and psychological well-being of immigrant children.
Future Child
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Poor childhood health contributes to lower socioeconomic status in adulthood. Subsequently, low socioeconomic status among parents contributes to poor childhood health outcomes in the next generation. This cycle can be particularly pernicious for vulnerable and low-income minority populations, including many children of immigrants. And because of the rapid growth in the numbers of immigrant children, this cycle also has implications for the nation as a whole. By promoting the physical well-being and emotional health of children of immigrants, health professionals and policy makers can ultimately improve the long-term economic prospects of the next generation. Despite their poorer socioeconomic circumstances and the stress associated with migration and acculturation, foreign-born children who immigrate to the United States typically have lower mortality and morbidity risks than U.S. children born to immigrant parents. Over time, however, and across generations, the health advantage of immigrant children fades. For example, researchers have found that the share of adolescents who are overweight or obese, a key indicator of physical health, is lowest for foreign-born youth, but these shares grow larger for each generation and increase rapidly as youth transition into adulthood. Access to health care substantially influences the physical and emotional health status of immigrant children. Less likely to have health insurance and regular access to medical care services than nonimmigrants, immigrant parents delay or forgo needed care for their children. When children finally receive care, it is often in the emergency room after an urgent condition has developed. To better promote the health of children of immigrants, health researchers and reformers must improve their understanding of the unique experiences of immigrant children; increase access to medical care and the capacity of providers to work with multilingual and multicultural populations; and continue to improve the availability and affordability of health insurance for all Americans.
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Taxing sin and saving lives: Can alcohol taxation reduce female homicides?
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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With costs exceeding $5.8 billion per year, violence against women has significant ramifications for victims, their families, the health care systems that treat them, and the employers who depend on their labor. Prior research has found that alcohol abuse contributes to violence against both men and women, and that stringent alcohol control policies can reduce alcohol consumption and in turn some forms of violence. In this paper, we estimate the direct relationship between an important alcohol control measure, excise taxes, and the most extreme form of violence, homicide. We use female homicide rates as our measure of severe violence, as this measure is consistently and accurately reported across multiple years. Our results provide evidence that increased alcohol taxes reduce alcohol consumption and that reductions in alcohol consumption can reduce femicide. Unfortunately, a direct test of the relationship does not have the power to determine whether alcohol taxes effectively reduce female homicide rates. We conclude that while alcohol taxes have been shown to effectively reduce other forms of violence against women, policy makers may need alternative policy levers to reduce the most severe form of violence against women.
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Perceived barriers to opportunity and their relation to substance use among Latino immigrant men.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Theory and empirical evidence suggest that perceived barriers to opportunity, such as discrimination, can lead to the adoption of unhealthy behaviors. The study assessed the relationship between perceived racial/ethnic, language and legal status barriers to opportunity and substance use among Latino immigrant men in North Carolina. Logistic regression was used to test for the association between perceived barriers and odds of binge drinking in the past 30 days and cigarette smoking. In both crude and adjusted models, perceived language barriers (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.78-5.25) and legal status barriers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.01) were associated with increased odds of having engaged in binge drinking. Perceived barriers to opportunity were not significantly associated with cigarette smoking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of language and legal status barriers on health among Latino immigrants.
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Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: key correlates and implications for future research.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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We examined how the migration and acculturation experiences of first-generation Latino youth contributed to their psychological well-being. Data came from the LAMHA (Latino Adolescent Migration, Health, and Adaptation) study, which surveyed 281 first-generation Latino immigrant youth, ages 12 to 19. Using logistic regression, we evaluated how migration stressors (i.e., traumatic events, choice of migration, discrimination, and documentation status) and migration supports (i.e. family and teacher support, acculturation, and personal-motivation) were associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. We found that migration stressors increased the risk of both depressive symptoms and anxiety. Time in the United States and support from family and teachers reduced the risk of depressive symptoms and anxiety. Compared with documented adolescents, undocumented adolescents were at greater risk of anxiety, and children in mixed-status families were at greater risk of anxiety and marginally greater risk of depressive symptoms.
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Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities.
J Youth Adolesc
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Understanding adolescents use of ethnic labels is a key developmental issue, particularly given the practical significance of identity and self-definition in adolescents lives. Ethnic labeling was examined among adolescents in the traditional immigrant receiving area of Los Angeles (Asian n = 258, Latino n = 279) and the non-traditional immigrant receiving area of North Carolina (Asian n = 165, Latino n = 239). Logistic regressions showed that adolescents from different geographic settings use different ethnic labels, with youth from NC preferring heritage and panethnic labels and youth from LA preferring hyphenated American labels. Second generation youth were more likely than first generation youth to use hyphenated American labels, and less likely to use heritage or panethnic labels. Greater ethnic centrality increased the odds of heritage label use, and greater English proficiency increased the odds of heritage-American label use. These associations significantly mediated the initial effects of setting. Further results examine ethnic differences as well as links between labels and self-esteem. The discussion highlights implications of ethnic labeling and context.
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"It Turned My World Upside Down": Latino Youths Perspectives on Immigration.
J Adolesc Res
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Few studies have examined the migration and acculturation experiences of Latino youth in a newly emerging Latino community, communities that historically have had low numbers of Latino residents. This study uses in-depth interview data from the Latino Adolescent, Migration, Health, and Adaptation (LAMHA) project, a mixed-methods study, to document the experiences of Latino youth (ages 14-18) growing up in one emerging Latino community in the South - North Carolina. Using adolescents own words and descriptions, we show how migration can turn an adolescents world upside down, and we discover the adaptive strategies that Latino immigrant youth use to turn their world right-side up as they adapt to life in the U.S.
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Obesity in the transition to adulthood: predictions across race/ethnicity, immigrant generation, and sex.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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To trace how racial/ethnic and immigrant disparities in body mass index (BMI) change over time as adolescents (age, 11-19 years) transition to young adulthood (age, 20-28 years).
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Fitting In: The Roles of Social Acceptance and Discrimination in Shaping the Academic Motivations of Latino Youth in the U.S. Southeast.
J Soc Issues
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Using data on 459 Latino 9(th) graders from the LA-SIAA and the NC-SIAA studies, we evaluate the specific educational values and beliefs that motivate the academic achievement of Latino youth and contrast the school experiences of Latino youth in an emerging Latino community, North Carolina, with the school experiences of youth living in a traditional settlement community, Los Angeles. Despite their greater fears of discrimination, we find that Latino youth in North Carolina are more academically motivated than their peers in Los Angeles. This is partially because they are more likely to be immigrants. Being an immigrant, having a stronger sense of ethnic identification, and having a stronger sense of family obligation were each linked to a more positive view of school environments. Therefore, these factors each partially explained the immigrant advantage in academic motivation and helped to counter the harmful effects of discrimination on academic motivation.
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Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States.
JAMA
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Major cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of mortality among US Hispanic and Latino individuals. Comprehensive data are limited regarding the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population and relations of these traits to socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation.
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Fitting in: the roles of social acceptance and discrimination in shaping the daily psychological well-being of Latino youth.
Soc Sci Q
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Objectives: We examine how acculturation experiences such as discrimination and social acceptance influence the daily psychological well-being of Latino youth living in newly emerging and historical receiving immigrant communities. Methods: We use data on 557 Latino youth enrolled in high school in Los Angeles or in rural or urban North Carolina. Results: Compared to Latino youth in Los Angeles, Latino youth in urban and rural North Carolina experienced higher levels of daily happiness, but also experienced higher levels of daily depressive and anxiety symptoms. Differences in nativity status partially explained location differences in youths’ daily psychological well-being. Discrimination and daily negative ethnic treatment worsened, whereas social acceptance combined with daily positive ethnic treatment and ethnic and family identification improved, daily psychological well-being. Conclusions: Our analysis contributes to understanding the acculturation experiences of immigrant youth and the roles of social context in shaping adolescent mental health.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.