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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early changes in clinical, functional, and laboratory biomarkers in workers at risk of indium lung disease.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Rationale: Occupational exposure to indium compounds including indium-tin oxide (ITO) can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives: To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and development of early lung abnormalities. Methods: Among ITO production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. The relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results: Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 ITO facility workers (median tenure=2 years; median plasma indium=1.0 mcg/L) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not in excess and few had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n=0), fibrosis (n=2), or emphysema (n=4). Compared to participants with plasma indium concentrations <1.0 mcg/L, those with values ?1.0 mcg/L had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1% and FVC%, and higher median serum KL-6 and SP-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated non-linear exposure-response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 mcg/L for FEV1%, FVC%, KL-6, and SP-D compared to the reference. Associations between health outcomes and plasma indium were evident in linear regression models and not explained by age, smoking status, or facility tenure. Conclusions: In ITO facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, abnormal spirometry, and increased serum biomarkers of lung disease.
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Cytotoxicity and characterization of particles collected from an indium-tin oxide production facility.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Occupational exposure to indium compound particles has recently been associated with lung disease among workers in the indium-tin oxide (ITO) industry. Previous studies suggested that excessive alveolar surfactant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in the development of pulmonary lesions following exposure to indium compounds. However, toxicity at the cellular level has not been comprehensively evaluated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess which, if any, compounds encountered during ITO production are toxic to cultured cells and ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of indium lung disease. The compounds used in this study were collected from eight different processing stages at an ITO production facility. Enhanced dark field imaging showed 5 of the compounds significantly associated with cells within 1 h, suggesting that cellular reactions to the compound particles may be occurring rapidly. To examine the potential cytotoxic effects of these associations, ROS generation, cell viability, and apoptosis were evaluated following exposures in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Both exhibited reduced viability with exposures, while apoptosis only occurred in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggested that excessive ROS production is likely not the predominant mechanism underlying indium-induced lung disease. However, the effects on cell viability reveal that several of the compounds are cytotoxic, and therefore, exposures need to be carefully monitored in the industrial setting.
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Respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities related to work at a flavouring manufacturing facility.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To better understand respiratory symptoms and lung function in flavouring manufacturing workers.
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Factors associated with fatal mining injuries among contractors and operators.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To explore factors associated with fatal accidents among contractors and operators by using the Mine Safety and Health Administration database.
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Indium lung disease.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases.
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Identification and measurement of diacetyl substitutes in dry bakery mix production.
J Occup Environ Hyg
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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In 2008, a company using multiple buttermilk flavorings in the production of dry bakery mixes replaced one liquid flavoring containing 15-20% diacetyl with a proprietary substitute meant to lower occupational risk for diacetyl-related bronchiolitis obliterans. Subsequently, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated buttermilk flavoring-related exposures at this companys facility, with a focus on measuring ketones by several methods. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in the headspaces of six bulk flavorings samples, including the substitute buttermilk flavoring. Ketones were evaluated in workplace air via area and personal samples collected during batch preparation of the substitute buttermilk flavoring and production of a bakery mix containing the same flavoring. Air samples were evaluated using five different methods: NIOSH 2549, Modified OSHA PV2118, OSHA 1013, NIOSH Draft Procedure SMP2, and evacuated canisters. Of five buttermilk flavorings from five different flavorings manufacturers, diacetyl was present in four, including the substitute flavoring; acetoin in two; 2,3-pentanedione in four; 2,3-hexanedione in one; and 2,3-heptanedione in three. Among material safety data sheets (MSDS) for four flavorings, only one listed a hazardous ingredient, which was acetoin. The predominant flavoring ingredient identified in the headspace of the substitute flavoring was 2,3-pentanedione; all other chemicals noted above were also present. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione were measured in workplace air via evacuated canisters. In one area and one personal air sample, 2,3-pentanedione was measured by OSHA Method 1013 at concentrations of 78 and 91 ppb, respectively. Without their or the employers knowledge, workers who used buttermilk flavorings were exposed to substitute ketones from many flavorings manufacturers. Because 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and 2,3-heptanedione all share the same functional ?-diketone group as diacetyl, these compounds also may share diacetyls mechanism of toxicity. Until more is known about 2,3-pentanedione and other ?-diketone compounds, they should not be assumed to be safe. Companies using artificial buttermilk flavorings should use a precautionary approach that assumes these flavorings pose a health risk and limit exposures through engineering and administrative controls and use of personal protective equipment.
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Health hazards, injury problems, and workplace conditions of carpet-weaving children in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan.
Int J Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Carpet weaving among children is common in rural Pakistan, but little information is available on the health effects of this work. A total of 628 carpet-weaving children and 292 non-working children from 10 rural villages were evaluated with questionnaires and physical exams. Fifty-five home-based and 30 shed-based worksites in these villages were assessed. Girls comprised the majority of working (73%) and non-working (69%) children; the mean age for both boys and girls was 10 years. The mean number of hours worked daily was 7.2 for males and 6.8 for females. Dust exposure in homes was generally higher than in sheds. Working children had significantly greater odds of joint pain (OR = 2.8), dry cough (OR = 2.5), cuts/bruises (OR = 22.1), Phalens sign (OR = 17.2), and neck/shoulder abnormalities (OR = 14.2). Symptoms and signs of acute and repetitive injury and respiratory symptoms were more common among carpet-weaving children than their non-working peers.
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in workers at an indium processing facility.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage-colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which may occur via an autoimmune mechanism.
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Prospective comparison of tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in a low-incidence setting.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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We compared the results of the tuberculin skin test with the results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay among 182 low-risk healthcare workers. Overall agreement and specificity were high, but the tests did not agree on positive results. Only 2 of 5 positive QFT-GIT assay results could be confirmed with repeat analyses. Indeterminate results were associated with potential immunosuppression.
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A reconsideration of acute Beryllium disease.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers.
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The epidemiological patterns of honour killing of women in Pakistan.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Honour killing (HK) is a problem of public health concern but published data on the phenomenon are limited and many cases likely go unrecognized. Our study focuses on the epidemiological patterns of HK of women in Pakistan, where domestic violence is common and HK occurs but is poorly described.
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Vocal cord dysfunction related to water-damaged buildings.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract
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Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is the intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during respiration, resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. Exposure to damp indoor environments is associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, but its role in the development of VCD is not well described.
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Serial evaluations at an indium-tin oxide production facility.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
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We evaluated the effectiveness of workplace changes to prevent indium lung disease, using 2002-2010 surveillance data collected by an indium-tin oxide production facility.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.