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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chronic behavioral and cognitive deficits in a rat survival model of paraoxon toxicity.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Organophosphate (OP) compounds, including paraoxon (POX), are similar to nerve agents such as sarin. There is a growing concern that OP agents could be weaponized to cause mass civilian causalities. We have developed a rodent survival model of POX toxicity that is being used to evaluate chronic morbidity and to screen for medical countermeasures against severe OP exposure. It is well known that the survivors of nerve gas and chronic OP exposure exhibit neurobehavioral deficits such as mood changes, depression, and memory impairments. In this study we investigated whether animals surviving severe POX exposure exhibited long-term neurological impairments. POX exposure produced overt signs of cholinergic toxicity. Rats were rescued using an optimized atropine, 2-PAM and diazepam therapy. Surviving rats were studied using established behavioral assays for identifying symptoms of depression and memory impairment 3-months after POX exposure. In the forced swim test, POX rats exhibited increased immobility time indicative of a despair-like state. In the sucrose preference test, POX rats consumed significantly less sucrose water indicating anhedonia-like condition. POX rats also displayed increased anxiety as characterized by significantly lower performance in the open arm of the elevated plus maze. Further, when tested with a novel object recognition paradigm, POX rats exhibited a negative discrimination ratio indicative of impaired recognition memory. The results indicate that this model of survival from severe POX exposure can be employed to study some of the molecular bases for OP-induced chronic behavioral and cognitive comorbidities and develop therapies for their treatment.
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Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients..
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Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity.
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Cognitive functioning in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Prior research examining the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer on cognitive performance has found inconsistent relationships. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature and determine the effect of ADT on performance across seven cognitive domains using meta-analysis.
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Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci.
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Lagged relationships among sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood during chemotherapy.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Recent research suggests that sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depressed mood form a symptom cluster in patients treated with chemotherapy. To date, however, no studies have examined lagged relationships among these symptoms during chemotherapy, a time when symptom variability is high. The aim of the current study was to examine lagged changes among daily symptoms during platinum-based chemotherapy.
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The roles of social support and psychological distress in lung transplant candidacy.
Prog Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2011
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Social support appears to be an important component in lung transplantation. However, the relationship between social support, psychological distress, and listing status has not been evaluated in lung transplant candidates.
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Clinical predictors of cognitive function in adults treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Studies suggest that patients with cancer who undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for cognitive deficits. To date, little research has investigated the cumulative effects of clinical risk factors on cognitive function in patients who undergo HCT.
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Cognitive functioning after cancer treatment: a 3-year longitudinal comparison of breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy or radiation and noncancer controls.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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This study examined the influence of prior treatment on the course of cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Changes in cognitive functioning over time were compared in breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, breast cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy only, and women with no history of cancer.
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Prolonged impact of chemotherapy on fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a longitudinal comparison with radiotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors and noncancer controls.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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In this study, the authors examined the influence of prior treatment on the course of fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Patients who received chemotherapy were expected to have greater fatigue than patients who received radiotherapy and noncancer controls 6 months after the completion of treatment, but they were expected to recover to levels similar to those of the other 2 groups 3 years later.
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Characteristics and correlates of sleep disturbances in cancer patients.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Few studies of sleep disturbances in cancer patients have focused on the period before chemotherapy starts. Understanding sleep disturbances in this period is important since early intervention has the potential to reduce the severity or chronicity of these problems. The present study sought to characterize sleep disturbances in this period, examine if they could be predicted by demographic, clinical, or lifestyle factors, and identify their relationship to fatigue, depression, and physical and mental well-being.
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Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients.
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Overlap with the autism spectrum in young children with Williams syndrome.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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The sociocommunicative abnormalities of young children with Williams syndrome (WS) with limited language were compared with those of children with clinical diagnoses of autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), or nonspectrum developmental disability.
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Quality of life outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a controlled comparison.
Support Care Cancer
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now standard treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). While TKIs have less toxicity than previous treatments, they have side effects that can impact quality of life (QOL).
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Comparing the retrospective reports of fatigue using the Fatigue Symptom Index with daily diary ratings in women receiving chemotherapy for gynecologic cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage
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Fatigue, one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy, is typically assessed via retrospective recall (e.g., over the past week). It is unknown how such retrospective recall of fatigue correlates with daily ratings among people receiving chemotherapy.
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Hypothermia reduces calcium entry via the N-methyl-D-aspartate and ryanodine receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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Hypothermia is a powerful neuroprotective method when induced following cardiac arrest, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. The physiological effects of hypothermia are multifaceted and therefore a better knowledge of its therapeutic targets will be central to developing innovative combination therapies to augment the protective benefits of hypothermia. Altered neuronal calcium dynamics have been implicated following stroke, status epilepticus and traumatic brain injury. This study was therefore initiated to evaluate the effect of hypothermia on various modes of calcium entry into a neuron. Here, we utilized various pharmacological agents to stimulate major routes of calcium entry in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Fluorescent calcium indicator Fura-2AM was used to compare calcium ratio under normothermic (37 °C) and hypothermic (31 °C) conditions. The results of this study indicate that hypothermia preferentially reduces calcium entry through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and ryanodine receptors. Hypothermia, on the other hand, did not have a significant effect on calcium entry through the voltage-dependent calcium channels or the inositol tri-phosphate receptors. The ability of hypothermia to selectively affect both N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and ryanodine receptors-mediated calcium systems makes it an attractive intervention for alleviating calcium elevations that are present following many neurological injuries.
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Effects of self-directed stress management training and home-based exercise on stress management skills in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
Stress Health
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Although exercise may be used by some to decrease distress, little is known about how it may contribute to stress management (SM) among patients receiving chemotherapy. We evaluated whether exercise separately or in combination with SM training is effective at increasing perceived ability to manage stress. Patients receiving chemotherapy (N = 391) were randomized to receive usual care only (UCO), SM, exercise (EX), or stress management and exercise (SMEX). They completed the Measure of Current Status prior to receiving chemotherapy and 12 weeks after the first infusion. We hypothesized that participants randomized to an intervention condition would report improvements in relaxation, awareness of tension, getting needs met and coping confidence compared with those receiving UCO. Results indicated significant group-by-time interactions for the following: relaxation (UCO versus SM, p = 0.008), awareness of tension (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.029 and UCO versus EX, p < 0.001), getting needs met (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.020) and Measure of Current Status total score (UCO versus SMEX, p = 0.007 and UCO versus EX, p = 0.016). There were no group-by-time interactions for coping confidence (p-values >0.05). This study provides support for including an exercise component in SM interventions for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00740038).
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Meta-analysis of cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors previously treated with standard-dose chemotherapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Evidence is mixed regarding long-term cognitive deficits in patients treated with chemotherapy. Previous meta-analyses have not focused specifically on the postchemotherapy period and have not incorporated several recent studies. The goal of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors who were treated with chemotherapy ? 6 months previously.
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Effects of self-directed stress management training and home-based exercise on quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a randomized controlled trial.
Psychooncology
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Research has shown that self-directed stress management training improves mental well-being in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The present study extends this work by evaluating separate and combined effects of stress management training and home-based exercise.
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Factors related to health locus of control among lung transplant candidates.
Clin Transplant
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As the number of individuals pursuing lung transplantation to treat lung disease increases, transplant team members have an opportunity to maximize patients chances for post-transplant success through identifying and addressing psychosocial factors that have been previously associated with patients post-transplant survival, such as health locus of control (HLC). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the factors associated with HLC in lung transplant candidates. The aims were to (i) identify the demographic factors associated with internal (IHLC), chance (CHLC), and powerful others (PHLC) HLC; (ii) examine the associations between HLC and anxiety, depression, and optimism; and (iii) determine whether these factors explain a significant proportion of variance in HLC. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age, education, trait anxiety, and optimism explained 20% of the variance in CHLC; gender, trait anxiety, and depression accounted for 9% of the variance in IHLC; and lower education accounted for 5% of the variance in PHLC. Helping transplant team members understand the factors that influence patients perceptions that their own behaviors impact their health status is important for maximizing post-transplant success.
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Genetic predictors of fatigue in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy: preliminary findings.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Fatigue is a common and distressing side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between changes in fatigue following initiation of ADT and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three pro-inflammatory cytokine genes: interleukin-1 beta (IL1B), interleukin-6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA).
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Factors associated with breast cancer worry 3 years after completion of adjuvant treatment.
Psychooncology
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Although many survivors continue to worry about cancer years after completing treatment, little is known about factors associated with cancer worry. This study examined associations between breast cancer worry and demographic and clinical variables, as well as fatigue, symptom burden, and risk perception in a sample of breast cancer survivors 3?years post-adjuvant treatment. We hypothesized that after controlling for demographic and treatment factors, a significant proportion of variance in cancer worry would be explained by greater fatigue severity, more symptom burden, and greater perceived risk of recurrence.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.