Purpose. An analytical and experimental study of split shape dose calculation correction by adjusting the position of the on-axis round leaf end position is presented. We use on-axis corrected results to predict off-axis penumbra region dosimetric performance in an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning system. Materials and Methods. The precise light-field edge position (X tang.p ) was derived from the on-axis 50% dose position created by using the nominal light field for geometric and mathematical manipulation. Leaf position (X mlc.p ) could be derived from X tang.p by defining in the treatment planning system for monitor unit calculation. On-axis offset (correction) could be obtained from the position corresponding to 50% of the central axis dose minus the Xmlc.p position. The off-axis 50% dose position can then be derived from the on-axis 50% dose position. Results. The monitor unit calculation of the split shape using the on-axis rounded leaf end MLC penumbra region could provide an under-or overdose of 7.5% per millimeter without an offset correction. When using the on-axis rounded leaf end offset correction to predict the off-axis dose, the difference between the off- and on-axis 50% dose position is within ±1.5?mm. Conclusions. It is possible to achieve a dose calculation within 0.5% error for an adjusted MLC leaf edge location in the treatment planning system with careful measurement and an accurate on-axis offset correction. Dose calculations located at an off-axis spilt shape region should be used carefully due to noncorrectable errors which were found to be up to 10%.
In previous research, we found ?-enolase to be inversely correlated with progression-free and overall survival in lung cancer patients and detected ?-enolase on the surface of lung cancer cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that surface ?-enolase has a significant role in cancer metastasis and tested this hypothesis in the current study. We found that ?-enolase was co-immunoprecipitated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and plasminogen in lung cancer cells and interacted with these proteins in a cell-free dot blotting assay, which can be interrupted by ?-enolase-specific antibody. ?-Enolase in lung cancer cells co-localized with these proteins and was present at the site of pericellular degradation of extracellular matrix components. Treatment with antibody against ?-enolase in vitro suppressed cell-associated plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinase activation, collagen and gelatin degradation, and cell invasion. Examination of the effect of treatment with shRNA plasmids revealed that down regulation of ?-enolase decreases extracellular matrix degradation by and the invasion capacity of lung cancer cells. Adoptive transfer of ?-enolase-specific antibody to mice resulted in accumulation of antibody in subcutaneous tumor and inhibited the formation of tumor metastasis in lung and bone. This study demonstrated that surface ?-enolase promotes extracellular matrix degradation and invasion of cancer cells and that targeting surface ?-enolase is a promising approach to suppress tumor metastasis.
The recently emerged fields of metamaterials and transformation optics promise a family of exciting applications such as invisibility, optical imaging with deeply subwavelength resolution and nanophotonics with the potential for much faster information processing. The possibility of creating optical negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) using nanostructured metal-dielectric composites has triggered intense basic and applied research over the past several years. However, the performance of all NIM applications is significantly limited by the inherent and strong energy dissipation in metals, especially in the near-infrared and visible wavelength ranges. Generally the losses are orders of magnitude too large for the proposed applications, and the reduction of losses with optimized designs seems to be out of reach. One way of addressing this issue is to incorporate gain media into NIM designs. However, whether NIMs with low loss can be achieved has been the subject of theoretical debate. Here we experimentally demonstrate that the incorporation of gain material in the high-local-field areas of a metamaterial makes it possible to fabricate an extremely low-loss and active optical NIM. The original loss-limited negative refractive index and the figure of merit (FOM) of the device have been drastically improved with loss compensation in the visible wavelength range between 722 and 738 nm. In this range, the NIM becomes active such that the sum of the light intensities in transmission and reflection exceeds the intensity of the incident beam. At a wavelength of 737 nm, the negative refractive index improves from -0.66 to -1.017 and the FOM increases from 1 to 26. At 738 nm, the FOM is expected to become macroscopically large, of the order of 10(6). This study demonstrates the possibility of fabricating an optical negative-index metamaterial that is not limited by the inherent loss in its metal constituent.
This study presents a novel technique in which a uniform radiation dose to the whole body, soles, and scalp vertex can be achieved in one electron beam treatment fraction.
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