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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of ion insertion on cycling performance of miniaturized electrochemical capacitor of carbon nanotubes array.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Capacity degradation and ion insertion of a miniaturized electrochemical capacitor are studied using ionic liquid [EMI] [TFSI] as the electrolyte. This capacitor is featured with two comb-like electrodes of vertical carbon nanotubes, ?70 ?m in height and 20 ?m in interelectrode gap. We quantify the levels of ion insertion damage with Raman spectroscopy after the electrode experiences 120 consecutive voltammetric cycles to various potential limits. Distinct structural damage emerges due to [EMI] when the negative potential reaches -1.7 V, and those due to [TFSI] arise when the positive potential reaches 1.7 V vs. RHE. Judging from the peak broadenings, [EMI] is more detrimental than [TFSI]. When the voltage window ?U is set as less than or equal to 2.8 V, both electrode potentials are within the two intercalation limits, little or no decay is observed in 10(4) charge/discharge cycles. When ?U is 3.4 V, the positive potential exceeds the upper limit, but the negative potential stays within the lower limit, the cell capacitance decreases moderately. When ?U increases to 3.8 V, both electrodes suffer from damages because of exceeding the intercalation limits. And the cell capacitance decreases substantially, even leading to a premature failure.
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Involvement of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the protective effects of losartan on fatty liver graft with ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Besides cardioprotective effects, the AT1R (angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) antagonist losartan protects the liver from IRI [IR (ischaemia/reperfusion) injury], but the mechanism has not been fully determined. The HIF (hypoxia inducible factor)-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways have been reported to be involved in the mechanism of liver IRI. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Wnt/HIF axis is part of the mechanism of the positive effect of AngII inhibition by losartan in liver IRI in rats. Various measurements were made in MCD/HF-NASH (methionine- and choline-deficient-diet/high-fat-diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) rats with liver IRI. Acute losartan pre-administration markedly reversed the IR-suppressed levels of the hepatic-protective factors IL (interleukin)-6, IFN (interferon)-?, Wnt3a, ?-catenin and HIF-1?, and decreased hepatic blood flow and IR-elevated serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase), hepatic TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-?, IL-1?, hepatic congestion, vacuolization and necrosis, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores, necrotic index and levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Furthermore, acute Wnt3a pre-treatment significantly inhibited IR-elevated serum ALT, hepatic Suzuki IRI scores and TBARS, and restored the IR-depleted ?-catenin/HIF-1? activity in MCD/HF-NASH rats. Simultaneous acute sFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2; a Wnt3a inhibitor) pre-treatment eliminated the losartan-related beneficial effects in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI, which was accompanied by a decrease in hepatic HIF-1?/?-catenin activity. Losartan-induced up-regulation of HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling was associated with the recovery of IR-inhibited hepatic Bcl-2, Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide) and GSH levels, and the suppression of IR-increased hepatic catalase and caspase 3/caspase 8 levels in MCD/HF-NASH rats. In conclusion, up-regulation of the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways are part of the mechanism of the positive effects of losartan-related AngII inhibition in MCD/HF-NASH rats with liver IRI. Our study highlights the potential of the dual-organ protective agent losartan in NASH patients with steatotic livers and cardiovascular risk.
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Vitamin D3 treatment has comparative portal hypotensive effects as propranolol by decreasing intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic rats.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Vitamin D3 improves portal hypertension (PH) through the activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in cirrhotic rats. Propranolol is a nonselective ?-blocker that is recommended for the treatment of PH. The present study aims to investigate the detail systemic and hepatic mechanisms of vitamin D3 and propranolol, alone or in combination, in cirrhotic rats.
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A Pilot Study: Association between Minor Physical Anomalies in Childhood and Future Mental Problems.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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This study aims to investigate association between early recognizable minor physical abnormality (MPA) during childhood is associated with mental health problems in young adults.
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Correlation of plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels with the severity and clinical outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate the correlation of two important inflammatory biomarkers, plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), with the severity and outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
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Ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the suprascapular nerve for adhesive capsulitis: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The treatment of adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a well-known, complicated, and long process. Recent studies have shown that pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) lesioning of the suprascapular nerve (SSN) using a fluoroscopy- or computed tomography-guided technique can alleviate shoulder pain. However, there are no studies of PRF lesioning of the SSN in patients with AC using ultrasound-guided (UG) techniques, except for 2 case reports. In this study, we compared the effect of physical therapy alone with physical therapy and PRF lesioning of the SSN using a UG technique.
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Transient childhood psychosis after upper respiratory infection.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Two cases of psychosis after upper respiratory infection were reported. New mental illness among children was substantiated after analyzing the cause of psychosis during the past 10 years of practice. It is confirmed that there is an association between psychosis and upper respiratory infection.
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MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs) have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.
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Gene expression profiling of biological pathway alterations by radiation exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders.
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Concomitant inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis by chronic hydrogen-rich saline and N-acetylcysteine treatments improves systemic, splanchnic and hepatic hemodynamics of cirrhotic rats.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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In cirrhosis, increased oxidative stress leads to systemic and splanchnic hyperdynamic circulation, splanchnic angiogenesis, portosystemic collateral formation, hepatic endothelial dysfunction, increased intrahepatic resistance and the subsequent portal hypertension. Like N-acetylcysteine, hydrogen-rich saline is a new documented antioxidant with the potential to treat the complications of liver diseases.
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Interferon gamma polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in a Han Taiwanese population.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Polymorphisms of the interferon gamma (IFN-?) gene are associated with the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in different populations. However, the genetic susceptibility to TB in Han Chinese living in Taiwan is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the polymorphisms of the IFN-? gene are associated with TB in Han Taiwanese.
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Long-term cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist therapy decreases bacterial translocation in rats with cirrhosis and ascites.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Intestinal hyperpermeability, impaired peritoneal macrophages (PMs) phagocytosis, and bacterial translocation (BT), resulting in increased systemic and local infection/inflammation such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) together with increased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) levels, are all implicated in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis-related complications. Manipulation of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R), which are expressed on the gut mucosa and PMs, has been reported to modulate intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory cytokine release. Our study aims to explore the effects of chronic CB1R/CB2R agonist/antagonist treatments on relevant abnormalities in cirrhotic ascitic rats.
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Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist correlates with hepatic venous pressure gradient and predicts occurrence of overall complications and bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1? and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are increased in cirrhotic patients. We aimed to investigate whether these cytokines correlate with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), the severity of liver cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis.
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Benzodiazepine-associated hepatic encephalopathy significantly increased healthcare utilization and medical costs of Chinese cirrhotic patients: 7-year experience.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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In cirrhosis, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines (BZD) and precipitating hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, economic impact and modifiable factors that are associated with the excess risk of BZD-associated HE in cirrhotic patients.
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Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes over vertically aligned silicon nanowire bundles for achieving uniform field emission.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A fabrication strategy is proposed to enable precise coverage of as-grown carbon nanotube (CNT) mats atop vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) bundles in order to realize a uniform bundle array of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions over a large sample area. No obvious electrical degradation of as-fabricated SiNWs is observed according to the measured current-voltage characteristic of a two-terminal single-nanowire device. Bundle arrangement of CNT-SiNW heterojunctions is optimized to relax the electrostatic screening effect and to maximize the field enhancement factor. As a result, superior field emission performance and relatively stable emission current over 12 h is obtained. A bright and uniform fluorescent radiation is observed from CNT-SiNW-based field emitters regardless of its bundle periodicity, verifying the existence of high-density and efficient field emitters on the proposed CNT-SiNW bundle arrays.
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Cycle stability of the electrochemical capacitors patterned with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in an LiPF6-based electrolyte.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The miniature ultracapacitors, with interdigitated electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and an inter-electrode gap of 20 ?m, have been prepared in the LiPF6 organic electrolyte with and without PVdF-HFP gel. PVdF-HFP between two opposing electrodes enhances the device reliability, but lessens its power performance because of the extra diffusion resistance. Also noteworthy are the gel influences on the cycle stability. When the applied voltage is 2.0 or 2.5 V, both the LiPF6 and the gel capacitors exhibit excellent stability, typified by a retention ratio of ?95% after 10,000 cycles. Their coulombic efficiencies quickly rise up, and hold steady at 100%. Nonetheless, when the applied voltage is 3.5 or 4.0 V, the cycle stability deteriorates, since the negative electrode potential descends below 0.9 V (vs. Li), leading to electrolyte decomposition and SEI formation. For the LiPF6 capacitor, its retention ratio could be around 60% after 10,000 cycles and the coulombic efficiency of 100% is difficult to reach throughout its cycle life. On the other hand, the gel capacitor cycles energy with a much higher retention ratio, >80% after 10,000 cycles, and a better coulombic efficiency, even though electrolyte decomposition still occurs. We attribute the superior stability of the gel capacitor to its extra diffusion resistance which slows down the performance deterioration.
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Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers.
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Electroconvulsive therapy improves clinical manifestation with plasma BDNF levels unchanged in treatment-resistant depression patients.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment in treatment-resistant depression; it may modulate intracellular processes in such patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and the clinical improvements after ECT for patients with treatment-resistant depression. Fifty-five inpatients with treatment-resistant depression were recruited. The severity of depression was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) before ECT, after every 3 sessions of ECT, and at the end of ECT. Plasma BDNF levels were measured in all subjects before and after ECT. The severity of depression was significantly reduced on the HAMD-17 (p < 0.001) and the CGI-S (p < 0.001) after the end of ECT. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels after ECT (p = 0.615). No significant correlation was found between changes in plasma BDNF levels and changes in HAMD-17 scores (r = 0.188, p = 0.169). Our results do not support the hypothesis that improvements in treatment-resistant depression patients after ECT are due to changes in BDNF levels.
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Relationships of single nucleotide polymorphisms of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and chemokine receptor 2 with susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics of neoplasia of uterine cervix in Taiwan women.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Few studies reported the implication of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CCR-2) in clinical significance of cancer of uterine cervix. We hypothesized that SNPs of MCP-1 and CCR-2 may affect the expression of these genes and then proteins. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the gene polymorphisms of MCP-1 and CCR-2 on the susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics of cervical neoplasia in Taiwan women. We recruited 86 patients with invasive cancer and 61 with high-grade dysplasia and 253 control women and selected 1 MCP-1 SNP rs1024611 (-2518G/A) and 1 CCR-2 SNP rs1799864 (190G/A; V64I) to determine their genotypes distribution using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In comparison to normal individuals with homozygotes GG in MCP-2 SNP, women with GA or AA carried a 2.01 odds ratio of developing cervical cancer. Nevertheless, it was not demonstrated in CCR-2 SNP. Furthermore, women with mutant homozygote (AA) of MCP-1 SNP increased the risk of deep stromal invasion, large tumor diameter, and parametrium invasion of cervical cancer, when compared to those with wild homozygote GG or heterozygote GA. However, women with mutant homozygotes (AA) of CCR-2 SNP did not increase the risk of poor clinicopathologic characteristics. In conclusion, MCP-1 SNP may be correlated with the development, deep stromal invasion, large tumor diameter, and parametrium invasion of cervical cancer but not with cancer recurrence or survival of Taiwan women patients with cancer. However, the SNP of its receptor, CCR-2, is not implicated in cervical cancer.
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Anti-VEGFR agents ameliorate hepatic venous dysregulation/microcirculatory dysfunction, splanchnic venous pooling and ascites of NASH-cirrhotic rat.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) agents improve hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Detail interactions among recruited/activated leucocytes, hepatic angiogenesis and fibrogenesis, splanchnic blood pooling, decreased hepatic veins to fluctuated splanchnic blood volume (hepatic venous dysregulation), portal hypertensive syndrome and ascites have never explored in cirrhosis. Our study used two anti-VEGFR agents - brivanib and sorafenib - to elucidate the relationship between above abnormalities of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-cirrhotic rats.
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IL28B polymorphism correlates with active hepatitis in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The clinical relevance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the IL28B gene is controversial in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to investigate the role of viral and host factors, including IL28B genotypes, in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
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Aliskiren attenuates steatohepatitis and increases turnover of hepatic fat in mice fed with a methionine and choline deficient diet.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Activation of the renin-angiotensin-system is known to play a role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Renin knockout mice manifest decreased hepatic steatosis. Aliskiren is the first direct renin inhibitor to be approved for clinical use. Our study aims to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and mechanism of the chronic administration of aliskiren in a dietary steatohepatitis murine model.
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CXCL9 associated with sustained virological response in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving peginterferon alfa-2a therapy: a pilot study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is lack of a practical biomarker to predict sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients undergoing peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN). The aim of this pilot study was to identify immunological features associated with SVR.
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Molecular dynamics simulations of a hyperthermophilic and a mesophilic protein L30e.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the hyperthermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from archaeon Thermococcus celer at 300 and 350 K, and its mesophilic homologue, yeast L30e, at 300 K in explicit solvent for a period of 5.0 ns. Three trajectories obtained from the MD simulations were stable throughout the simulation period, such as total potential energy, radius of gyration, root-mean-square deviation, and secondary structures assignment. At 300 K, T. celer L30e is less flexible than its mesophilic homologue, and this difference becomes more pronounced at 350 K. Salt bridge networks, one triad and one hexad, are present at the surface of T. celer L30e. The ion pairs forming these salt bridges maintain close contact at a higher temperature, suggesting that these networks contribute to the protein’s hyperthermal stability. By contrast, we found no such networks to be present in yeast L30e. For charged residue I in T. celer L30e, the ??GsolvI value and its corresponding ?ECoulI value possess opposite signs. This indicates that for T. celer L30e, a change in the solvation free energy of a charged residue due to increasing temperature is compensated by a change in the residude’s Coulombic interaction energy with the rest of the protein.
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Electron field emission characteristics of different surface morphologies of ZnO nanostructures coated on carbon nanotubes.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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The optimal carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles with a hexagonal arrangement were synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). To enhance the electron field emission characteristics of the pristine CNTs, the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures coated on CNT bundles using another TCVD technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the ZnO nanostructures were grown onto the CNT surface uniformly, and the surface morphology of ZnO nanostructures varied with the distance between the CNT bundle and the zinc acetate. The results of field emissions showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown onto the CNTs could improve the electron field emission characteristics. The enhancement of field emission characteristics was attributed to the increase of emission sites formed by the nanostructures of ZnO grown onto the CNT surface, and each ZnO nanostructure could be regarded as an individual field emission site. In addition, ZnO-coated CNT bundles exhibited a good emission uniformity and stable current density. These results demonstrated that ZnO-coated CNTs is a promising field emitter material.
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Construction and analysis of the protein-protein interaction networks for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression are devastating mental diseases, each with distinctive yet overlapping epidemiologic characteristics. Microarray and proteomics data have revealed genes which expressed abnormally in patients. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations are associated with one or more of the three diseases. Nevertheless, there are few studies on the interactions among the disease-associated genes and proteins.
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Effects of two-photon absorption on terahertz radiation generated by femtosecond-laser excited photoconductive antennas.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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Terahertz (THz) radiation can be generated more efficiently from a low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) photoconductive (PC) antenna by considering the two-photon absorption (TPA) induced photo-carrier in the photoconductor. A rate-equation-based approach using the Drude-Lorentz model taking into account the band-diagram of LT-GaAs is used for the theoretical analysis. The use of transform-limited pulses at the PC antenna is critical experimentally. Previously unnoticed THz pulse features and anomalously increasing THz radiation power rather than saturation were observed. These are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The interplay of intensity dependence and dynamics of generation of photoexcited carriers by single-photon absorption and TPA for THz emission is discussed.
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A comparative study of the second-order hydrophobic moments for globular proteins: the consensus scale of hydrophobicity and the CHARMM partial atomic charges.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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In this paper, the second-order hydrophobic moment for fifteen globular proteins in 150 nonhomologous protein chains was performed in a comparative study involving two sets of hydrophobicity: one selected from the consensus scale and the other derived from the CHARMM partial atomic charges. These proteins were divided into three groups, based on their number of residues (N) and the asphericity (?). Proteins in Group I were spherical and those in Groups II and III were prolate. The size of the proteins is represented by the mean radius of gyration (R(g) ), which follows the Flory scaling law, R(g) ? N(?). The mean value of v was 0.35, which is similar to a polymer chain in a poor solvent. The spatial distributions of the second-order moment for each of the proteins, obtained from the two sets of hydrophobicity, were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient; the results reveal that there is a strong correlation between the two data sets for each protein structure when the CHARMM partial atomic charges, |q(i)| ? 0.3, assigned for polar atoms, are used. The locations at which these distributions vanish and approach a negative value are at approximately 50% of the percentage of solvent accessibility, indicating that there is a transition point from hydrophobic interior to hydrophilic exterior in the proteins. This may suggest that there is a position for the proteins to determine the residues at exposed sites beyond this range.
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A nanostructured electrode of IrOx foil on the carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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IrO(x) nanofoils (IrO(x)NF) of high surface area are sputtered on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the preparation of a structured electrode on a stainless steel (SUS) substrate for supercapacitor applications. This IrO(x)/CNT/SUS electrode is featured with intriguing IrO(x) curved foils of 2-3 nm in thickness and 400-500 nm in height, grown on top of the vertically aligned CNT film with a tube diameter of ? 40 nm. These nanofoils are moderately oxidized during reactive sputtering and appeared translucent under the electron microscope. Detailed structural analysis shows that they are comprised of contiguous grains of iridium metal, iridium dioxide, and glassy iridium oxide. Considerable Raman line broadening is also evidenced for the attributed nanosized iridium oxides. Two capacitive properties of the electrode are significantly enhanced with addition of the curved IrO(x) foils. First, IrO(x)NF reduces the electrode Ohmic resistance, which was measured at 3.5 ? cm(2) for the CNT/SUS and 2.5 ? cm(2) for IrO(x)NF/CNT/SUS using impedance spectroscopy. Second, IrO(x)NF raises the electrode capacitance from 17.7 F g(-1) (CNT/SUS) to 317 F g(-1) (IrO(x)/CNT/SUS), measured with cyclic voltammetry. This notable increase is further confirmed by the galvanostatic charge/discharge experiment, measuring 370 F g(-1) after 2000 uninterrupted cycles between - 1.0 and 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl).
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Mirtazapine relieves post-electroconvulsive therapy headaches and nausea: a case series and review of the literature.
J ECT
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Headaches and nausea are the 2 most common adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These adverse effects have been frequently reported in the postictal period and make it difficult for the patient to continue with the following ECTs. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant with a mechanism that involves activating serotonin (5-HT1) receptors. This mechanism has been hypothesized to be the underlying therapeutic effects for depression and anxiety. In addition, mirtazapine possesses antagonistic effects on the postsynaptic serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. The pharmacological actions are hypothesized to be related to its treatment effects of headaches and nausea. Here, we report a case series of patients developing post-ECT headaches and nausea, and the concomitant administration of mirtazapine successfully relieved the ECT-associated adverse effects. This case series suggest that mirtazapine may be an optional treatment for ECT-induced headaches and nausea.
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Clinical and molecular characterization of a transmitted reciprocal translocation t(1;12)(p32.1;q21.3) in a family co-segregating with mental retardation, language delay, and microcephaly.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Chromosome translocation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders provides an opportunity to identify new disease-associated genes and gain new insight into their function. During chromosome analysis, we identified a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1p and 12q, t(1; 12)(p32.1; q21.3), co-segregating with microcephaly, language delay, and severe psychomotor retardation in a mother and her two affected boys.
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Pulse shortening mode-locked fiber laser by thickness and concentration product of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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The dependence of thickness and concentration product (TCP) of single-wall carbon nanotubes saturable absorber (SWCNTs SA) on stabilizing and shortening pulsewidth in mode-locked fiber lasers (MLFLs) was investigated. We found that an optimized TCP for pulse energy and nonlinear self-phase modulation (SPM) enabled to determine the shorter pulsewidth and broader 3-dB spectral linewidth of the MLFLs. The shortest MLFL pulsewidth of 418 fs and broad spectral linewidth of 6 nm were obtained as the optimized TCP was 70.93 (?m•wt%), which was in good agreement with the area theorem prediction. This significant effect of TCP on pulse energy, SPM, pulsewidth, and spectral linewidth of MLFLs suggests that the TCP represents the total amount of SWCNTs in SA, which can be used as one of important and key parameters for characterizing the passive MLFL pulsewidth.
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Molecular cytogenetic analysis and clinical manifestations of a case with de novo mosaic ring chromosome 7.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Clinical and molecular cytogenetic investigations of a newborn girl exhibiting facial dysmorphism with developmental delay.
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Synthesis and measurement of ultrafast waveforms from five discrete optical harmonics.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Achieving the control of light fields in a manner similar in sophistication to the control of electromagnetic fields in the microwave and radiofrequency regimes has been a major challenge in optical physics research. We manipulated the phase and amplitude of five discrete harmonics spanning the blue to mid-infrared frequencies to produce instantaneous optical fields in the shape of square, sawtooth, and subcycle sine and cosine pulses at a repetition rate of 125 terahertz. Furthermore, we developed an all-optical shaper-assisted linear cross-correlation technique to retrieve these fields and thereby verified their shapes and confirmed the critical role of carrier-envelope phase in Fourier synthesis of optical waveforms.
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High-resolution 133Cs 6S-6D, 6S-8S two-photon spectroscopy using an intracavity scheme.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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This Letter presents an intracavity scheme for diode laser based two-photon spectroscopy. To demonstrate generality, three (133)Cs hyperfine transition groups of different wavelengths are shown. For the 6S-6D transitions, we achieved a 10(2) times better signal-to-noise ratio than in previous work [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74, 2487 (2005)] with 10(-3) times less laser power, revealing some previously vague and unobserved spectra. Possible mutual influences between the two-photon absorber and laser cavity were investigated for the first time to our knowledge, which leads to the application of a reliable hand-sized optical frequency reference. Our approach is applicable for most of the two-photon spectroscopy of alkali atoms.
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Characterization and expression of chicken selenoprotein W.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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As an essential trace element, selenium (Se) deficiency results in White Muscle Disease in livestock and Keshan disease in humans. The main objectives of this study were to clone and characterize the chicken selenoprotein W (SeW) gene and investigate SeW mRNA expression in chicken tissues. The deduced amino acid (AA) sequence of chicken SeW contains 85 AAs with UAG as the stop codon. Like all SeW genes identified in different species, chicken SeW contains one well-conserved selenocysteine (Sec) at the 13th position encoded by the UGA codon. The proposed glutathione (GSH)-binding site at the Cys(37) of SeW is not conserved in the chicken, but Cys(9) and Sec(13), with possible GSH binding, are conserved in SeWs identified from all species. There are 23-59% and 50-61% homology in cDNA and deduced AA sequences of SeW, respectively, between the chicken and other species. The predicted secondary structure of chicken SeW mRNA indicates that the selenocysteine insertion sequence element is type II with invariant adenosines within the apical bulge. The SeW mRNA expression is high in skeletal muscle followed by brain, but extremely low in other tissues from chickens fed a commercial maize-based diet. The SeW gene is ubiquitously expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, spleen, kidney, lung, liver, stomach and pancreas in chickens fed a commercial diet supplemented with sodium selenite. These results indicate that dietary selenium supplementation regulates SeW gene expression in the chicken and skeletal muscle is the most responsive tissue when dietary Se content is low.
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Non-invasive and transdermal measurement of blood uric acid level in human by electroporation and reverse iontophoresis.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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The aim of this study was to find out the optimum combination of electroporation (EP) and reverse iontophoresis (RI) on noninvasive and transdermal determination of blood uric acid level in humans. EP is the use of high-voltage electric pulse to create nano-channels on the stratum corneum, temporarily and reversibly. RI is the use of small current to facilitate both charged and uncharged molecule transportation across the skin. It is believed that the combination of these two techniques has additional benefits on the molecules extraction across the human skin. In vitro studies using porcine skin and diffusion cell have indicated that the optimum mode for transdermal uric acid extraction is the combination of RI with symmetrical biphasic direct current (current density = 0.3 mA/cm²; phase duration = 180 s) and EP with 10 pulses per second (voltage = 100 V/cm²; pulse width = 1 ms). This optimum mode was applied to six human subjects. Uric acid was successfully extracted through the subjects skin into the collection solution. A good correlation (r² = 0.88) between the subjects blood uric acid level and uric acid concentrations in collection solutions was observed. The results suggest that it may be possible to noninvasively and transdermally determine blood uric acid levels.
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Key features for designing phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Phosphodiesterase superfamily is the key regulator of 3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) decomposition in human body. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are well known oral treatment for males with erectile dysfunction. To investigate the inhibitory effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds to PDE-5, we performed both ligand-based and structure-based studies on this topic. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) studies were conducted to construct three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models of series of known PDE-5 inhibitors. The predictive models had cross-validated, q(2), and non cross-validated coefficient, r(2), values of 0.791 and 0.948 for CoMFA and 0.724 and 0.908 for CoMSIA. These two 3D-QSAR models were used to predict activity of TCM compounds. Docking simulations were performed to further analyze the binding mode of training set and TCM compounds. A putative binding model was proposed based on CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps and docking simulations; formation of pi-stacking, water bridge and specific hydrogen bonding were deemed important interactions between ligands and PDE-5. Of our TCM compounds, engeletin, satisfied our binding model, and hence, emerged as PDE-5 inhibitor candidate. Using this study as an example, we demonstrated that docking should be conducted for qualitative purposes, such as identifying protein characteristics, rather than for quantitative analyses that rank compound efficacy based on results of scoring functions. Prediction of compound activity should be reserved for QSAR analyses, and scoring functions and docking scores should be used for preliminary screening of TCM database (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/index.php).
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A novel strategy for designing the selective PPAR agonist by the "sum of activity" model.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, delta and gamma are a collection of ligand-activated transcription factors crucial in lipid and glucose homeostasis. The involvement of these receptors in lipid metabolism makes them perfect therapeutic target for treating obesity and stroke. In this study, sum of activity model was employed to design multi-target agonists. We used a new strategy to design agonists that fit both alpha and delta but not gamma, to avoid side effect. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models were used to explore the pharmacophore features by constructing three individual models: (a) alpha-model, (b) delta-model and (c) gamma-model, and two sum models: (d) alpha, delta- model, and (e) alpha, delta and gamma-model. The CoMFA model yielded a significant cross validation value, q(2), of 0.729 and non-cross validation value, r(2), of 0.933 in the alpha, delta-model. The CoMSIA studies yielded the best predictive models with q(2) of 0.622 in A+S and with r(2) of 0.911 in the alpha, delta-model. Finally, we proposed that distinct features shown in models (a), (b), (d) but not (c) and (e) should be accounted in designing weight-controlling drugs.
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High-order rational harmonic mode-locking and pulse-amplitude equalization of SOAFL via reshaped gain-switching FPLD pulse injection.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The 40-GHz rational harmonic mode-locking (RHML) and pulse-amplitude equalization of a semiconductor optical amplifier based fiber-ring laser (SOAFL) is demonstrated by the injection of a reshaped 10-GHz gain-switching FPLD pulse. A nonlinearly biased Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is employed to detune the shape of the double-peak pulse before injecting the SOA, such that a pulse-amplitude equalized 4th-order RHML-SOAFL can be achieved by reshaping the SOA gain within one modulation period. An optical injection mode-locking model is constructed to simulate the compensation of uneven amplitudes between adjacent RHML pulse peaks before and after pulse-amplitude equalization. The indirect gain compensation technique greatly suppresses the clock amplitude jitter from 45% to 3.5% when achieving 4th-order RHML, and the amplitude fluctuation of sub-rational harmonic modulating envelope is attenuated by 45 dB. After pulse-amplitude equalization, the pulsewidth of the optical-injection RHML-SOAFL is 8 ps, which still obeys the trend predicted by the inverse square root of repetition rate. The phase noise contributed by the residual ASE noise of the RHML-SOAFL is significantly decreased from -84 to -90 dBc/Hz after initiating the pulse-amplitude equalization, corresponding to the timing jitter reduction from 0.5 to 0.28 ps.
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Incidence and possible risk factors for clinical upper gastrointestinal events in patients taking selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: A prospective, observational, cohort study in Taiwan.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Use of selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors is associated with a better gastrointestinal (GI) safety profile than use of other NSAIDs. However, the risk factors for clinical upper GI events (symptomatic ulcers and ulcer complications) in COX-2 inhibitor users have been rarely evaluated in the past.
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Structure-based and ligand-based drug design for HER 2 receptor.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2, is a commonly over-expressed tyrosine kinase receptor found in many types of carcinoma. Despite that there are several HER2 inhibitors, namely Iressa, Tarceva and Tykerb, currently in clinical trials, all can cause several side effects. In this study, both structure-based and ligand-based drug design were employed to design novel HER2 inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The HER2 structure model was built in homology modeling based on known receptors of the same family. Docking and de novo evolution experiments were performed to identify candidates and to build derivatives. A training set of 32 compounds with inhibitory activities to HER2 was used to formulate the pharmacophore hypotheses that were subsequently used to examine candidates obtained from the docking study. Hydrogen bond interactions, salt-bridge formations and pi-stacking were observed between the ligands and Phe731, Lys753, Asp863 and Asp808 of HER2 protein. Combining results from both docking and pharmacophore mapping analysis, CLC015-5, CLC604-11 and CLC604-18 were well accepted and consistent in both approaches and were considered as the most potential HER2 inhibitors.
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Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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We comprehensively investigated the concentration effect of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in polymer films for being a saturable absorber (SA) to stabilize the mode locking performance of the erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) pulse through the diagnosis of its nonlinear properties of SA. The measured modulation depth was from 1 to 4.5% as the thickness increased 18 to 265 microm. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of the stable mode-locked EDFL (MLEDFL) pulse decreased from 3.43 to 2.02 ps as the concentrations of SWCNTs SA increased 0.125 to 0.5 wt%. At constant concentration of 0.125 wt%, the similar pulse shortening effect of the MLEDFL was also observed when the FWHM decreased from 3.43 to 1.85 ps as the thickness of SWCNTs SA increased 8 to 100 microm. With an erbium-doped fiber length of 80 cm, the shortest pulse width of 1.85 ps were achieved at 1.56 microm with a repetition rate of 11.1 MHz and 0.2 mW of the output power under an output coupling ratio of 5%. An in-depth study on the stable mode-locked pulse formation employing SWCNTs SA, it is possible to fabricate the SWCNT films for use in high performance MLEDFL and utilization of many other low-cost nanodevices.
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A transgenic mouse for imaging caspase-dependent apoptosis within the skin.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Apoptosis is an essential process for the maintenance of normal physiology. The ability to noninvasively image apoptosis in living animals would provide unique insights into its role in normal and disease processes. Herein, a recombinant reporter consisting of beta-galactosidase gene flanked by two estrogen receptor regulatory domains and intervening Asp-Glu-Val-Glu sequences was constructed to serve as a tool for in vivo assessment of apoptotic activity. The results demonstrate that when expressed in its intact form, the hybrid reporter had undetectable beta-galactosidase activity. Caspase 3 activation in response to an apoptotic stimulus resulted in cleavage of the reporter, and thereby reconstitution of beta-galactosidase activity. Enzymatic activation of the reporter during an apoptotic event enabled noninvasive measurement of beta-galactosidase activity in living cells, which correlated with traditional measures of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using a near-infrared fluorescent substrate of beta-galactosidase (9H-{1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl} beta-D-galactopyranoside), noninvasive in vivo imaging of apoptosis was achieved in a xenograft tumor model in response to proapoptotic therapy. Finally, a transgenic mouse model was developed expressing the ER-LACZ-ER reporter within the skin. This reporter and transgenic mouse could serve as a unique tool for the study of apoptosis in living cells and animals, especially in the context of skin biology.
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Evaluation of treatment-associated inflammatory response on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography imaging biomarkers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Functional imaging biomarkers of cancer treatment response offer the potential for early determination of outcome through the assessment of biochemical, physiologic, and microenvironmental readouts. Cell death may result in an immunologic response, thus complicating the interpretation of biomarker readouts. This study evaluated the temporal effect of treatment-associated inflammatory activity on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET) biomarkers to delineate the effects of the inflammatory response on imaging readouts.
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Administration of a low dose of sildenafil for 1 week decreases intrahepatic resistance in rats with biliary cirrhosis: the role of NO bioavailability.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Increasing NO bioavailability improves hepatic endothelial dysfunction, which ameliorates intrahepatic resistance and portal hypertension. Acute administration of sildenafil increases hepatic production of NO with a reduction in hepatic sinusoid resistance in cirrhotic patients and enhances the vasorelaxation response to NO in cirrhotic rat livers. However, the mechanisms were still unclear. Therefore, our present study aims to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of administration of sildenafil for 1 week on the hepatic microcirculation of cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation with sham-operated rats serving as normal controls. Intrahepatic resistance was evaluated by in situ liver perfusion. Expression of phospho-eNOS (endothelial NO synthase), iNOS (inducible NO synthase), phospho-Akt, PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase-5) and sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) were determined by Western blot analysis. Biosynthesis of BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin) and GTPCH-I (GTP cyclohydrolase I) activity were examined by HPLC. Intravital microscopy was used to observe the direct change in hepatic microcirculation. In cirrhotic rat livers, sildenafil treatment increased hepatic sinusoid volumetric flow, NO bioavailability, BH4, GTPCH-I activity, and the protein expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-eNOS and sGC. These events were associated with reduced protein expression of PDE-5, portal perfusion pressure and portal vein pressure. In contrast, sham rats did not produce any significant change in these measurements. In conclusion, sildenafil treatment improves endothelial dysfunction by augmenting NO bioavailability in the hepatic microcirculation.
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Comparison of the efficacy and impact on cognition of glycopyrrolate and biperiden for clozapine-induced sialorrhea in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) is a subjective distressing adverse effect and occurs in 31%-57% of schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine therapy. Current pharmacotherapy on CIS has focused on anticholinergic agents, even though they may impair cognitive function. Previous case reports have suggested the benefit of glycopyrrolate or biperiden in treating this condition, but no randomized controlled trial has provided evidence. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and impact on cognition of glycopyrrolate and biperiden treatments for schizophrenic patients suffering from CIS.
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Gastric necrosis and perforation as a severe complication of pancreatic pseudocyst.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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Patients with acute pancreatitis may present with stress-related gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. But severe gastrointestinal complications such as gastric perforation are very rare. Here, we report a 40-year-old man who was admitted due to acute pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation. During hospitalization, panendoscopic examination found multiple scattered stress ulcers over the gastric antrum and a large ulcerative area with suspicious malignant features at the body and fundus. The patient received surgical intervention due to worsening of his clinical condition. Postoperative findings showed a perforation of the gastric wall at the region in contact with the pseudocyst, and microscopic examination found diffuse ischemia and necrosis with intravascular thrombus and emboli in gastric vessels. We suggest keeping in mind that pancreatic pseudocyst may cause serious gastrointestinal complications including massive necrosis and perforation of the gastric wall.
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the stomach successfully treated with cisplatin and etoposide.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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We report a 44-year-old man with primary gastric small cell carcinoma who showed a remarkable response to chemotherapy specific for pulmonary small cell carcinoma. The patient had been admitted to another local hospital because of intermittent epigastralgia. An upper gastrointestinal examination there revealed an ulcerative tumor, 5 cm in diameter, on the lesser curvature side of the cardia, and endoscopic biopsy reported adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography revealed a mass over the lesser curvature of the stomach and some enlarged regional lymph nodes. Radical total gastrectomy, lymph node dissection, Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy and splenectomy were performed at our hospital. Pathology revealed gastric mucosa infiltrated by small-sized tumor cells with scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56. Primary gastric small cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The postoperative course, complicated by shock due to bleeding, wound infection and intra-abdominal abscess, took more than 2 months to resolve. Follow-up computed tomography showed tumor recurrence with multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the aortocaval region and hepatic hilum. The patient received palliative chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1 and etoposide 80 mg/m(2) on days 1-3 every 28 days, and had partial response to the chemotherapy, with a progression-free survival of 10 months. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide used for small cell carcinoma of the lung is a good treatment for gastric small cell carcinoma.
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Observing second-order nonlinear optical properties by symmetry breaking in centrosymmetric furan-containing oligoaryl cyclophandienes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Centrosymmetric furan-containing cyclophandienes 3 and 4, synthesized by our furan annulation protocol, have been shown to exhibit extraordinarily large Stokes shifts and second-order nonlinear optical beta values. The beta values for 3 and 4 measured at 1.32 mum are 208 and 530x10(-30) esu, respectively. The beta values of 3 and 4 are similar to those of respective cyclophenes 1 a and 7 in which strong hyperpoarizable interactions between two twisted pi-systems (oligoaryl and bridging double bond) might take place. Symmetry breaking due to the resonance contribution (cf. 2) and the unique structural features of 3 and 4 has been used to account for this unusual photophysical behavior.
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[A project to reduce rejection of newborn screening blood specimens for congenital metabolic diseases].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Defective blood specimens used to screen congenital metabolic diseases in newborns cause specimens to be rejected and necessitate that a heel stick be performed again. Such results in delayed diagnoses and family complaints. The purpose of this project was to reduce the incidence of blood specimen rejection. The project was carried out from March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007. Project team members identified the causes of specimen problems using onsite observation, document review and quizzes on specimen collection knowledge. Three causes were found, including incorrect blood collection procedures, lack of pre-job training and continuing education, and disorganized blood collection work station. Five strategies were proposed to reduce the rejection of blood specimens: (1) establish standard operating procedures for blood specimen collection done to screen for congenital metabolic diseases; (2) design blood specimen collection training courses; (3) make a list of common errors encountered in blood specimen collection; (4) designate a specific person to organize the work station and (5) maintain an accurate monthly record of specimens rejected. After the completion of the project, the objective was achieved. The percentage of the rejected specimens fell from 19.5% to 3.8% per month and nurse scores on specimen collection knowledge increased from 68 to 92. In order to ensure the correctness of blood specimen collection, appropriate pre-job training and periodical on-job training courses for staff are further suggested.
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Clodronate-induced cell apoptosis in human thyroid carcinoma is mediated via the P2 receptor signaling pathway.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Clodronate, a halogenated bisphosphonate, can inhibit the growth of human thyroid carcinoma (TC) cells. Previously, we found that a clodronate-induced Ca(2+) transient was correlated with clodronate-induced growth inhibition in TC cells. However, the details of the signaling process underlying the antiproliferative effect of clodronate on TC cells are not clear. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative mechanism of clodronate on papillary TC (PTC) cells and xenotransplanted animals using a combination of pharmacological drugs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the endogenous expression of P2Y receptor isoforms in PTC cells. The P2 antagonist suramin not only inhibited the antiproliferative effect of clodronate and ATP on TC cells but also blocked all the Ca(2+) transients induced by clodronate and ATP. The release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum and membrane depolarization of mitochondria was observed during the clodronate-induced Ca(2+) transients. The results of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick-end labeling assays and flow cytometry with annexin V and caspase-3 staining suggest that both ATP and clodronate induce apoptosis. Significant inhibition of tumor invasion and colony formation was also observed in clodronate-treated PTC cells. We further demonstrated that only the cAMP inhibitor 9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (SQ22536), and not inhibitors of phospholipase C [1-[6-[[17beta-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)] or store-operated Ca(2+) entry (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate), can significantly reverse the effect of clodronate. Finally, in vivo animal and green fluorescent protein imaging studies further proved that the tumor inhibitory effect of clodronate on xenotransplanted CG3 cells can be reversed by treatment with suramin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that clodronate-induced PTC cell apoptosis and tumor inhibition are partially mediated by the P2Y receptor-cAMP cascade.
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Inhibition of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha attenuates the anandamide-induced vasoconstrictive response in cirrhotic rat livers.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Increased anandamide, an endocannabinoid that interacts with both cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, can induce hepatic vasoconstrictive responses that contribute to the increased intrahepatic resistance (IHR) in cirrhotic rats. Chronic endotoxaemia and the subsequent release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are suggested to result in increased anandamide in cirrhotic livers. Thalidomide, which inhibited TNF-alpha effectively, has been used clinically in states of chronic TNF-alpha elevation with encouraging results.
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Manipulation of operation states by polarization control in an erbium-doped fiber laser with a hybrid saturable absorber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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We propose an operation switchable ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) via intra-cavity polarization control. By using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror in the EDFL cavity, stable Q-switching, Q-switched mode-locking, continuous-wave mode-locking, pulse splitting, and harmonic mode-locking pulses can be manipulated simply by detuning a polarization controller while keeping the pump power at the same level. All EDFL operation states can be obtained under the polarization angles detuning within 180 degrees. Continuous-wave mode-locking of EDFL with 800-fs pulsewidth repeated at 4 MHz has been obtained, for which the output pulse energy is 0.5 nJ and the peak power is 625 W. Interaction between solitons and the accompanied non-soliton component will lead to either pulse splitting or 5th-order harmonic mode-locking at repetition rate of 20 MHz.
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Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of Raman-generated periodic waveforms.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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We demonstrate control of the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort periodic waveforms that are synthesized from a Raman-generated optical frequency comb. We generated the comb by adiabatically driving a molecular vibrational coherence with a beam at a fundamental frequency plus its second harmonic. Heterodyne measurements show that full interpulse phase locking of the comb components is realized. The results set the stage for the synthesis of periodic arbitrary waveforms in the femtosecond and subfemtosecond regimes with full control.
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Synergy between anti-CCL2 and docetaxel as determined by DW-MRI in a metastatic bone cancer model.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be the second leading cause of cancer death in American men with an estimated 28,660 deaths in 2008. Recently, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) has been identified as an important factor in the regulation of prostate metastasis. CCL2, shown to attract macrophages to the tumor site, has a direct promotional effect on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Previous studies have shown that anti-CCL2 antibodies given in combination with docetaxel were able to induce tumor regression in a pre-clinical prostate cancer model. A limitation for evaluating new treatments for metastatic prostate cancer to bone is the inability of imaging to objectively assess response to treatment. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) assesses response to anticancer therapies by quantifying the random (i.e., Brownian) motion of water molecules within the tumor mass, thus identifying cells undergoing apoptosis. We sought to measure the treatment response of prostate cancer in an osseous site to docetaxel, an anti-CCL2 agent, and combination treatments using DW-MRI. Measurements of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were accomplished over time during a 14-day treatment period and compared to response as measured by bioluminescence imaging and survival studies. The diffusion data provided early predictive evidence of the most effective therapy, with survival data results correlating with the DW-MRI findings. DW-MRI is under active investigation in the pre-clinical and clinical settings to provide a sensitive and quantifiable means for early assessment of cancer treatment outcome.
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Chronic administration of ursodeoxycholic acid decreases portal pressure in rats with biliary cirrhosis.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Liver cirrhosis is characterized by increased IHR (intrahepatic resistance) and lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidative defence. The present study investigates the effects of administration for 1 month of the antioxidant UDCA (ursodeoxycholic acid) in BDL (bile-duct-ligated) cirrhotic rats. Splanchnic haemodynamics, IHR, hepatic levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances), GSH (glutathione), SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity, nitrite, PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen) and collagen deposition, histological examination of liver, mRNA expression of PIIIP-alpha1 (type III procollagen) and TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1), protein expression of TXS (thromboxane synthase) and iNOS (inducible NO synthase), and TXA2 (thromboxane A2) production in liver perfusates were measured. The results showed that portal pressure and IHR, hepatic levels of PIIINP, hepatic collagen deposition, mRNA expression of PIIIP-alpha1 and TGF-beta1, protein expression of iNOS and TXS, and production of TXA2 in liver perfusates were significantly decreased in UDCA-treated BDL rats. The increased levels of hepatic GSH and SOD activity and decreased levels of TBARS and nitrite were also observed in UDCA-treated BDL rats. In UDCA-treated BDL rats, the reduction in portal pressure resulted from a decrease in IHR, which mostly acted through the suppression of hepatic TXA2 production and lipid peroxidation, and an increase in antioxidative defence, leading to the prevention of hepatic fibrosis.
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Increased plasma malondialdehyde in patients with viral cirrhosis and its relationships to plasma nitric oxide, endotoxin, and portal pressure.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Increased oxidative stress is involved in the development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between oxidative stress and hemodynamic parameters in cirrhotic patients.
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Photodegradation of bisphenol-A in a batch TiO2 suspension reactor.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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In this work, the photocatalytic behaviors of bisphenol-A (BPA), which has been listed as one of endocrine disrupting chemicals, were carried out in a batch TiO(2) suspension reactor. The photodegradation efficiency has been investigated under the controlled process parameters including initial BPA concentration (i.e., 1-50 mg L(-1)), TiO(2) dosage (i.e., 5-600 mg/200 cm(3)), initial pH (i.e., 3-11), and temperature (i.e., 10-70 degrees C). It was found that the optimal conditions in the photoreaction process could be coped with at initial BPA concentration=20 mg L(-1), TiO(2) dosage=0.5 g L(-1) (100mg/200 cm(3)), initial pH=7.0, and temperature=25 degrees C. According to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the results showed that the photodegradation kinetics for the destruction of BPA in water also followed the first-order model well. The apparent first-order reaction constants (k(obs)), thus obtained from the fittings of the model, were in line with the destruction-removal efficiencies of BPA in all the photocatalytic experiments. Based on the intermediate products identified in the study, the possible mechanisms for the photodegradation of BPA in water were also proposed in the present study.
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Peak equalization of rational-harmonic-mode-locking fiberized semiconductor laser pulse via optical injection induced gain modulation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Optical injection induced gain modulation of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated to equalize the peak intensity of pulses generating from the rational-harmonic-mode-locking (RHML) SOA based fiberized semiconductor laser. This is achieved by adjusting the temporal shape of the injected optical signal generated from a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator, in which the DC biased level exceeding Vpi and the electrical pulse amplitude of 1.5Vpi are concurrently employed. Numerical simulation on the injected optical signal profile and the SOA gain during the inverse-optical-pulse injection induced gain modulation process are also demonstrated. After a peculiar inverse-optical-pulse injection, each pulse in the 5th-order RHML pulse-train experiences different gain from temporally varied SOA gain profile, leading the pulse peak to equalize one another with a minimum standard deviation of 2.5% on the peak intensity variation. The optimized 5th-order RHML pulse exhibits a signal-to-noise suppression ratio of 20 dB and a reduced variation on temporal spacing from 11 to 4 ps. The clock amplitude jitter is compress from 35.3% to 7.3%, which is less than the limitation up to 10% for 5th order RHML generation.
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Characterization of bio-oil from induction-heating pyrolysis of food-processing sewage sludges using chromatographic analysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the pyrolytic bio-oils and gas fractions derived from the pyrolysis of industrial sewage sludges using induction-heating technique. The liquid products were obtained from the cryogenic condensation of the devolatilization fraction in a nitrogen atmosphere using a heating rate of 300 degrees C/min ranging from 25 to 500 degrees C. The analytical results showed that the pyrolysis bio-oils were very complex mixtures of organic compounds and contained a lot of nitrogenated and/or oxygenated compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridines, pyrroles, amines, ketones, and so on. These organic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen and/or oxygen should originate from the protein and nucleic acid textures of the microbial organisms present in the sewage sludge. The non-condensable devolatilization fractions were also composed of nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds, but contained small fractions of phenols, 1H-indoles, and fatty carboxylic acids. On the other hand, the compositions in the non-condensable gas products were principally carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD).
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Thalidomide decreases intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic rats.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Increased intrahepatic resistance (IHR) within cirrhotic liver is caused by increased endotoxemia, cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), and disrupted microvasculatures. We evaluated the effects of thalidomide-related inhibition of TNF-alpha upon the hepatic microcirculation of cirrhosis in rats. Portal venous pressure (PVP), hepatic TNF-alpha, expression of thromboxane synthase (TXS), and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were measured in bile-duct-ligated (BDL) rats receiving 1 month of thalidomide (BDL-thalido rats). Portal perfusion pressure (PPP), IHR, and hepatic TXA(2) production were measured in the isolated liver perfusion system. Intravital microscopy was used to examine hepatic microvascular disruptions. In BDL-thalido rats, PVP, PPP, IHR, hepatic TXA(2) and TNF-alpha, hydroxyproline content, expression of TXS and LCA, and LPS-induced leukocyte recruitment were significantly decreased. Conversely, hepatic microvascular density and perfused sinusoids were significantly increased. Thalidomide decreased PVP and IHR by reducing hepatic TXA(2) and improving hepatic microvascular disruptions in rats with biliary cirrhosis.
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Electroconvulsive therapy without consent from patients: One-year follow-up study.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
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No previous study has been designed to analyze the reasons for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) without patients consent. In the present study we compared the clinical characteristics and one-year outcomes between patients with refusal to undergo ECT and patients without competency for ECT consent.
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Application of stent placement or nasojejunal feeding tube placement in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a retrospective series of 38 cases.
J Chin Med Assoc
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Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO), a late complication of advanced carcinoma of the stomach, duodenum, periampulla or pancreas, causes significant malnutrition and morbidity. The current treatment for MGOO is palliative in nature, with the goal of maintaining the best quality of life possible during the terminal phase of the illness.
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Miniature asymmetric ultracapacitor of patterned carbon nanotubes and hydrous ruthenium dioxide.
Nanotechnology
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A symmetric ultracapacitor CNT_CNT and an asymmetric ultracapacitor CNT_hRuO(2) of mini size have been prepared with patterned carbon nanotubes (CNT) and hydrous ruthenium dioxide. Galvanostatic charge/discharge results indicate that CNT_hRuO(2) is the superior one in both power and energy densities. In a potential window 2.0 V, the CNT_hRuO(2) cell displays an energy density of 24.0 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 22.9 kW kg(-1). Its power density can be raised to 41.1 kW kg(-1) at the expense of the energy density, which drops to 6.8 W h kg(-1). On the other hand, CNT_CNT performs at a lower level, delivering 5.2 W h kg(-1) at 5.5 kW kg(-1). The favorable charge/discharge performance of CNT_hRuO(2) is attributed to hydrous RuO(2), whose pseudocapacitance drives the other electrode of the vertical CNT array to work harder and makes more use of its double-layer capacitance. The analysis of individual electrode capacitance indicates that the high capacitance of hRuO(2) also causes a disproportion in voltage partition, which restricts the low limit of cycling current in an extended potential window. On energy cycling, CNT_hRuO(2) demonstrates sufficient stability in 10,000 cycles, after an initial 13% drop in capacitance.
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Aliskiren reduces portal pressure and intrahepatic resistance in biliary cirrhotic rats.
J Chin Med Assoc
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It is a well-accepted fact that angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to increased vascular tone in cirrhotic livers. However, aliskiren attenuates the effect of Ang II through direct renin inhibition. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of aliskiren on portal pressure and intrahepatic resistance in bile duct ligated (BDL) rats.
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Aliskiren attenuates chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
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Increased angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. Chronic administration of aliskiren, a newly developed direct renin inhibitor, decreases Ang II in the hypertensive patients and animals.
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The identification of a spontaneous 47, XX, +21/46, XY chimeric fetus with male genitalia.
BMC Med. Genet.
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Approximately 30 sex-chromosome discordant chimera cases have been reported to date, of which only four cases carried trisomy 21. Here, we present an additional case, an aborted fetus with a karyotype of 47,XX, +21/46,XY.
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G801A polymorphism of human stromal cell-derived factor 1 gene raises no susceptibility to neoplastic lesions of uterine cervix.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
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This study aimed to investigate the association of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) gene polymorphisms with the neoplastic lesions of uterine cervix in Mid-Taiwan women.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.