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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3?-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-? compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3?. Knockdown of 14-3-3? also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3? and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3? interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage.
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Sialic acid involved in hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae and associated with resistance to neutrophil phagocytosis.
Virulence
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) with the hypermucoviscosity (HV) phenotype has abundant capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and usually causes an invasive syndrome. Sialic acid (Sia), a component of CPS in KP strains with the HV phenotype, may be anti-phagocytic. Sia-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-9 (Siglec-9) act as an MHC class-I receptor on neutrophils that recognizes Sia and sends a signal to dampen inflammatory response. Three clinical KP strains with KP-M1 (HV-positive; capsular serotype K1), KP-14 (HV-negative; capsular serotype non-K1/K2), and DT-X (HV-negative; capsular serotype K1) were studied. We assessed total Sia in CPS extracts using enzymatic methods and phagocytosis by neutrophils of neuraminidase-treated bacteria using flow cytometry. Neutrophil killing was evaluated in the presence and absence of antibodies against Siglec-9. The concentration of Sia was significantly higher in the CPS extract of KP-M1 (56.75 ± 6.75 ?mole/10(9) cfu) than in the CPS extract of KP-14 (0.02 ± 0.01 ?mole/10(9) cfu) and DT-X (a negligible value). The KP-M1 (compared with the KP-14 and DT-X) was more resistant to neutrophil phagocytosis. Both the HV phenotype and resistance to phagocytosis of KP-M1 were significantly decreased after Sia removal with neuraminidase treatment. Fluorescence microscopy with an antibody against human Siglec-9 showed attachment of KP-M1 (but were absent of KP-14 and DT-X) to the surface of neutrophils and colocalization with human Siglec-9. Engagement of Siglec-9 via Sia enhanced neutrophils killing of KP-M1 by ex vivo human neutrophils bactericidal activity assay. The result showed that Sia might be a constituent of KP-M1 CPS responsible for HV, thereby contributing to anti-phagocytic activity of this pathogen.
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Gender-dependent effect of GSTM1 genotype on childhood asthma associated with prenatal tobacco smoke exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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It remains unclear whether the GSTM1 genotype interacts with tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in asthma development. This study aimed to investigate the interactions among GSTM1 genotype, gender, and prenatal TSE with regard to childhood asthma development. In a longitudinal birth cohort in Taiwan, 756 newborns completed a 6-year follow-up, and 591 children with DNA samples available for GSTM1 genotyping were included in the study, and the interactive influences of gender-GSTM1 genotyping-prenatal TSE on childhood asthma development were analyzed. Among these 591 children, 138 (23.4%) had physician-diagnosed asthma at 6 years of age, and 347 (58.7%) were null-GSTM1. Prenatal TSE significantly increased the prevalence of childhood asthma in null-GSTM1 children relative to those with positive GSTM1. Further analysis showed that prenatal TSE significantly increased the risk of childhood asthma in girls with null-GSTM1. Furthermore, among the children without prenatal TSE, girls with null-GSTM1 had a significantly lower risk of developing childhood asthma and a lower total IgE level at 6 years of age than those with positive GSTM1. This study demonstrates that the GSTM1 null genotype presents a protective effect against asthma development in girls, but the risk of asthma development increases significantly under prenatal TSE.
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Augmented miR-150 expression associated with depressed SOCS1 expression involved in dengue haemorrhagic fever.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins regulate cytokine responses and control immune balance. The objective of our study was to determine whether the expression of SOCS1 and its potential regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) in leukocytes is correlated to the development of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF).
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L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway.
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Aspirin enhances opsonophagocytosis and is associated to a lower risk for Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) expressing hypermucoviscosity phenotype (HV-KP) has abundant capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and is capable of causing invasive syndrome. Sodium salicylate (SAL) reduces the production of CPS. The study was aimed to investigate the relationship between aspirin usage and KP-mediated invasive syndrome and the effect of SAL on HV-KP.
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Nasogastric Tube Placement and Esophageal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Perforation of the esophagus associated with placement of nasogastric tubes is not uncommon in preterm infants. Herein we report three cases of iatrogenic esophageal perforation associated with nasogastric tube placement. With nonsurgical management of parenteral nutrition and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, all three neonates survived without sequelae. Effective strategies to prevent such complications are discussed.
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Moderate Physical Activity of Music Aerobic Exercise Increases Lymphocyte Counts, Specific Subsets and Differentiation.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization.
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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A in Lactobacillus Casei Cell Wall Extract-Induced Coronary Arteritis of a Murine Model.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2013
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Background:?Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with Kawasaki disease (KD), the most commonly acquired heart disease in developed countries. This study investigated the involvement of VEGF-A expression and its related signaling pathway in Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced murine coronary artery lesions (CALs), and analyzed this in regard to the inhibition of CALs by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Methods and Results:?Wild-type BALB/C mice were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1mg/ml) to induce CALs. The aortic roots, ventricular myocardium, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), spleen, liver, kidneys, and lungs were analyzed for VEGF-A expression. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and zymosan-treated mice served as controls, and an oral Syk inhibitor served as an arteritis-ameliorated reagent. In aortic roots and PBLs, LCWE induced an early upregulation and a late downregulation of VEGF-A expression. No differential VEGF-A expression was observed in the other organs. Most importantly, Syk inhibition significantly attenuated the LCWE-induced expression of VEGF-A, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in aortic roots. However, LCWE-induced aortic DDAH-2 expression remained higher, despite Syk inhibition. Conclusions:?Local VEGF-A and its signaling pathway are associated with the development of LCWE-induced CALs. Therefore, the clinical correlation between VEGF and human KD and the role of the VEGF-A regulation and signaling pathway in murine CALs warrant further investigation.
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Clinical diagnosis of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza in children with negative rapid influenza diagnostic test by lymphopenia and lower C-reactive protein levels.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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The sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) of children with influenza-like illness (ILI) remains low.
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Increased production of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by type 2 diabetes mononuclear cells infected with dengue virus, but not increased intracellular viral multiplication.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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It has been reported that diabetes mellitus (DM) was an epidemiologically identified risk factor for development of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/severe dengue in dengue virus (DENV) affected patients, and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 each plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of DHF in studies involving general population. To better understand the relationship between these epidemiological and immunological findings, we performed an in vitro study evaluating the sequential immunological reactions and viral load in the DENV infected mononuclear cells of adults with type 2 DM (T2DM group, n = 33) and normal adults (control group, n = 29). We found in the T2DM group significantly higher IL-4 level on the first (P = 0.049) and the third (P = 0.022) postinfection days, while higher IL-10 (P = 0.042) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (P = 0.009) were detected on the third postinfection day. No significant difference in DENV viral load between the cultured mononuclear cells from both groups was found on the first and third post-infection days. These data immunologically suggest that patients with T2DM are at higher risk for development of DHF/severe dengue and strengthen the previously epidemiologically identified role of DM being a predictive risk factor for progressing into DHF/severe dengue in DENV-affected patients.
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Kawasaki disease and subsequent risk of allergic diseases: a population-based matched cohort study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The risk of allergic diseases among Kawasaki disease (KD) patients relative to the general population is not known. The aim of this study was to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the risk of allergic diseases among children after KD in Taiwan- a country with the third highest incidence of KD in the world.
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TARC/CCL17 gene polymorphisms and expression associated with susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation in Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/chemokine ligand 17 (TARC/CCL17) is one of the Th2 chemokines and has been suggested as a candidate gene for conferring susceptibility to Th2 associated with allergy diseases. This study examined the correlation between gene polymorphisms and plasma levels of TARC/CCL17 in patients with KD and the outcomes of KD.
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Erosive esophagitis associated with metabolic syndrome, impaired liver function, and dyslipidemia.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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To investigate whether erosive esophagitis is correlated with metabolic syndrome and its components, abnormal liver function, and lipoprotein profiles.
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The prevalence and predictors of androgen deficiency in Taiwanese men with type 2 diabetes.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To evaluate the prevalence and predictors of androgen deficiency (AD) in Taiwanese men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Influence and mechanisms of maternal and infant diets on the development of childhood asthma.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Perinatal nutrition has been implicated in the programming of diseases in children and adults. The prevalence of asthma has dramatically increased in the past few decades, particularly in children. This suggests that the perinatal environment, including maternal and infant diets, may be involved in the increase in the prevalence of asthma. Recent studies have demonstrated that certain maternal and infant diets have a protective or augmentative effect on the development of asthma. Maternal diets with higher vitamin D, vitamin E, or/and probiotics are related to asthma prevention. Infants with breast feeding for at least 4 months and/or complementary diets between 4 and 6 months may have regulatory effects on the prevention of asthma. In summary, diets may have epigenetic or immune regulatory effects on the promotion or prevention of asthma. This article analyzes recent reports on the potential mechanism and mechanism-driven early prevention of childhood asthma by modification of maternal and infant diets.
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Close Correlation between Season of Birth and the Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma in a Taiwanese Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Bronchial asthma (BA), atopic dermatitis (AD), and allergic rhinitis (AR) are common allergic diseases. Environmental factors were indicated to influence the development of allergic diseases.
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Different genetic associations of the IgE production among fetus, infancy and childhood.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Elevation of serum IgE levels has long been associated with allergic diseases. Many genes have been linked to IgE production, but few have been linked to the developmental aspects of genetic association with IgE production. To clarify developmental genetic association, we investigated what genes and gene-gene interactions affect IgE levels among fetus, infancy and childhood in Taiwan individuals. A birth cohort of 571 children with completion of IgE measurements from newborn to 1.5, 3, and 6 years of age was subject to genetic association analysis on the 384-customized SNPs of 159 allergy candidate genes. Fifty-three SNPs in 37 genes on innate and adaptive immunity, and stress and response were associated with IgE production. Polymorphisms of the IL13, and the HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DQA1 were, respectively, the most significantly associated with the IgE production at newborn and 6 years of age. Analyses of gene-gene interactions indentified that the combination of NPSR1, rs324981 TT with FGF1, rs2282797 CC had the highest risk (85.7%) of IgE elevation at 1.5 years of age (P=1.46 × 10(-4)). The combination of IL13, CYFIP2 and PDE2A was significantly associated with IgE elevation at 3 years of age (P=5.98 × 10(-7)), and the combination of CLEC2D, COLEC11 and CCL2 was significantly associated with IgE elevation at 6 years of age (P=6.65 × 10(-7)). Our study showed that the genetic association profiles of the IgE production among fetus, infancy and childhood are different. Genetic markers for early prediction and prevention of allergic sensitization may rely on age-based genetic association profiles.
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A replication study for association of ITPKC and CASP3 two-locus analysis in IVIG unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion in Kawasaki disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC, rs28493229) and caspase-3 (CASP3, rs113420705) are associated with susceptibility to KD in Japanese and Taiwanese populations. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of these 2 SNPs in the risk for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and coronary artery lesion (CAL) in Taiwanese population. A total of 340 KD patients were subjected to assess by the identification of 2-locus genes model. A combinatorial association between ITPKC (rs28493229) and CASP3 (rs113420705) was found in CAL formation (P?=?0.0227, OR: 3.06). KD patients with high-risk genotype had a trend of overrepresentation in IVIG resistance compared with individual SNPs. Our findings suggest the existence of genetic factors affecting patients risk for CAL formation and IVIG responsiveness in a Taiwanese population.
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Polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway and Kawasaki disease in the Taiwanese population.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis associated with cardiovascular symptom. A previous study in the European descent has indicated that genetic variants of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway are involved in the KD susceptibility and clinical status. This study was conducted to investigate if polymorphisms in TGF-? signaling pathway are associated with KD susceptibility, and the coronary artery lesion formation. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD patients and 569 controls) were investigated to identify 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGF-? signaling pathway (rs2796817, rs10482751, rs2027567, rs12029576, rs11466480, rs4776338, rs12901071, rs7162912, rs1438386, rs6494633, rs12910698 and rs4776339) by using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assay. Our results indicated that rs1438386 in the SMAD3 is significantly associated with the susceptibility of KD. Additionally, both haplotypes of TGF?2 and SMAD3 were also associated with the risk of KD. This study showed that genetic polymorphisms in TGF-? signaling pathway are associated with KD susceptibility, but not coronary artery lesions formation, or intravenous immunoglobulin treatment response in the Taiwanese population.
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Lack of association between CLEC5A gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in Taiwanese children.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
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Kawasaki disease is characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Previous genetic studies have identified certain candidate genes associated with susceptibility to KD and coronary artery lesions. Host innate immune response factors are involved in modulating the disease outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5) genetic polymorphisms with regards to the susceptibility and outcome of KD.
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Prevalence of overactive bladder and associated risk factors in 1359 patients with type 2 diabetes.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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To evaluate overactive bladder (OAB, dry and wet) and the associated risk factors of OAB wet (with incontinence) in type 2 diabetes.
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Lack of association between ORAI1/CRACM1 gene polymorphisms and Kawasaki disease in the Taiwanese children.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis of an unknown cause. A previous study has indicated that a polymorphism of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) gene is involved in the susceptibility to KD. ORAI (also known as CRACM1) is one of the components of store-operated calcium channels involved in regulating immune and inflammatory reactions. This study was conducted to investigate if polymorphisms in ORAI1/CRACM1, a gene downstream from ITPKC, are associated with KD susceptibility and clinical outcomes.
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Identification of immunodeficient molecules in neonatal mononuclear cells by proteomic differential displays.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Human newborns are known to be susceptible to microbial infection. This susceptibility is generally attributed to immaturity of the newborn immune system. However, the mechanisms for impaired immunity in newborns are still incompletely defined. In this study, we sought to elucidate the protein differential display between adult and neonatal mononuclear cells (MNC) using a proteomic approach. MNC samples from cord blood and adult peripheral blood were subjected to 2-D PAGE analysis. Differential protein displays between cord blood and adult MNC were determined and validated. There were 34 differentially expressed proteins between cord blood and adult MNC identified by 2-D PAGE. The differentially displayed proteins were clustered into two major signal pathways, cellular processing and purine metabolism. After validation by Western blot, we found more abundant arginase-1 (ARG1) and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2), while less adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ?-actin in cord blood MNC. In functional validation, we found that lower ADA was proven to enhance the TNF-? production by cord blood monocytes. The results from this study discovered the proteomic displays for altered immunity between adult and neonatal MNC that support a understanding of the correction of impaired immune response in newborns.
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Risk factors for mortality of pediatric patients without underlying diseases.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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In this study, we investigated the risk factors for in-hospital mortality of children beyond infancy with and without underlying diseases.
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IFN-? production by human mononuclear cells infected with varicella-zoster virus through TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Understanding the defense mechanisms of the host of an organism is important for infection control. In previous studies, we demonstrated that interferon-? (IFN-?), but not IL-12, was produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Here, we investigated what kind of cell(s) and which signal molecule(s) are involved in IFN-? production. Using cell isolation and ELISA, we found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were responsible for IFN-? production during VZV infection. We also found that Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was involved in VZV-induced IFN-? production because inhibitory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide inhibited IFN-? production. UV-inactivated VZV-induced IFN-? production was lower than that of active VZV, indicating another TLR9-independent pathway. Further studies demonstrated that double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, but not DNA-dependent protein kinase was involved in VZV-induced IFN-? production. Together, these results suggest that pDCs play an important role in IFN-? production during VZV infection through TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways.
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Radiation-induced increase in cell migration and metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells operates via the K-Ras pathway.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Radiotherapy is a well established treatment for cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide. However, metastasis often circumvents the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of radioresistance-associated metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells. We established three radioresistant cervical cancer cell lines by exposure of cells to a sublethal dose of radiation and screened for lines that exhibited an increased migration phenotype for at least 6 months before undertaking mechanistic studies. Radiation-associated metastatic potential was evaluated using a wound-healing assay, time-lapse recording, and cell locomotion into the lungs of BALB/c nude mice. The radioresistant C33A and CaSki cell lines, but not the radioresistant HeLa cell line, exhibited significantly increased cell migration and wound healing than did wild-type cells. Furthermore, K-Ras played a prometastatic role via the activation of c-Raf/p38, whereas interference of those mediators via either RNA interference-mediated knockdown or the use of chemical inhibitors substantially reversed the radioresistance-associated increase in cell migration. Clinical examination further showed the relative up-regulation of the K-Ras/c-Raf/p38 pathway in locally recurring tumors and distant metastases compared with in the primary cervical tumor. These findings demonstrate that a sublethal dose of radiation can enhance the metastatic potential of human cervical cancer cells via K-Ras/c-Raf/p38 signaling, highlighting the potential development of specific inhibitors for reducing metastatic potential during radiotherapy.
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ITPKC single nucleotide polymorphism associated with the Kawasaki disease in a Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. Previous studies from Japan indicated that a gene polymorphism of ITPKC (rs28493229) is responsible for susceptibility to KD. We collected DNA samples from 1,531 Taiwanese subjects (341 KD patients and 1,190 controls) for genotyping ITPKC. In this study, no significant association was noted for the ITPKC polymorphism (rs28493229) between the controls and KD patients, although the CC genotype was overrepresented. We further combined our data with previously published case/control KD studies in the Taiwanese population and performed a meta-analysis. A significant association between rs28493229 and KD was found (Odds Ratio:1.36, 95% Confidence Interval 1.12-1.66). Importantly, a significant association was obtained between rs28493229 and KD patients with aneurysm formation (P?=?0.001, under the recessive model). Taken together, our results indicated that C-allele of ITPKC SNP rs28493229 is associated with the susceptibility and aneurysm formation in KD patients in a Taiwanese population.
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Use of proteomic differential displays to assess functional discrepancies and adjustments of human bone marrow- and Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are suitable for the reconstruction of connective tissues and even brain tissue but have limitations in terms of cell expansion and fully specific differentiation. In our current study, we have attempted to adjust and improve the cell expansion and differentiation properties of human MSCs from different tissues. MSCs from normal bone marrow and Wharton jelly were subjected to proteomic differential displays, followed by functional adjustments based on these displays. Bone marrow MSCs expressed more transgelin-2 and differentiated more rapidly into bone nodules but showed a slower growth rate. A knockdown of transgelin-2 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased the growth rate of these cells, the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, and the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2. Wharton jelly MSCs expressed the chaperone protein HSP90? at higher levels and differentiated slowly toward an osteogenic lineage. However, the knockdown of HSP90? expression significantly increased bone nodule formation, inhibited cell growth, decreased the number of cells in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, and decreased the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2 and of cyclin E with cdk2. These results were validated by the in vivo repair of segmental bone defects in a mouse model with severe combined immunodeficiency. We thus demonstrate an improvement in the cell expansion and tissue regeneration properties of human MSCs through specific adjustments.
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Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a reliable internal control in Western blot analysis of leukocyte subpopulations from children.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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To study differences in the development of immunity, leukocytes from cord blood are often compared with those from adult peripheral blood. Western blot analysis is a common method for detecting proteins. In this study, we investigated the reliability of using different housekeeping proteins (?-actin, ?-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) as internal controls for different leukocyte subpopulations from infants, children, and adults. Our results showed that the expression levels of ?-actin and ?-tubulin were much lower in cord blood leukocytes than in adult leukocytes, and this expression pattern persisted in children up to 3 years old. Further study revealed that the ?-actin expression level in newborns was especially lower in CD14-positive monocytes. However, cord blood and adult peripheral blood monocytes had similar expression levels of ?-actin messenger RNA (mRNA). Further experiments showed that posttranslational regulation was responsible for the low ?-actin expression level in neonatal monocytes. Thus, researchers should carefully assess the appropriate use of housekeeping gene-encoded proteins as internal standards to normalize samples for comparisons of different leukocyte populations from subjects of different ages. In this study, we determined that GAPDH was a more reliable internal control than others in Western blot analysis for comparing the development of immunity among infants, children, and adults.
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Etanercept treatment for children with refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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BACKGROUND: Etanercept has been shown to be an effective treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of etanercept therapy in the treatment of refractory JIA. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 11 patients with refractory JIA (polyarticular type n=7; pauciarticular type, n=2; systemic type, n=2) who received treatment with etanercept during the period 2005-2009 in a medical center. The indications for etanercept treatment included persistent fever, arthritis/arthralgia, or elevated levels of inflammatory mediators after treatment with methotrexate and/or prednisolone for more than 6 months. The patients were treated with etanercept (0.4mg/kg, with maximal 25mg, subcutaneously, twice a week) for a total of 12 months. RESULTS: The degree of arthritis/arthralgia improved (range of motion and painful sensation of involved joints), and the levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) decreased progressively in 10 of the 11 patients (p<0.05) at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 12-month follow-up after treatment with etanercept. Mean hemoglobin levels significantly increased, whereas mean platelet counts decreased after etanercept treatment (p<0.05). Only one patient with systemic type of JIA failed to respond to the treatment after 6 weeks of etanercept therapy. Methotrexate, prednisolone, and other immunosuppressive drugs were successfully discontinued after a mean of 2.5 months (range, 1-5 months) of etanercept therapy in the 10 patients who responded to etanercept treatment. CONCLUSION: Etanercept is beneficial for patients with polyarticular and pauciarticular type of JIA that is refractory to conventional treatment but less beneficial for systemic type of JIA.
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DC-SIGN (CD209) Promoter -336 A/G polymorphism is associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and correlated to DC-SIGN expression and immune augmentation.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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the C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is known to be the major dengue receptor on human dendritic cells, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of CD209 (-336 A/G; rs4804803) is susceptible to many infectious diseases. We reason that variations in the DC-SIGN gene might have a broad influence on viral replication and host immune responses.
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CASP3 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs72689236) and Kawasaki disease in Taiwanese children.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized by systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. A study from Japan reported that G to A substitution of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 5-untranslated region of caspase 3 (CASP3) (rs72689236), which was associated with nuclear factor of activated T cell-mediated T-cell activation, is responsible for susceptibility to KD. This study was conducted to investigate whether the polymorphism of CASP3 is responsible for susceptibility and coronary artery lesion (CAL) formation in KD in the Taiwanese population. A total of 1092 subjects (341 KD patients and 751 controls) were investigated to identify an SNP of rs72689236 using Invader assays (Third Wave Technologies). Our data provided a borderline significant association between the genotypes and allele frequency of rs72689236 in control subjects and KD patients (P=0.0535 under the dominant model; P=0.0575 under the allelic model). The A allele of rs72689236 in KD patients and in patients with CAL and intravenous immunoglobulin resistance was seen in a higher frequency. Importantly, a significant association was obtained between rs72689236 and KD patients with aneurysm formation (P=0.009, under the recessive model). The A allele of rs72689236 is very likely to be a risk allele in the development of aneurysm in patients with KD.
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Revisiting human IL-12R?1 deficiency: a survey of 141 patients from 30 countries.
Ludovic de Beaucoudrey, Arina Samarina, Jacinta Bustamante, Aurélie Cobat, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jacqueline Feinberg, Saleh Al-Muhsen, Lucile Jannière, Yoann Rose, Maylis de Suremain, Xiao-Fei Kong, Orchidée Filipe-Santos, Ariane Chapgier, Capucine Picard, Alain Fischer, Figen Doğu, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Gönül Tanir, Sami Al-Hajjar, Suliman Al-Jumaah, Husn H Frayha, Zobaida AlSum, Sulaiman Al-Ajaji, Abdullah Alangari, Abdulaziz Al-Ghonaium, Parisa Adimi, Davood Mansouri, Imen Ben-Mustapha, Judith Yancoski, Ben-Zion Garty, Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego, Isabel Caragol, Necil Kutukculer, Dinakantha S Kumararatne, Smita Patel, Rainer Doffinger, Andrew Exley, Olle Jeppsson, Janine Reichenbach, David Nadal, Yaryna Boyko, Barbara Pietrucha, Suzanne Anderson, Michael Levin, Liliane Schandené, Kinda Schepers, André Efira, Françoise Mascart, Masao Matsuoka, Tatsunori Sakai, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Klara Frecerova, Renate Blüetters-Sawatzki, Jutta Bernhöft, Joachim Freihorst, Ulrich Baumann, Darko Richter, Filomeen Haerynck, Frans De Baets, Vas Novelli, David Lammas, Christiane Vermylen, David Tuerlinckx, Chris Nieuwhof, Malgorzata Pac, Walther H Haas, Ingrid Müller-Fleckenstein, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Jacob Levy, Revathi Raj, Aileen Cleary Cohen, David B Lewis, Steven M Holland, Kuender D Yang, Xiaochuan Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Liping Jiang, Xiqiang Yang, Chaomin Zhu, Yuanyuan Xie, Pamela Pui Wah Lee, Koon Wing Chan, Tong-Xin Chen, Gabriela Castro, Ivelisse Natera, Ana Codoceo, Alejandra King, Liliana Bezrodnik, Daniela Di Giovani, María Isabel Gaillard, Dewton de Moraes-Vasconcelos, Anete Sevciovic Grumach, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Ruth Aldana, Francisco Javier Espinosa-Rosales, Mohammed Bejaoui, Ahmed Aziz Bousfiha, Jamila El Baghdadi, Namik Ozbek, Güzide Aksu, Melike Keser, Ayper Somer, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Cigdem Aydogmus, Suna Asilsoy, Yildiz Camcioğlu, Saniye Gülle, Tuba T Ozgur, Meteran Ozen, Matías Oleastro, Andrea Bernasconi, Setareh Mamishi, Nima Parvaneh, Sergio Rosenzweig, Ridha Barbouche, Sigifredo Pedraza, Yu Lung Lau, Mohammad S Ehlayel, Claire Fieschi, Laurent Abel, Ozden Sanal, Jean-Laurent Casanova.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Interleukin-12 receptor ?1 (IL-12R?1) deficiency is the most common form of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We undertook an international survey of 141 patients from 102 kindreds in 30 countries. Among 102 probands, the first infection occurred at a mean age of 2.4 years. In 78 patients, this infection was caused by Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG; n = 65), environmental mycobacteria (EM; also known as atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria) (n = 9) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 4). Twenty-two of the remaining 24 probands initially presented with nontyphoidal, extraintestinal salmonellosis. Twenty of the 29 genetically affected sibs displayed clinical signs (69%); however 8 remained asymptomatic (27%). Nine nongenotyped sibs with symptoms died. Recurrent BCG infection was diagnosed in 15 cases, recurrent EM in 3 cases, recurrent salmonellosis in 22 patients. Ninety of the 132 symptomatic patients had infections with a single microorganism. Multiple infections were diagnosed in 40 cases, with combined mycobacteriosis and salmonellosis in 36 individuals. BCG disease strongly protected against subsequent EM disease (p = 0.00008). Various other infectious diseases occurred, albeit each rarely, yet candidiasis was reported in 33 of the patients (23%). Ninety-nine patients (70%) survived, with a mean age at last follow-up visit of 12.7 years ± 9.8 years (range, 0.5-46.4 yr). IL-12R?1 deficiency is characterized by childhood-onset mycobacteriosis and salmonellosis, rare recurrences of mycobacterial disease, and more frequent recurrence of salmonellosis. The condition has higher clinical penetrance, broader susceptibility to infections, and less favorable outcome than previously thought.
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CTLA-4, position 49 A/G polymorphism associated with coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology and primarily affects children less than 5 years of age. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) has been suggested as a candidate gene for conferring susceptibility to autoimmunity. This study examined the correlation of CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms in KD with and without coronary artery lesions (CAL).
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Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus causes severe illness, including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and even death. To characterize the kinetic changes in viral load and identify factors of influence, we analyzed variables that could potentially influence the viral shedding time in a hospital-based cohort of 1,052 patients. Viral load was inversely correlated with number of days after the onset of fever and was maintained at a high level over the first 3 days. Patients with pneumonia had higher viral loads than those with bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infection. Median viral shedding time after the onset of symptoms was 9 days. Patients <13 years of age had a longer median viral shedding time than those >or=13 years of age (11 days vs. 7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
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Oral tolerance to food-induced systemic anaphylaxis mediated by the C-type lectin SIGNR1.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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We propose that a C-type lectin receptor, SIGNR-1 (also called Cd209b), helps to condition dendritic cells (DCs) in the gastrointestinal lamina propria (LPDCs) for the induction of oral tolerance in a model of food-induced anaphylaxis. Oral delivery of BSA bearing 51 molecules of mannoside (Man(51)-BSA) substantially reduced the BSA-induced anaphylactic response. Man(51)-BSA selectively targeted LPDCs that expressed SIGNR1 and induced the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), but not IL-6 or IL-12 p70. We found the same effects in IL-10-GFP knock-in (tiger) mice treated with Man(51)-BSA. The Man(51)-BSA-SIGNR1 axis in LPDCs, both in vitro and in vivo, promoted the generation of CD4(+) type 1 regulatory T (Tr1)-like cells that expressed IL-10 and interferon-? (IFN-?), in a SIGNR-1- and IL-10-dependent manner, but not of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The Tr1-like cells could transfer tolerance. These results suggest that sugar-modified antigens might be used to induce oral tolerance by targeting SIGNR1 and LPDCs.
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Serum albumin level predicts initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment failure in Kawasaki disease.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis primarily affecting children who are <5 years old. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the standard therapy for KD. However, many patients with KD still show poor response to initial IVIG treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for initial IVIG treatment failure in KD.
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Comparison of the effects of oral hydration and intravenous fluid replacement in adult patients with non-shock dengue hemorrhagic fever in Taiwan.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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The level of plasma leakage is mild to moderate in patients with non-shock dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF grade I and grade II), and the necessity of intravenous fluid replacement for these patients remains controversial. We conducted an observational study in adult patients (>18 years) with non-shock DHF admitted to a medical centre in southern Taiwan comparing the effects of oral hydration [group 1 (n=19); age (mean+/-SD) 54.6+/-15.5 years] and intravenous fluid replacement, with a volume of >40ml/kg/day in the first 72h of hospitalization [group 2 (n=30); age 55.9+/-11.6 years]. No significant difference was found in demographics, clinical manifestations, and mean peak level of hematocrit between the two groups. Patients in group 2 had a significantly longer hospital stay compared to those in group 1 (P=0.007), and there was a trend suggesting patients in group 2 were prone to develop pleural effusion and/or pulmonary edema. No difference was found in daily mean pulse pressure, mean hematocrit level, and mean platelet count between the groups for the duration of the 7 days in hospital. All 49 patients survived. Our data suggest that oral hydration may be as effective as intravenous fluid replacement for adults with non-shock DHF and this warrants investigation in a larger series of patients.
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TLR2 agonists enhance CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and suppress Th2 immune responses during allergen immunotherapy.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Pam3CSK4, a synthetic TLR2 ligand, has been shown to expand CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Less is known about the function of CD8+ Treg cells than about the function of CD4+ Treg cells generated during allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT). This study investigated whether Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-specific IT could expand the CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population and whether Pam3CSK4 could enhance the Treg population. PBMCs were isolated from healthy control subjects and from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients during IT at three specific times: before IT and 6 mo and 1 y after the maximum-tolerated dose. This study was performed without a placebo-controlled group. D. pteronyssinus-specific IT induced a significant increase in CD8+Foxp3+ Treg cells expressing intracellular IL-10 and granzyme B. Costimulation of PBMCs with Pam3CSK4 and D. pteronyssinus 2 expanded the CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population and inhibited D. pteronyssinus 2-induced IL-4 production. Pam3CSK4-treated CD8+CD25+ Treg cells directly suppressed CD4+ T cell proliferation by cell-contact inhibition. TUNEL revealed that CD8+CD25+ Treg cells, but not CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, directly induced CD4+CD45ROhi+ apoptosis. Our results provide direct evidence that Pam3CSK4 induces an immunomodulatory effect by inducing CD8+ Treg cells; therefore, it may be a good adjuvant for the treatment of mite allergies.
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miR-146b is highly expressed in adult papillary thyroid carcinomas with high risk features including extrathyroidal invasion and the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are clinicopathogenetically heterogeneous. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diverse human cancers, including PTC. Information regarding associations between clinicopathological features of PTC with the expression of specific miRNAs, however, is sparse. In this study, we compared expression of deregulated miRNAs in PTCs to assess this was associated with selected clinicopathogenetic features.
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Acute myocarditis in dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case report and review of cardiac complications in dengue-affected patients.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) complicated by acute myocarditis and review the literature. A 65-year-old woman experienced DHF due to dengue virus serotype 3, complicated with acute myocarditis and acute pulmonary edema. Clinically this masqueraded as acute myocardial infarction, with an electrocardiographically depressed ST segment in precordial leads and elevated serum cardiac-specific troponin I level. Under supportive management, the patient recovered 3 days later. A total of 18 pertinent articles involving 339 dengue-affected patients with cardiac complications were found by PubMed search. Clinical manifestations of cardiac complications varied considerably, from self-limiting tachy-brady arrhythmia to severe myocardial damage, leading to hypotension and pulmonary edema. Although rare, a fatal outcome was reported in some cases of dengue with cardiac complications. To avoid otherwise preventable morbidity and mortality, physicians should have a high index of suspicion for cardiac complications in patients with dengue illness and should manage this accordingly.
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Partial protein-hydrolyzed infant formula decreased food sensitization but not allergic diseases in a prospective birth cohort study.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Exposure to cows milk protein in early infancy could lead to increased rates of allergic diseases later in life. We investigated whether feeding a protein-hydrolyzed formula (HF) in the first 6 months of life decreased allergic diseases up to 36 months later.
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Plasma clusterin levels in predicting the occurrence of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2010
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease during childhood in the developed countries. Coronary artery lesions (CAL) are the major complications of KD. A unique proteomic profiling with increased or decreased fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, clusterin, and immunoglobulin free light chains were noted in KD in our previous study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relations between these biomarkers and CAL in KD and to establish within the markers the appropriate cut-off value with which to predict the occurrence of CAL. A total of 47 KD patients were enrolled, including 14 with CAL and 33 without CAL. Plasma samples from patients with KD before intravenous immunoglobulin administration were indicated for measurement of these biomarkers. A potential relation among CAL, clinical characteristics, and these biomarkers was investigated, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify a cut-off value of the significant marker that best predicated the occurrence of CAL. Among these biomarkers, only plasma clusterin level was associated with the occurrence of CAL. Using a cut-off value of clusterin <12.0 mg/l, the relative risk for CAL was 4.53-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.060-19.347%, P = 0.014). Results from this study suggest that plasma clusterin level <12.0 mg/l in KD is significantly associated with the occurrence of CAL. Results from this study provide a potential biomarker of KD that may help predict the occurrence of CAL.
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Monoarticular septic arthritis in a patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis under etanercept treatment.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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A 7-year-old girl with polyarticular type juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) presented with acute onset of right hip pain with limited range of motion and fever within the past two days. She had received etanercept for more than one year. Percutaneous arthrocentesis was performed and showed a white blood cell count of 84150/?L in the synovial fluid, although the culture showed negative results. The fever and right hip pain completely resolved after antibiotic treatment. Herein, we report the first case of septic monoarthritis of JRA under etanercept treatment.
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Comparison of the Global Initiative for Asthma guideline-based Asthma Control Measure and the Childhood Asthma Control Test in evaluating asthma control in children.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Reliable assessment of asthma control is essential for effective treatment. While several validated tools for assessing asthma control in children are currently available, few studies have evaluated the correlations between different asthma control measures in children. This study aimed to determine the correlations between the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline-based asthma control measure (ACM) with lung function parameters in children with asthma.
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Hypermucoviscosity associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae-mediated invasive syndrome: a prospective cross-sectional study in Taiwan.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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To investigate the association between Klebsiella pneumoniae-mediated invasive syndrome and underlying diseases in patients and/or K. pneumoniae characteristics, including the rmpA, rmpA2, and magA genes, capsular polysaccharide (cps) K(1) or K(2) serotypes, hypermucoviscosity (HV) phenotype, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production.
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Extracorporeal shockwave treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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This prospective study compared extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in chronic diabetic foot ulcers.
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Increased complement factor H with decreased factor B determined by proteomic differential displays as a biomarker of tai chi chuan exercise.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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Exhaustive exercise can be associated with short-term immune suppression, but moderate exercise such as tai chi chuan (TCC) has been shown to have beneficial effects on immunity. The mechanisms for the health benefits of exercise remain to be determined, and no potential biomarkers for these beneficial health effects have been identified. This study investigated serum proteomic markers in individuals participating in TCC exercise.
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Alopecia areata universalis after phenobarbital-induced anti-convulsant hypersensitivity syndrome.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Alopecia is an adverse effect in those patients taking aromatic anti-convulsant drugs but is rarely reported after discontinuing such medications in the convalescent status of anti-convulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS). A 3-year-old boy developed alopecia areata (AA) universalis in the convalescent status of phenobarbital-induced AHS, compatible to the evidences of increased lymphocyte proliferation and increased dead cells percentages while his peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with phenobarbital. Skin histology revealed peri-follicular, peri-bublar and supra-bublar lymphocyte infiltration. By searching for the key words AHS, alopecia areata (AA, punctuate absence of terminal scalp hair), AA totalis (complete absence of terminal scalp hair), and AA universalis (total loss of terminal scalp and body hair) using PubMed, only 2 cases, to date, developed alopecia in the convalescent status of phenobarbital-induced AHS. Among these 3 cases, all had favorable prognosis despite having jaundiced hepatitis. Their hair grew back after 2-3 months steroid therapy. Alopecia does rarely develop in the convalescent status of phenobarbital-induced AHS after stopping phenobarbital and its mechanism is related to lymphocyte infiltration into the peri-bulbar, supra-bulbar and peri-follicular regions.
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Association of acute urticaria with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in hospitalized children.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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Acute urticaria is a common and disturbing disorder in children and has a versatile etiology.
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Prolonged acquired neutropenia in children.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Acquired neutropenia is not uncommon in childhood. This study investigated the risk factors associated with developing prolonged acquired neutropenia.
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Sialylated glycans as receptor and inhibitor of enterovirus 71 infection to DLD-1 intestinal cells.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Many viruses recognize specific sugar residues, particularly sulfated or sialylated glycans, as the infection receptors. A change of sialic acid (2-6)-linked galactose (SA-alpha2,6Gal) to SA-alpha2,3Gal determines the receptor for avian flu infection. The receptor for enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection that frequently causes fatal encephalitis in Asian children remains unclear. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or anti-virus agent for EV71 infection. Using DLD-1 intestinal cells, this study investigated whether SA-linked glycan on DLD-1 intestinal cells was a receptor for EV71, and whether natural SA-linked sugars from human milk could block EV71 infection.
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Alloantigen-pulsed host dendritic cells induce T-cell regulation and prolong allograft survival in a rat model of hindlimb allotransplantation.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Composite tissue allotransplantation is restricted due to the risks presented by long-term therapeutic immunosuppression. This study is conducted to investigate whether treatment with recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with donor alloantigens can prolong allograft survival and induce T-cell regulation in a rodent model.
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Association of lower eosinophil-related T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines with coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic febrile vasculitis particular coronary artery involvement. Eosinophilia has been found in our and other studies in KD. This study further investigates whether eosinophil-related T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines or the activation marker (eosinophil cationic protein - ECP) is involved in KD with coronary artery lesions (CAL). A total of 95 KD patients were enrolled for this study. Plasma samples were subjected to the measurement of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and eotaxin by Luminex-Bedalyte multiplex beadmates system and to the measurement of ECP by fluoroimmunoassay. Patients with KD had higher eosinophils than controls. Eosinophil-related mediators: IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, and ECP levels were also higher in KD patients than controls before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. After IVIG treatment, ECP decreased but IL-4, IL-5, and eotaxin increased significantly. The higher the IL-5 and eosinophil levels after IVIG treatment, the lower rate of CAL was found. Changes of eosinophils after IVIG treatment were positively correlated to changes of IL-5 levels but not ECP levels. An increase of eosinophils and IL-5, but not ECP levels after IVIG treatment, was inversely correlated with CAL formation in KD.
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Non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child with Kawasaki disease.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Polymorphous skin rashes are one of the major presentations in children with Kawasaki disease. This report describes an unusual presentation of a skin rash (non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis) in a 4-month-old baby with resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and coronary artery dilatation. Though refractory to repeat dosages of IVIG treatment, the patient had a favourable response to methylprednisolone pulse therapy.
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Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes in adults experiencing dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated with acute renal failure.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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In a retrospective study, acute renal failure (ARF) was found in 10 (3.3%) among 304 hospitalized adults with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and 6 (60%) of the 10 patients with ARF died, whereas all 294 patients without ARF (controls) survived (P < 0.001). Compared with the controls, DHF patients with ARF were found to be significantly older (P = 0.002) and male predominant (P < 0.001) and to have higher frequency of previous stroke (P = 0.005), chronic renal insufficiency (P = 0.046), dengue shock syndrome (DSS; P < 0.001), gastrointestinal bleeding (P < 0.001), and concurrent bacteremia (P = 0.009), lower hemoglobin (P = 0.003) and serum albumin levels (P = 0.003), and higher incidences of prolonged prothrombin time (P < 0.001), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase levels (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed DSS (odd ratio = 220.0; P < 0.001) was an independent risk factor for development of ARF in DHF patients. The high fatality rate in DHF patients complicated with ARF in our series underscore the importance of clinicians alertness to this potentially fatal complication so that initiation of timely appropriate treatment is possible.
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Comparison of iodixanol and iohexol in patients undergoing intravenous pyelography: a prospective controlled study.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Nephropathy associated with contrast medium exposure is a well-known complication of IVP. However, it is uncertain whether iso-osmolar non-iodinated contrast medium (iodixanol) is less nephrotoxic than low-osmolar contrast medium (iohexol).
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Coronary artery fistula associated with Kawasaki disease.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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The aim of this study was to investigate the rate, risks factors, and clinical impact of coronary artery fistula (CAF) in Kawasaki disease (KD).
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Combination of CTLA-4 and TGFbeta1 gene polymorphisms associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever and virus load in a dengue-2 outbreak.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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The pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been considered to be massive immune activation of T cells. Abnormal expression of the immune regulatory molecules, CTLA-4 and TGFbeta1, leads to disturbances of regulatory T cell immune response. We investigate the contribution of CTLA-4 and TGFbeta1 in DHF by analyzing them for association with virus load in blood and polymorphisms of CTLA-4 +49A/G, and TGFbeta1 -509C/T in a DEN-2 outbreak. The increased frequency of the TGFbeta1 -509 CC genotype in patients with DHF was compared to those with dengue fever (OR=1.9, p=0.034). Moreover, the presence of the CTLA-4 +49 G allele and TGFbeta1 -509 CC genotype increased the susceptibility to risk of DHF (OR=2.1, p=0.028) and significantly higher virus load (p=0.013). This finding suggests that a combination of CTLA-4 and TGFbeta1 polymorphisms is associated with the susceptibility of DHF and higher virus load.
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Extracorporeal shock wave treatment modulates skin fibroblast recruitment and leukocyte infiltration for enhancing extended skin-flap survival.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) treatment has a positive effect of rescuing ischemic skin flaps. This study assessed whether ESW treatment rescues the compromised flap tissue by suppressing the apoptosis of ischemic tissue and recruiting tissue remodeling. We used a random-pattern extended dorsal-skin-flap (10 x 3 cm) rodent model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group I, the control group, received no treatment. Group II received one session of ESW treatment (500 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm(2)) immediately after surgery. Group III received two sessions of ESW treatment, immediately and the day after the surgery. Results indicated that the necrotic area in the flaps in group II was significantly smaller than that of the flaps in group I (p<0.01). Transferase dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis revealed a significant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells in group II. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) expression in circulation blood was significantly decreased in group II on the day after ESW treatment. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that compared with no treatment, ESW treatment could substantially increase proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (rPH) expression, reduce CD45 expression, and suppress 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OG) expression in the ischemic zone of the flap tissue. In conclusion, ESW treatment administered at an optimal dosage exerts a positive effect of rescuing ischemic extended skin flaps. The mechanisms of action of ESWs involve modulation of oxygen radicals, attenuation of leukocyte infiltration, decrease in tissue apoptosis, and recruitment of skin fibroblasts, which results in increased flap tissue survival.
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A unique plasma proteomic profiling with imbalanced fibrinogen cascade in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease during childhood in the developed countries. The mechanism and biomarkers of KD remain to be determined. In this study, we sought to elucidate potential plasma proteomic markers in KD patients in comparison to that in febrile controls. Plasma samples from KD patients and febrile controls were subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Differential protein displays between KD patients and febrile controls were determined. Fibrinogen beta and gamma chains, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), CD5 antigen-like precursor (CD5L), and clusterin were increased in KD patients, whereas immunoglobulin free light chains were decreased, as compared with controls. The differential protein displays were validated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. We found higher fibrinogen-related proteins (fibrinogen, A1AT, clusterin, and CD5L), along with a lower level of the immunoglobulin free light chains that involve fibrin degradation in KD. Results from this study showing a unique proteomic profiling with abnormal fibrinogen cascade may afford a good biomarker of KD and a better strategy to prevent cardiovascular complications of KD by correcting abnormal fibrin deposition or degradation.
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Aminoguanidine alleviates radiation-induced small-bowel damage through its antioxidant effect.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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To evaluate the effect and its mechanism of aminoguanidine (AG) on small-bowel protection after whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI) in rats.
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Prognostic implications of miR-146b expression and its functional role in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Recent studies suggest that miR-146b deregulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was associated with advanced tumor characteristics. However, the influence of miR-146b expression on the prognosis of PTC remains unknown. We sought to correlate tumor expression levels of miR-146b with the prognosis of a previously reported PTC cohort and reveal the underlying mechanisms via a PTC cell line model.
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Induction of IFN? or IL-12 depends on differentiation of THP-1 cells in dengue infections without and with antibody enhancement.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Appropriate induction of the early Th1 cytokine IL-12 is a critical defense directed against viral infection. We have previously shown that different viruses elicited either IL-12 or IFN? dependent Th1 reactions. Using dengue-2 virus, we sought to explore how dengue-2 induced IL-12 or IFN? expression by monocytic and its derived dendritic cells.
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Different profiles of allergen sensitization in different ages and geographic areas in Changhua, Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
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Environmental factors, different ages, and detection methods might affect the profiles of allergy sensitization and confound the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different profiles of allergen sensitization in different ages, geographic areas, and detection methods.
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Laboratory diagnostics of dengue fever: an emphasis on the role of commercial dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 antigen rapid test.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
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In 2008, the Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Marnes-la-Coquette, France) was introduced to routine dengue diagnostics in Taiwan, in addition to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation, and capture immunoglobulin (Ig)M/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of this assay and factors influencing the results of these diagnostic tests.
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Comparisons of dengue illness classified based on the 1997 and 2009 World Health Organization dengue classification schemes.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
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Dengue cases, traditionally classified as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) by the World Health Organization (WHO) dengue classification 1997 scheme, are categorized into Group A (without warning signs), Group B [with warning signs (e.g., abdominal pain/vomiting/fluid accumulation/mucosal bleeding/lethargy/liver enlargement/increasing hematocrit with decreasing platelets)], or Group C (severe plasma leakage/severe bleeding/organ failure) by the WHO 2009 version. We compared differences in clinical/laboratory features between patients separately classified as DF/DHF and in Group A/B/C.
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High interleukin-16 concentrations in the early second trimester amniotic fluid: an independent predictive marker for preterm birth.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
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Infection is believed to be one of frequent and important causes of preterm labor. We attempted to evaluate whether the level of inflammatory markers, e.g. interleukin-16 (IL-16), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and ferritin, in amniotic fluid at early second trimester can predict preterm birth.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.