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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness among asymptomatic HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To evaluate the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and factors associated with cardiovascular abnormalities.
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Comparing interferon-gamma release assays to tuberculin skin test in Thai children with tuberculosis exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Data on the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFNGIT) and T-Spot.TB, in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) are limited in Southeast Asia. This study aims to compare the performances of the two IGRAs and TST in Thai children with recent TB exposure.
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Changing trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive diseases in Central Thailand, 2009-2012.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To describe the trends in serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) we tested 238 pneumococci isolates from normally sterile sites between 2009 and 2012 and compared these findings with previous data collected within our network. Serotyping was performed for 15 serotypes contained in the 7-,10-, 13-, and experimental 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). The most common serotypes found were 6B (13.9%), 19A (12.6%), 14 (8.0%), 18C (5.9%), and 6A (3.8%); and 39.9% were non-PCV15 serotypes. One of 81 patients with available data had breakthrough infection with vaccine serotype (19F). There was a significant increase of serotype 19A among children ?5 years (5.6% in 2000-2009 vs 18.3% in 2009-2012, P = 0.003). The all-age serotype coverage was 36.4%, 41.5%, 59.3%, and 59.7% for PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and PCV 15, respectively. The corresponding coverage in children ?5 years were 46.4%, 48.8%, 73.2%, and 73.2% respectively. High susceptibilities to penicillin (89.7%), cefotaxime (95.7%), cefditoren (90.2% by Spanish breakpoints), ofloxacin (97.9%), and levofloxacin (100%), but low to cefdinir (50.0%), cefditoren (45.1% by US-FDA breakpoints), macrolides (<50%), clindamycin (67.7%), tetracycline (41.4%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (32.4%) were observed. Serotype 19A was less susceptible to penicillin (80.0 vs 91.2%, P = 0.046), cefditoren (66.7 vs 95.5% by Spanish breakpoints, P = 0.004), and tetracycline (9.1 vs 45.5%, P = 0.024) than non-19A isolates. These data emphasize the need for continued surveillance to monitor changes in serotypes as well as antimicrobial susceptibilities in order to guide strategies for prevention and treatment.
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Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23(®) [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar(®), Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7.
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Dengue virus infection induces expansion of a CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte population that stimulates plasmablast differentiation.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Dengue virus (DENV) infection induces the expansion of plasmablasts, which produce antibodies that can neutralize DENV but also enhance disease upon secondary infection with another DENV serotype. To understand how these immune responses are generated, we used a systems biological approach to analyze immune responses to dengue in humans. Transcriptomic analysis of whole blood revealed that genes encoding proinflammatory mediators and type I interferon-related proteins were associated with high DENV levels during initial symptomatic disease. Additionally, CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes increased in the blood. Similarly, in a nonhuman primate model, DENV infection boosted CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte numbers in the blood and lymph nodes. Upon DENV infection in vitro, monocytes upregulated CD16 and mediated differentiation of resting B cells to plasmablasts as well as immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM secretion. These findings provide a detailed picture of innate responses to dengue and highlight a role for CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes in promoting plasmablast differentiation and anti-DENV antibody responses.
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Primary immunization of infants and toddlers in Thailand with Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine in comparison with SA14-14-2: a randomized study of immunogenicity and safety.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis (JE) chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is licensed in Thailand and Australia for prophylaxis of JE in individuals at the age of 12 months. JE-CV has not yet been compared with the SA14-14-2 JE vaccine, which is also licensed in Thailand.
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Reduced markers of HIV persistence and restricted HIV-specific immune responses after early antiretroviral therapy in children.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Understanding the extent to which early antiretroviral therapy (ART) can limit the establishment and persistence of the HIV reservoir is an important step to designing interventions aimed at achieving HIV cure. We measured the markers of HIV persistence and HIV-specific immunity in early treated children.
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Patient-based transcriptome-wide analysis identify interferon and ubiquination pathways as potential predictors of influenza a disease severity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The influenza A virus is an RNA virus that is responsible for seasonal epidemics worldwide with up to five million cases of severe illness and 500,000 deaths annually according to the World Health Organization estimates. The factors associated with severe diseases are not well defined, but more severe disease is more often seen among persons aged >65 years, infants, pregnant women, and individuals of any age with underlying health conditions.
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A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD) is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1) to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and lean body mass (LBM) for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy) and 2) to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB), BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine), BMC (L2-4 and total body), BA (L2-4 and total body) and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls). All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.
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Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among 101 perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy. Median age was 14.3 (interquartile range 13.0-15.7) years, and 90% had a HIV RNA<50 copies/mL. The median (interquartile range) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level was 24.8 (6.9-46.9) ng/mL; 25 (24.7%) had vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD<20 ng/mL) and 47 (46.5%) had insufficiency (25-OHD 20-30 ng/mL). Adolescents with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher parathyroid hormone levels (54.9 vs. 40.2 pg/mL, P<0.007). No associations between vitamin D deficiency and body mass index, bone mineral density, efavirenz use, HIV RNA, CD4 or self-reported sunlight exposure were observed.
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Role of cognitive parameters in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. It is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. Dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without shock (DSS), a life-threatening illness characterized by plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability. Currently, there are no antiviral modalities or vaccines available to treat and prevent dengue. Supportive care with close monitoring is the standard clinical practice. The mechanisms leading to DHF/DSS remains poorly understood. Multiple factors have been attributed to the pathological mechanism, but only a couple of these hypotheses are popular in scientific circles. The current discussion focuses on underappreciated factors, temperature, natural IgM, and endotoxin, which may be critical components playing roles in dengue pathogenesis.
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Serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in patients aged 50 years or older in Thailand.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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As the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been approved for use in adults aged 50 y and older, we evaluated vaccine-serotype coverage rate in Thai adult patients with invasive pneumococcal infections before the vaccine was widely used. Of the 157 S. pneumoniae isolates from normal sterile sites during January 2005 to September 2012, 150 (95%) from blood, mean patients age 69.6 (range 50-89) years, the overall serotype coverage by PCV13 was 58%. The vaccine covered 50%, 56%, 59%, and 68% of the invasive isolates from patients aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and ?80 y, respectively. The most common vaccine serotypes were 6B (17%), 19A (9%), 18C (5%), and 23F (4%). The susceptibility rates of penicillin and ceftriaxone were 95% and 96% for nonmeningitis criteria; and 46% and 92% for meningitis criteria, respectively. The susceptibilities to other antibiotics were: chloramphenicol 76%, clindamycin 80%, erythromycin 57%, levofloxacin 100%, ofloxacin 94%, tetracycline 39%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 37%, linezolid 99%, and vancomycin 100%, respectively. These data served as a reference for monitoring of vaccine serotype coverage with future increased vaccine utilization.
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Challenges for the formulation of a universal vaccine against dengue.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Dengue is rapidly becoming a disease of an escalating global public health concern. The disease is a vector-borne disease, transmitted by the bite of an Aedes spp. mosquito. Dynamic clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, flu-like febrile illness, dengue fever (DF) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without dengue shock syndrome (DSS), make the disease one of the most challenging to diagnose and treat. DF is a self-limited illness, while DHF/DSS, characterized by plasma leakage resulting from an increased vascular permeability, can have severe consequences, including death. The pathogenesis of dengue virus infection remains poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of a suitable animal model that can recapitulate the cardinal features of human dengue diseases. Currently, there is no specific treatment or antiviral therapy available for dengue virus infection and supportive care with vigilant monitoring is the principle course of treatment. Since vector control programs have been largely unsuccessful in preventing outbreaks, vaccination seems to be the most viable option for prevention. There are four dengue viral serotypes and each one of them is capable of causing severe dengue. Although immunity induced by infection by one serotype is effective in protection against the homologous viral serotype, it only has a transient protective effect against infection with the other three serotypes. The meager cross protective immunity generated wanes over time and may even induce a harmful effect at the time of subsequent secondary infection. Thus, it is imperative to have a vaccine that can elicit equal and long-lasting immunity to all four serotypes simultaneously. Numerous tetravalent vaccines are currently either in the pipeline for clinical trials or under development. For those frontrunner tetravalent vaccines in clinical trials, despite good safety and immunogenicity profiles registered, issues such as imbalanced immune responses between serotypes and questions with regard to whether the optimum formulation have been identified remain unresolved. This review centers on these issues and offers strategies that may improve the tetravalent vaccine formulation.
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Immune activation and viral replication after vaccination with an influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group) and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group). The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.
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Immunologic hypo- or non-responder in natural dengue virus infection.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Serologically defined primary dengue virus infection and/or subsequent homologous serotype infection is known to be associated with less severe disease as compared with secondary subsequent heterologous serotype infection. In geographical locales of high dengue endemicity, almost all individuals in the population are infected at some point in time and should therefore are at high risk of secondary infection. Interestingly, dengue viremia in healthy blood donors whose sera apparently lack detectable levels of specific antibody to dengue viral antigens has been reported. The incidence rate of potential immunologic hypo- or non-responders following natural primary dengue virus infection in dengue endemic regions, who do become immune responders only after repeated exposure, has not been described. These are the patients who may be diagnosed as primary infection in the subsequent infection, but actually are secondary infection. This concept has important implications with regards to the hypothesis of immunological enhancement of dengue pathogenesis, which has largely been advanced based on empirical observations and/or from in vitro experimental assays. The fact that dengue naïve travelers can suffer from severe dengue upon primary exposure while visiting dengue endemic countries underscores one of the major problems in explaining the role of immune enhancement in the pathogenesis of severe dengue virus infection. This evidence suggests that the mechanism(s) leading to severe dengue may not be associated with pre-existing enhancing antibody. Consequently, we propose a new paradigm for dengue virus infection classification. These include a) patients with naïve primary infection, b) those that are serologically defined primary in dengue endemic zones and c) those who are serologically defined secondary dengue virus infection. We submit that clarity with regards to such definitions may help facilitate the delineation of the potential mechanisms of severe dengue virus infection.
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Second-line protease inhibitor-based HAART after failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens in Asian HIV-infected children.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based HAART after failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) treatment. We examined outcomes of this regimen in Asian HIV-infected children.
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Serological Response of Patients with Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-Associated Pneumonia: An Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Little is known about the dynamics or magnitude of antibody response in patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-associated pneumonia. We described and compared the antibody response to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in patients with and without pneumonia.
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Developmental pharmacokinetic changes of Lamivudine in infants and children.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor widely used in infants and children in combination antiretroviral therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Developmental changes in lamivudine pharmacokinetic disposition were assessed by combining data from 7 studies of lamivudine (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 300, 353, 356, 358, 386, 1056, and 1069) representing subjects across the pediatric age continuum. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to identify factors that influence lamivudine disposition. Age and Thai race were independent predictors of apparent clearance (CL/F), whereas the use of a fixed drug combination formulation (GPO-VIR) was an independent predictor of bioavailability, with CL/F more than doubling from birth to adolescence. Serum creatinine was not associated with CL/F. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compare the lamivudine exposure achieved with World Health Organization (WHO) weight band and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) label dosing recommendations. WHO dosing yielded higher exposure during the first few months of life, but this difference was less pronounced between 6 months and 14 years of age. Overall, both FDA and WHO dosing provided similar AUC values to those previously reported in HIV-infected adults. Lamivudine WHO weight band dosing results in therapeutic exposure in infants and children and may improve drug dosing in resource-limited countries.
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Pharmacokinetics and safety of a new paediatric fixed-dose combination of zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine in HIV-infected children.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Alternatives to the available stavudine-containing paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets are rapidly needed due to concerns regarding the cumulative toxicity of long-term stavudine exposure. We report the bioavailability and short-term safety of a novel paediatric FDC tablet of zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP; 30/15/28 mg) in HIV-infected children.
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Clinical presentation and lung function of children hospitalized with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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To determine the clinical presentation and subsequent lung function following pneumonia caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), pH1N1, in children aged 5-15 years hospitalized from June to September 2009, we contacted patients meeting the criterion 3-6 months post-hospitalization. Of the 88 patients contacted, 31 (35.2%) had pH1N1 and 57 (64.8%) had infections due to other viral pathogens (non-pH1N1), the mean age was 10.4 years and 52 (59%) were boys. Compared to non-pH1N1 patients, the pH1N1 patients were more likely to have a high fever (96.8% vs 77.2%, p = 0.03), sore throat (58.1% vs 33.3%, p = 0.03), and injected pharynx (80.6% vs 40.4%, p = 0.001). At 3-6 months after pneumonia onset, means for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, and PEF were within normal limit in both the pH1N1 and non-pH1N1 groups. Five (28%) of 18 pH1N1 children and 4 (20%) of 20 non-pH1N1 children had abnormal lung function results. All were restrictive type. In conclusion, pH1N1 pneumonia were more likely to present with high fever, sore throat, and pharyngeal injection than pneumonia from other viruses. About one quarter of the children who had pH1N1 had restrictive lung function 3-6 months after infection. This number did not differ from the non-pH1N1 group.
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Survival of HIV-infected children: a cohort study from the Asia-Pacific region.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been used for HIV-infected children in many Asian countries since 2002. This study describes survival outcomes among HIV-infected children in a multicenter regional cohort in Asia.
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Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in HIV-infected Thai children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the monovalent pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) vaccine in HIV-infected Thai children, 2 doses, 28days apart, of non-adjuvant monovalent pH1N1 vaccine (Panenza(®) by Sanofi Pasteur, 15?g/dose) provided by the National Health Promotion Program of the Thai Ministry of Public Health were given to HIV-infected children. Immunogenicity was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) using two antigens, pH1N1 (A/Thailand/104/09) and seasonal influenza A H1N1 (A/Brisbane/59/07-like), at baseline, and 28days after each dose. Serologic response was defined as four-fold rising of HAI titer or HAI titer ?1:40 for those with baseline titer ?1:10. Adverse events were recorded for 7days after each vaccination. Of the 119 HIV-infected children enrolled, 60 (50.4%) were female with a median (IQR) age of 10.4 (7.2-13.7)years. All but 2 (98.3%) children were receiving antiretroviral therapy. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was 782 (570-1149)cells/mm(3), 91 (80.5%) children had HIV RNA level <40copies/ml. The baseline HAI titer ?1:40 for pH1N1 and seasonal H1N1 were 45.4%, and 39.5%, respectively. At 28 days after doses 1 and 2, the serologic response rates for pH1N1 were 54.2% and 67.8% with the geometric mean titer of 109.9 and 141.8; and serologic response rate when tested with seasonal H1N1 were 2.5% and 3.5%, respectively. The presence of baseline HAI titer for pH1N1 or seasonal H1N1 was found to be associated with serologic response. The vaccine was well tolerated. The results suggested that monovalent pH1N1 vaccine was immunogenic and safe in well controlled HIV-infected children with low level of cross reacting antibody to seasonal H1N1.
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Immunogenicity and safety study of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T comparator, both concomitantly administered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in Thai inf
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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To assess a new, fully-liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (diphtheria toxoid (D), tetanus toxoid (T), acellular pertussis (aP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP-T) antigens) compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T vaccine following primary series co-administration with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).
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Septicemia, meningitis, and skull osteomyelitis complicating infected cephalhematoma caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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An infected cephalhematoma is a rare condition in neonates. We report a case of an 18-day-old neonate who was diagnosed with an infected cephalhematoma caused by an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli complicated with septicemia, meningitis, and skull osteomyelitis. He was successfully treated with meropenem and surgical incision and drainage. ESBL-producing E. coli may cause infection of a cephalhematoma in neonates.
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Immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) after storage at 37 °C for seven days.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The lyophilized formulation of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (RotarixTM), is recommended to be stored at 2°C-8°C for optimal immunogenicity. In some settings with inadequate infrastructure for vaccine storage, unforeseen circumstances may cause cold chain breakage, resulting in the vaccine to be left at ambient temperatures. This study evaluated the heat stability of lyophilized RIX4414 vaccine in terms of immunogenicity when stored at tropical room temperature (37 °C) for 7 days before reconstitution.
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Development of a culturally appropriate health-related quality of life measure for human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Thailand.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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Aim:? Develop a reliable and valid self-report health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Thailand. Methods:? The Thai Quality of Life for HIV-infected Children instrument, the ThQLHC (an HRQOL measure that uses the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory as a generic core and a 17-item HIV-targeted scale), was developed and administered cross-sectionally to 292 HIV-infected children in Thailand. The disease-targeted scale included HIV-related symptoms, ability to adhere with their treatment regimens and self-image. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbachs ?) and construct validity of the ThQLHC scales were then evaluated. Results:? Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.57 to 0.82, with four of five scales reaching the minimal acceptable level (>0.70). Significant associations were found between poor HRQOL and poor self-rated disease severity, care givers rated overall quality of life, cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 percent and plasma HIV ribonucleic acid level. Conclusion:? Reliable and valid disease-targeted HRQOL measures for HIV-infected children are essential in the assessment of therapeutic effectiveness. The findings of this cross-sectional survey provide support for the reliability and validity of the ThQLHC as an HRQOL outcome measure for HIV-infected Thai children.
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Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae from a university hospital, Thailand.
J Med Assoc Thai
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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The most frequent markers of fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae are chromosomal mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV encoding for the gyrA, gyrB and parC, parE genes. In 2008, 6.5% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in a Bangkok university hospital were resistant to ofloxacin. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we identified mutations in both the gyrA and parC genes of four ofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates (minimum inhibitory concentrations > 32 microg/ml). Mutations were found in the gyrA gene at positions Ser81Phe, Glu85Gly, Glu85Lys and in the parC gene at position Ser79Tyr. Three isolates had mutations in both genes. Two of the isolates were serotype 6B and two were serotypes not contained in currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. This is the first report of the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae in Thailand.
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Safety and immunogenicity of a single administration of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in previously primed 2- to 5-year-olds and naive 12- to 24-month-olds: multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Safe and effective Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines are needed to protect populations living in or visiting endemic areas. A live-attenuated JE-chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) has been developed with a single-dose regimen.
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Antiretroviral therapy outcomes of HIV-infected children in the TREAT Asia pediatric HIV observational database.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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We report responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
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Health-related Quality of Life of Thai children with HIV infection: a comparison of the Thai Quality of Life in Children (ThQLC) with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ version 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Thai Quality of Life in Children (ThQLC) and compare it with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™ 4.0) in a sample of children receiving long-term HIV care in Thailand.
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A chewable pediatric fixed-dose combination tablet of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine: pharmacokinetics and safety compared with the individual liquid formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Thailand.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are needed to facilitate antiretroviral therapy in children. We evaluated the relative bioavailability, safety, and therapeutic adequacy of a novel chewable pediatric FDC tablet of stavudine (7 mg), lamivudine (30 mg), and nevirapine (50 mg), referred to as GPO-VIR S7, and compared it with the individual original brand-name liquid formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children.
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Boosted p24 antigen assay for early diagnosis of perinatal HIV infection.
J Med Assoc Thai
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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The authors evaluated the accuracy of in-house boosted-p24 antigen assay for diagnosis of perinatal HIV infection.
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Immunogenicity of a live-attenuated human rotavirus RIX4414 vaccine with or without buffering agent.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Aim: The lyophilized form of the human rotavirus RIX4414 vaccine (Rotarix()) is usually reconstituted with a liquid calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) buffer and administered orally. However, errors in the reconstitution could occur (e.g. reconstituted with water instead of CaCO(3) buffer) or the buffer might be temporarily unavailable in few instances. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the RIX4414 vaccine if the vaccine was reconstituted with other agents (e.g., water) instead of CaCO(3) buffer. Results: There was no statistical difference detected between RIX4414 vaccine reconstituted with buffer or water in vaccine take or in seroconversion rate. The anti-rotavirus Immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion rate 2 months post-Dose 2 was 84.7% (95% CI: 78.1-90.0) for the group with buffer and 78.6% (95% CI: 71.2-84.8) for the group with water. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms reported were similar across groups. No vaccine related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Methods: Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks, received two oral doses of the RIX4414 vaccine/placebo, reconstituted either with injectable water or CaCO(3) buffer according to a 0, 2 month schedule. Seroconversion rates in terms of anti-RV IgA antibody levels (cut off: >/=20 U/ml by ELISA) and vaccine take were calculated 2 months post-Dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms reported during the 15- and 31-day follow-up period after each dose and SAE s reported during the entire study period were recorded. Conclusion: Administration of RIX4414 vaccine in the absence of CaCO(3) buffer was shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic in Thai infants.
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Safety in treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with aerosolized colistin in neonates: a preliminary report.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Infections caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) have been increasingly observed and are associated with a high mortality rate. We present our experience using aerosolized colistin for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to XDR-AB in neonates.
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Implication of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to public health: Thailand perspective.
J Med Assoc Thai
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated good safety profile and efficacy against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by the serotypes included in the vaccines. The PCV also benefit to the unvaccinated children and adults from herd immunity. With the widespread use of the vaccine, emerging of non vaccine serotypes has been documented. The IPD burden in Thailand was found to be lower than that found in the western countries but the data in high risk population has been lacking. The PCV has been available in Thailand since 2006 as an optional vaccine, out of National Vaccine Program, with the uptake of less than 5% in children under 5 years of age. The serotypes distribution in Thailand has not changed significantly. In the year 2000-2005, compared with year 2006-2009, the most common serotypes in children < 5 years have been similar; comprising of 6B, 23F, 14, and 19F, however 19A has become more prevalence (6.2%) in the years 2006-2009. With the new breakpoint of penicillin susceptibility for non-meningeal strains, most penumococcal isolates in Thailand were susceptible to penicillin. To project the benefit for widespread use of PCV in Thailand the cost benefit analyses including the different types of PCV, the various dosing schedule, the benefit from herd immunity and the disadvantage of serotype replacement are needed.
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A description of antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae-Siriraj Hospital, Thailand: 2008.
J Med Assoc Thai
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 170 patient specimens at Siriraj Hospital during January-December 2008. Patients were 66% male and ranged in age from 3 months to 94 years (mean +/- SD = 38.2 +/- 31.7). The largest proportion (29.4%) of isolates were from patients older than 60 years, followed by patients aged 2-5 years (20%) and from patients less than 2 years (12.4%). Monthly isolation was highest in December (22 isolates in December compared to the average of 13 isolates of the other months). Antimicrobial susceptibility for eight drugs was determined by the disk diffusion method. Overall, susceptibility was generally high to chloramphenicol (71.8%), linezolid (100%), ofloxacin (93.5%) and vancomycin (100%), but less susceptible to erythromycin (35.3%), penicillin (31.1%), tetracycline (28.8%) and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (24.1%). Among the 105 (62%) isolates resistant to three or more drugs, the most common resistance pattern was erythromycin-penicillin-tetracycline-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, accounting for 39% of such isolates, followed by chloramphenicol-erythromycin-penicillin-tetracycline- trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (29.5%). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin and cefotaxime were determined by broth microdilution. By 2008 CLSI criteria, 92% and 90% of 51 sterile site isolates were penicillin and cefotaxime susceptible, including one of two meningitis cases. In contrast, of 26 non-sterile site isolates, only 26.9% and 76.9% were susceptible to penicillin and cefotaxime, respectively. The MICs of penicillin were higher for isolates from non-sterile sites than for those from sterile sites.
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A comparative study of the serological response to Japanese encephalitis vaccine in HIV-infected and uninfected Thai children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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We report a prospective study of mouse brain derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine, given in 3-dose EPI program to human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-exposed Thai infants. 18 HIV-infected receiving antiretroviral therapy with median baseline CD4 of 33.1%, and 92 HIV-uninfected children were studied. All but one HIV-infected child seroconverted after the second dose. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) 3 months after the second and third doses in HIV-infected vs HIV-uninfected children were 247 vs 938 (p=0.022), and 2273 vs 24069 (p=0.009), respectively. Urticaria or angioedema found in 4% and 6% in HIV-infected and -uninfected children, respectively (p=1.0). The vaccine was safe and immunogenic but antibody response in HIV-infected children was not as high as in uninfected children.
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Serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive or non-invasive diseases in central Thailand, 2006-2009.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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The serotype of 172 S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from normally sterile sites from January 2006 to February 2009 in Thai patients was evaluated. The most common serotypes were 6B, 23F, 14, 19F, and 19A in patients <5 year-old, and 6B, 19A, 23F, 4, 9V in patients >65-year old. Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV-7) covered 70.3%, 43.6%, and 43.5% of patients <5, 5-64 and > or = 65 years of age, respectively, while PCV-13 covered 81.2%, 59.7%, and 60.9%, respectively. PCV-9, PCV-10, PCV-11 had very similar coverage as PCV-7. The antibiotic susceptibility rates of the isolates from sterile sites were 88.7-95.7% for penicillin, 90.6-98.4% for cefotaxime, 92.2-100% for ofloxacin and 100% for ciprofloxacin. PCV-7 covered 83% and 100%, respectively, of penicillin and cefotaxime non-susceptible isolates in patients <5-year old.
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Influenza A viral loads in respiratory samples collected from patients infected with pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), nasal swab (NS), and throat swab (TS) are common specimens used for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections based on the detection of viral genomes, viral antigens and viral isolation. However, there is no documented data regarding the type of specimen that yields the best result of viral detection. In this study, quantitative real time RT-PCR specific for M gene was used to determine influenza A viral loads present in NS, NPA and TS samples collected from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Various copy numbers of RNA transcripts derived from recombinant plasmids containing complete M gene insert of each virus strain were assayed by RT-PCR. A standard curve for viral RNA quantification was constructed by plotting each Ct value against the log quantity of each standard RNA copy number.
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A novel mutation of the IL12RB1 gene in a child with nocardiosis, recurrent salmonellosis and neurofibromatosis type I: first case report from Thailand.
Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Genetic defects of interleukin (IL)-12/23-and interferon (IFN)-gamma-mediated immunity can cause increased susceptibility to intracellular microbes. Among these defects, a mutation of the gene encoding the IL-12 receptor beta1 (IL-12Rbeta1) is the most common worldwide. A 12-year old Thai boy with pre-existing neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was evaluated for primary immunodeficiency after a history of tuberculous lymphadenitis, recurrent Salmonella infections and nocardiosis. Flow cytometry of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) revealed a defect in the IL-12Rbeta1 surface expression. A genetic study showed a novel nonsense homozygous mutation of the IL12RB1 gene in exon 4 (402C > A), confirming the diagnosis of IL-12Rbeta1 deficiency. This is the first case report of a primary IL-12Rbeta1 deficiency in Thailand with the interesting finding of a coexisting NF1.
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A re-evaluation of the mechanisms leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Viremia is one of the features of dengue virus infection among the flaviviruses. Dengue virus infection results in a spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from undifferentiated flu-like illness, mild dengue fever, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS), a life-threatening illness. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized based primarily on data collected from post-acute clinical phase to account for DHF/DSS. Lack of a suitable animal model for DHF/DSS has hindered progress in defining the etiology of DHF/DSS. Levels of circulating dengue virus have been well-correlated to severe dengue disease. However, the cell lineage(s) serving as a primary target for the source of viremia are largely unknown. Results from in vivo and in vitro pilot studies using molecular and more advanced technologies reveal that dengue virus appears to be associated with platelets and the megakaryocytic lineage. The observation may partially explain the dysfunction of platelets observed in dengue affected patients.
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Detection of dengue virus in platelets isolated from dengue patients.
Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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Though thrombocytopenia or dysfunction of platelets is common in dengue virus infection, the role of platelets has not been established. We enrolled 33 hospitalized children with serologically confirmed dengue virus infection. Blood specimens were collected during hospitalization. Platelets and plasma were isolated from the whole blood. Detection of dengue virus in plasma and platelets was carried out by RT-PCR with primers that can differentiate different dengue serotypes simultaneously, and by electron transmission microscopy (EM). Dengue viral RNA was detected in the platelets and plasma by conventional RT-PCR. A significantly higher percentage of dengue viral RNA was detected in platelets than in plasma (p = 0.03). Platelets isolated 5 days after onset of fever were most likely positive for viral RNA. Concurrent infection or co-circulation with multiple dengue serotypes was observed in 12% of patients. Infrequently, negative-stranded dengue viral RNA was detected in platelets and in plasma. Importantly, EM confirmed the presence of dengue viral-like particles inside platelets prepared from dengue patients. Our findings suggest the presence of dengue virus in platelets may be associated with the dysfunction of platelets observed in dengue patients.
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Development of a diagnosis disclosure model for perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand.
AIDS Care
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While disclosure of HIV status to perinatally HIV-infected children has become an increasingly important clinical issue, specific disclosure guidelines are lacking. We developed a pediatric HIV diagnosis disclosure model to support caretakers. All HIV-infected children greater than 7-years-old at two participating hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand, and their caretakers, were offered disclosure according to the 4-step protocol: (1) screening; (2) readiness assessment; (3) disclosure; and (4) follow-up. Disclosure occurred after agreement of both providers and caretakers. Among 438 children who were screened, 398 (89%) were eligible. Readiness assessment was completed for 353 (91%) of eligible children and 216 (61%) were determined ready. Disclosure was done for 186 children. The mean age at eligibility screening was 10.5 years (range: 6.8-15.8 years); the mean age at disclosure was 11.7 years (range: 7.6-17.7 years). The mean duration between eligibility screening and disclosure was 15.2 months. There were no significant negative behavioral or emotional outcomes reported in children following disclosure. This HIV diagnosis disclosure model was feasible to implement and had no negative outcomes. As the time for preparation process was over 1 year for most cases, the disclosure process can be initiated as early as age 7 to allow enough time for disclosure to be completed by the age of adolescence.
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Seroprevalence of 2009 H1N1 virus infection and self-reported infection control practices among healthcare professionals following the first outbreak in Bangkok, Thailand.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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A serologic study with simultaneous self-administered questionnaire regarding infection control (IC) practices and other risks of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (2009 H1N1) infection was performed approximately 1 month after the first outbreak among frontline healthcare professionals (HCPs). Of 256 HCPs, 33 (13%) were infected. Self-reported adherence to IC practices in >90% of exposure events was 82·1%, 73·8%, and 53·5% for use of hand hygiene, masks, and gloves, respectively. Visiting crowded public places during the outbreak was associated with acquiring infection (OR 3·1, P = 0·019). Amongst nurses, exposure to HCPs with influenza-like illness during the outbreak without wearing a mask was the only identified risk factor for infection (OR = 2·3, P = 0·039).
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Role of CD61+ cells in thrombocytopenia of dengue patients.
Int. J. Hematol.
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Although hematological disorders with salient features of thrombocytopenia have been well documented in dengue patients, the role of CD61-expressing platelets and the megakaryocytic cell lineage in the pathogenesis of dengue virus (DENV) infection remains largely unexplored. A prospective observational study was performed using blood samples and PBMCs from dengue-confirmed patients, as well as from rhesus monkeys (RM) experimentally infected with DENV. Immunohistochemical staining and FACS techniques were applied to evaluate the frequencies of CD61(+) cells that contained DENV antigen. Highly enriched population of CD61(+) cells was also isolated from acute DENV-infected RM and assayed for DENV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. Results revealed that DENV antigen was found in small vesicles of varying size, and more frequently in anucleated cells associated with platelets in dengue patients. The DENV antigen-containing cells were CD61(+) and appeared to share characteristics of megakaryocytes. Kinetic profiles of CD61(+) cells from DENV-infected RM revealed a transient increase in CD61(+)CD62P(+) cells early after DENV infection. DENV RNA in a highly enriched population of CD61(+) cells from the infected RM was observed during acute stage. Our results indicate that virus containing CD61(+) cells may be directly linked to the platelet dysfunction and low platelet count characteristics of dengue patients.
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Pharmacokinetics of darunavir/ritonavir in Asian HIV-1-infected children aged ?7 years.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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The Asian population, in general, has higher antiretroviral concentrations than those who are not Asian, but there are limited pharmacokinetic data for darunavir/ritonavir in Asian children.
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Once- versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir tablets in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected, treatment-experienced children: comparative pharmacokinetics and virological outcome after switching to once-daily lopinavir/ritonavir.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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Data on lopinavir/ritonavir tablets administered once daily in children are limited. We compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lopinavir/ritonavir twice daily versus once daily in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected children, and assessed the virological outcome, at 48 weeks, in children receiving the regimen of lopinavir/ritonavir once daily.
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Prevalence and risk factors of low bone mineral density among perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among 10%-54% of HIV-infected adolescents in developed countries. We studied the prevalence and predictors of low BMD among HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy.
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High virologic response rate after second-line boosted protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in children from a resource limited setting.
AIDS Res Ther
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Limited data exist for the efficacy of second-line antiretroviral therapy among children in resource limited settings. We assessed the virologic response to protease inhibitor-based ART after failing first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens.
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Rapid and massive virus-specific plasmablast responses during acute dengue virus infection in humans.
J. Virol.
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Humoral immune responses are thought to play a major role in dengue virus-induced immunopathology; however, little is known about the plasmablasts producing these antibodies during an ongoing infection. Herein we present an analysis of plasmablast responses in patients with acute dengue virus infection. We found very potent plasmablast responses that often increased more than 1,000-fold over the baseline levels in healthy volunteers. In many patients, these responses made up as much 30% of the peripheral lymphocyte population. These responses were largely dengue virus specific and almost entirely made up of IgG-secreting cells, and plasmablasts reached very high numbers at a time after fever onset that generally coincided with the window where the most serious dengue virus-induced pathology is observed. The presence of these large, rapid, and virus-specific plasmablast responses raises the question as to whether these cells might have a role in dengue immunopathology during the ongoing infection. These findings clearly illustrate the need for a detailed understanding of the repertoire and specificity of the antibodies that these plasmablasts produce.
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Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Opportunistic Infections of HIV-Infected Children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OI) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia.
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