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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of Procedure on the Post-Operative Infection Risk of Patients after Elective Colon Surgery.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Abstract Background: Post-operative infection impacts the quality of patient care, prolongs the length of hospital stay, and utilizes more health care resources. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of surgical site infection among three major surgical procedures for treating patients with colon pathology. Hypothesis: The location of colon resection impacts the post-operative infection rate. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients (age ?18 yr) with colon diseases are the population of interest. The disease status and procedures were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Patients with a primary diagnosis of diverticulosis of the colon without hemorrhage (ICD-9-CM codes: 562.11 and 562.12) or malignant neoplasm of the colon (ICD-9-CM codes: 153.x, where x represents the possible digits within this ICD-9-CM code category), with procedures of open and other right hemicolectomy (ORH; ICD-9-CM code: 45.73) or open and other left hemicolectomy (OLH; ICD-9-CM code: 45.75), or open and other sigmoidectomy (OS; ICD-9-CM code: 45.76) were included for this study. The primary measured outcome for the study was surgical site infection. Results: There were an estimated 26,381 ORH procedures, 9,558 OLH procedures, and 31,656 OS procedures performed in 2006. There was a significant difference among procedures with respect to their age distributions (mean [standard error]: ORH vs. OLH vs. OS=70.5 [0.2] vs. 63.8 [0.3] vs. 59.5 [0.2] yr, p<0.0001) and the gender distributions (female percentage ORH vs. OLH vs. OS=56.1% vs. 51.5% vs. 50.9%, p<0.0001). There was a significant difference among the surgical procedures (infection rates: ORH vs. OLH vs. OS=2.9% vs. 5.6% vs. 4.9%, p<0.0001). From a logistic regression model, after controlling for age, gender, primary diagnosis, comorbidities, and hospital teaching status, OLH had a higher chance of SSI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] [95% confidence interval {CI}]=1.54 [1.16-2,05], p=0.003) compared with ORH. However, OS did not have different SSI rates (AOR [95% CI]=1.18 [0.90-1.54], p=0.234) compared with ORH. There was a higher rate of infection for OLH (AOR [95% CI]: 1.31 [1.04-1.64], p=0.02) compared with OS. Conclusions: Different sites of colon operations were associated with different risks of surgical site infections. Accordingly, appropriate pre-operative measures should address these differences.
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Fabrication and characterization of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with periodic via-holes etching and Bragg mirror processes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this study, the design and fabrication schemes of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with periodic via-holes etching and Bragg mirror processes are presented. Compared to typical front-side illuminated solar cells, the improvements of open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 1.88 to 1.94 V and short-circuit current density (Jsc) from 0.84 to 1.02 mA/cm2 are observed. Most significantly, the back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells exhibit an extremely high fill factor up to 85.5%, leading to a conversion efficiency of 1.69% from 0.66% of typical front-side illuminated solar cells under air mass 1.5 global illuminations. Moreover, the effects of bottom Bragg mirrors on the photovoltaic characteristics of back-side illuminated solar cells are studied by an advanced simulation program. The results show that the Jsc could further be improved with a factor of 10% from the original back-side illuminated solar cell by the structure optimization of bottom Bragg mirrors.
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Dynamic study on the transformation process of gold nanoclusters.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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In this paper, the transformation process from Au8 to Au25 nanoclusters (NCs) is investigated with steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at various reaction temperatures and solvent diffusivities. Results demonstrate that Au8 NCs, protected by bovine serum albumin, transform into Au25 NCs under controlled pH values through an endothermic reaction with the activation energy of 74 kJ mol(-1). Meanwhile, the characteristic s-shaped curves describing the formation of Au25 NCs suggest this process involves a diffusion controlled growth mechanism.
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Correlations between 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters and pathological findings in patients with rectal cancer.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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This study examined the correlations between F-FDG PET/CT results and tumor specimen pathology in patients with rectal cancer.
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Increased 99mTc TRODAT-1 uptake in anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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(99m)Tc TRODAT-1, a selective dopamine transporter SPECT imaging agent, has demonstrated its efficacy in identifying patients with Parkinson disease. Primary or metastatic brain neoplasm uptake of TRODAT-1 is rarely reported in literatures. A 51-year-old female patient underwent TRODAT-1 study for bradykinesia and altered cognitive function; the images showed abnormal extrastriatal uptake in the right frontal lobe subsequent to operation, and pathological examination confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Care should be taken in interpreting TRODAT-1 image; any focus on abnormal accumulation of radiotracer should not be overlooked because it can be brain neoplasm as demonstrated in this case.
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Aortic stiffness and interstitial myocardial fibrosis by native T1 are independently associated with left ventricular remodeling in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Increased aortic stiffness is related to increased ventricular stiffness and remodeling. Myocardial fibrosis is the pathophysiological hallmark of failing heart. We investigated the relationship between noninvasive imaging markers of myocardial fibrosis, native T1, and late gadolinium enhancement, respectively, and aortic stiffness in ventricular remodeling. Consecutive patients with known dilated cardiomyopathy (n=173) underwent assessment of cardiac volumes and function, T1 mapping, scar imaging, and pulse wave velocity, a measure of aortic stiffness. Asymptomatic healthy volunteers served as controls (n=47). Controls and patients showed an increase in pulse wave velocity with age, which was accelerated in the presence of cardiovascular disease. On the contrary, native T1 increased with age in patients, but not in controls. Pulse wave velocity was associated with native T1 in the presence of disease, but not in health. Native T1 showed a strong relationship with markers of structural and functional left ventricular remodeling and diastolic impairment. Ischemic and nonischemic pathophysiology of ventricular remodeling showed a similar slope of relationship between pulse wave velocity and native T1. However, in nonischemic patients, increase in pulse wave velocity was associated with greater increase in native T1. Aortic stiffness is related to age, and this process is accelerated in the presence of disease. On the contrary, increase in interstitial myocardial fibrosis is associated with age in the presence of disease. Patients with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy have a similar relationship between native T1 and pulse wave velocity, which is stronger in the latter group.
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Identification of cucurbitacins and assembly of a draft genome for Aquilaria agallocha.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Agarwood is derived from Aquilaria trees, the trade of which has come under strict control with a listing in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Many secondary metabolites of agarwood are known to have medicinal value to humans, including compounds that have been shown to elicit sedative effects and exhibit anti-cancer properties. However, little is known about the genome, transcriptome, and the biosynthetic pathways responsible for producing such secondary metabolites in agarwood.
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Correlation between PET/CT parameters and KRAS expression in colorectal cancer.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to correlate the association between mutated KRAS and wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC) by using various F-FDG PET-related parameters.
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Elastase induces lung epithelial cell autophagy through placental growth factor: a new insight of emphysema pathogenesis.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease, which is associated with increasing mortality and morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to clearly define the COPD pathogenic mechanism and to explore effective therapies. Previous studies indicated that cigarette smoke (CS) induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung epithelial (LE) cells. Excessive ELANE/HNE (elastase, neutrophil elastase), a factor involved in protease-antiprotease imbalance and the pathogenesis of COPD, causes LE cell apoptosis and upregulates the expression of several stimulus-responsive genes. However, whether or not elastase induces autophagy in LE cell remains unknown. The level of PGF (placental growth factor) is higher in COPD patients than non-COPD controls. We hypothesize that elastase induces PGF expression and causes autophagy in LE cells. In this study, we demonstrated that porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced PGF expression and secretion in LE cells in vitro and in vivo. The activation of MAPK8/JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and MAPK14/p38alpha MAPK signaling pathways was involved in the PGF mediated regulation of the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) pathway and autophagy in LE cells. Notably, PGF-induced MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways mediated the inactivation of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the upregulation of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 ?) and the increase of autophagosome formation in mice. Furthermore, the PPE-induced autophagy promotes further apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In summary, elastase-induced autophagy promotes LE cell apoptosis and pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PGF. PGF and its downstream MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of emphysema and COPD.
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Psychotic disorder induced by a combination of sorafenib and BAY86-9766.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK cascade is important in the intra-cellular transduction of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate. Sorafenib (Nexavar), a multi-kinase inhibitor targeting Raf kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor, has shown promising results in the treatment of malignancies. BAY86-9766, a novel selective MEK 1/2 inhibitor, is being evaluated in clinical trials as an anticancer drug. We describe herein a hepatocellular carcinoma patient presenting with recurrent psychotic symptoms in the course of the BASIL trial (assessing BAY86-9766 plus sorafenib for the treatment of liver cancer). In this case, VEGFR inhibition caused by sorafenib alone may have contributed to the development of psychosis. A change in ERK activity might also have been involved. However, whether single or combination use of the two drugs is responsible for inducing the psychotic symptoms remains unclear. In summary, the role of the ERK pathway in psychosis is still vague. Further investigation of the ERK activity in patients with psychotic disorders may disclose its role in the pathophysiology of psychosis.
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Interim FDG PET/CT for predicting the outcome in patients with head and neck cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The study aimed to investigate the prognostic effects of interim (18) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during definitive radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with head and neck cancer.
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Thoracoscopic surgery for bronchobiliary fistula: a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The bronchobiliary fistula is an abnormal interconnection between the biliary tract and bronchial trees. It is rare but troublesome. The management of such fistula is a challenge. Surgical intervention is considered after failure of conservative treatment. Here we presented the successful video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for secondary bronchobiliary fistula in 68-year-old hepatocellular carcinoma patient.
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Hyperkalemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Acute Kidney Injury, and Fatal Dysrhythmias After Consumption of Palytoxin-Contaminated Goldspot Herring.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Severe electrolyte disturbances caused by fish poisoning are rarely reported in the literature. We present an unusual outbreak of palytoxin poisoning associated with the consumption of Goldspot herring (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus). Four family members became ill after eating 2 species of marine fish. The presenting symptoms and signs included bitter taste, oral numbness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hypertension, which were followed by myalgia, limb numbness, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and abnormal cold and warm sensations. The index case manifested hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acute kidney injury, and developed severe cardiac dysrhythmias. He died 21 hours postingestion. Palytoxin and related compounds were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in one of the leftover fish. Palytoxin poisoning is rarely reported and is difficult to diagnose in the absence of laboratory confirmation. Palytoxin poisoning should be considered in patients who manifest hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia after the consumption of marine fish, and timely laboratory analysis should be sought.
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Distant metastases in a young woman with Stewart-Treves syndrome demonstrated by an FDG-PET/CT scan.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This 17-year-old woman had chronic congenital lymphedema in the left lower extremity since childhood. She underwent surgeries to remove excessive lymphedematous tissues more than 15 times previously. Histopathology of the specimen from the recent surgery revealed angiosarcoma; therefore, FDG-PET/CT scan was arranged to determine the extent of tumor spread, and distant metastases were discovered. Stewart-Treves syndrome is angiosarcomas that arise secondary to chronic lymphedema. Because of the high lethality of this condition, the FDG-PET/CT scan may be a clinically useful imaging modality to detect the possible malignant transformation earlier for patients with chronic lymphedema.
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Intracellular glutathione depletion by oridonin leads to apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Induction of HSC apoptosis by natural products is considered an effective strategy for treating liver fibrosis. Herein, the apoptotic effects of 7,20-epoxy-ent-kaurane (oridonin), a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in rat HSC cell line, HSC-T6. We found that oridonin inhibited cell viability of HSC-T6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increases in caspase 3 activation, subG1 phase, and DNA fragmentation. These apoptotic effects of oridonin were completely reversed by thiol antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione monoethyl ester. Moreover, oridonin increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was also inhibited by NAC. Significantly, oridonin reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH) level in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. Additionally, oridonin induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). NAC prevented the activation of MAPKs in oridonin-induced cells. However, selective inhibitors of MAPKs failed to alter oridonin-induced cell death. In summary, these results demonstrate that induction of apoptosis in HSC-T6 by oridonin is associated with a decrease in cellular GSH level and increase in ROS production.
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Hole injection and electron overflow improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer with step-graded aluminum composition is analyzed in nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) numerically and experimentally. The energy band diagrams, electrostatic fields, carrier concentration, electron current density profiles, and hole transmitting probability are investigated. The simulation results demonstrated that such tapered structure can effectively enhance the hole injection efficiency as well as the electron confinement. Consequently, the LED with a tapered EBL grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition exhibits reduced efficiency droop behavior of 29% as compared with 44% for original LED, which reflects the improvement in hole injection and electron overflow in our design.
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Reduced efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes by thin AlGaN barriers.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The phenomenon of efficiency droop in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied numerically. Simulation results indicate that the severe Auger recombination is one critical mechanism corresponding to the degraded efficiency under high current injection. To solve this issue, LED structure with thin AlGaN barriers and without the use of an AlGaN EBL is proposed. The purpose of the strain-compensation AlGaN barriers is to mitigate the strain accumulation in a multiquantum well (MQW) active region in this thin-barrier structure. With the proposed LED structure, the hole injection and transportation of the MQW active region are largely improved. The carriers can thus distribute/disperse much more uniformly in QWs, and the Auger recombination is suppressed accordingly. The internal quantum efficiency and the efficiency droop are therefore efficiently improved.
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B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 promotes oral cancer progression through STAT1/ATF4/S100P signaling pathway.
Oncogene
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10) is an apoptotic regulatory protein related to advanced TNM stage and disease recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the regulatory mechanism of BCL10 in OSCC progression is still unknown. Here, we showed that knockdown of endogenous BCL10 could significantly reduce cell migration and invasion abilities, retard cell proliferation by G0/G1 phase accumulation and inhibit tumorigenicity in vivo. In molecular level, we identified S100P as a crucial downstream effector of BCL10-inhibited OSCC progression by high-throughput microarray analysis. S100P messenger RNA and protein expression levels were significantly diminished in silenced-BCL10 clones, and transfected S100P expression plasmids restored migration, invasion, proliferation abilities and tumorigenicity in shBCL10 transfectants. Furthermore, we provided evidence that BCL10 regulated S100P expression through signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Knockdown of BCL10 decreased S100P promoter activity, but showed no effect in truncated STAT1/ATF4 S100P promoter.  In addition, we also found that the P50/P65 signaling pathway was involved in BCL10-enhanced OSCC progression. Restored S100P in silenced-BCL10 clones could markedly reverse P65 activation via outside-in signaling. Taken together, we discovered a novel axis of BCL10-regulated OSCC progression via STAT1/ATF4/S100P/P65 signaling, which could predict the prognosis of OSCC and will be beneficial for developing therapeutic strategy against advanced OSCC.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.43.
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Endoscopic diagnosis of cervical esophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa with conventional and narrow-band images.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To compare the diagnostic yield of heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) in the cervical esophagus with conventional imaging (CI) and narrow-band imaging (NBI).
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Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of coronary vessel wall: state of art.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Coronary wall imaging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) emerges as a promising method to detect vascular injury and remodeling directly within the coronary vascular wall. In this review, the current evidence on coronary wall enhancement using CMR is presented and summarized, with particular focus on its ability to detect inflammation in atherosclerosis, Takayasu's arteritis, acute coronary syndromes and immune-mediated inflammatory vasculitides. The authors review the possible mechanisms of coronary wall contrast enhancement on CMR and discuss the technical considerations and limitations. Lastly, the potential clinical applications and possibilities for future research are proposed.
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Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: Suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF).
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Sequential platelet-derived growth factor-simvastatin release promotes dentoalveolar regeneration.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Objectives: Timely augmentation of the physiological events of dentoalveolar repair is a prerequisite for the optimization of the outcome of regeneration. This study aimed to develop a treatment strategy to promote dentoalveolar regeneration by the combined delivery of the early mitogenic factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the late osteogenic differentiation factor simvastatin. Materials and Methods: By using the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization technique, PDGF and simvastatin were encapsulated in a double-walled poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLLA-PLGA) microspheres in five different modes: microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BB), PDGF alone (XP), simvastatin alone (SB), PDGF-in-core and simvastatin-in-shell (PS), and simvastatin-in-core and PDGF-in-shell (SP). The microspheres were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Microspheres were delivered to fill large osteotomy sites on rat maxillae for 14 and 28 days, and the outcome of regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histological assessments. Results: Uniform 20-?m controlled release microspheres were successfully fabricated. Parallel PDGF-simvastatin release was noted in the PS group, and the fast release of PDGF followed by the slow release of simvastatin was noted in the SP group. The promotion of osteogenesis was observed in XP, PS, and SP groups at day 14, whereas the SP group demonstrated the greatest bone fill, trabecular numbers, and thickest trabeculae. Bone bridging was evident in the PS and SP group, with significantly increased osteoblasts in the SP group, and osteoclastic cell recruitment was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. At day 28, osteogenesis was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. Initial corticalization was noted in the XP, PS, and SP groups. Osteoblasts appeared to be decreased in all groups, and significantly, a greater osteoclastic cell recruitment was noted in the SB and SP groups. Conclusions: Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF-simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation.
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Numerical study of the suppressed efficiency droop in blue InGaN LEDs with polarization-matched configuration.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In blue InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the intuitive approaches to suppress Auger recombination by reducing carrier density, e.g., increasing the number of quantum wells (QWs) and thickening the width of wells, suffer from nonuniform carrier distribution and more severe spatial separation of electron and hole wave functions. To resolve this issue, LED structures with thick InGaN wells and polarization-matched AlGaInN barriers are proposed theoretically. Furthermore, the number of QWs is reduced for the purpose of mitigating the additional compressive strain in AlGaInN barriers. Simulation results reveal that, in the proposed structures, the quantum-confined Stark effect in strained wells is nearly eliminated through the utilization of polarization-matched barriers, which efficiently promotes internal quantum efficiency. Furthermore, the phenomenon of efficiency droop is also markedly improved because of the uniformly distributed or dispersed carriers, and accordingly the suppressed Auger recombination.
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Systematic screening of glycosylation- and trafficking-associated gene knockouts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies mutants with improved heterologous exocellulase activity and host secretion.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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As a strong fermentator, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the potential to be an excellent host for ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing. For this purpose, it is necessary to transform cellulose genes into the yeast genome because it contains no cellulose genes. However, heterologous protein expression in S. cerevisiae often suffers from hyper-glycosylation and/or poor secretion. Thus, there is a need to genetically engineer the yeast to reduce its glycosylation strength and to increase its secretion ability.
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Attenuation of cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by the bronchodilator KMUP-3.
Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Delayed cerebral vasospasm is a main cause of morbidity and mortality as well as poor outcome in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the effect of the bronchodilator KMUP-3 (7-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) on basilar artery narrowing, neurological outcome, and expression of rhoA/rho kinase II (ROCKII), rhoA, and protein kinase C (PKC) ? proteins were evaluated in a rat model of SAH. SAH was induced by double injection of autologous blood into the cistern magna on days 0 and 3. KMUP-3 was administered (0.3 mg/kg/day) by osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously (beginning day -3 in pretreatment group and at 1 h after the initiation of the first autologous blood injection in the treatment group). Neurological outcome was assessed by ambulation and placing/stepping reflex responses at 48 h after the second injection of autologous blood. Tissue morphology and protein expression were conducted on day 7 post-day 0 injection. Both KMUP-3 treatment regimens significantly improved neurological outcome and completely attenuated basilar artery narrowing as well as reduced the enhancement of ROCKII, rhoA, and PKC? protein expression in rats subjected to SAH, compared with normal and untreated SAH rats. These results suggest that KMUP-3 may be a novel agent for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.
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Connective tissue growth factor activates pluripotency genes and mesenchymal-epithelial transition in head and neck cancer cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism in both embryonic development and cancer metastasis. The EMT introduces stem-like properties to cancer cells. However, during somatic cell reprogramming, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the reverse process of EMT, is a crucial step toward pluripotency. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multifunctional secreted protein that acts as either an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor among different cancers. Here, we show that in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), CTGF promotes the MET and reduces invasiveness. Moreover, we found that CTGF enhances the stem-like properties of HNSCC cells and increases the expression of multiple pluripotency genes. Mechanistic studies showed that CTGF induces c-Jun expression through ?v?3 integrin and that c-Jun directly activates the transcription of the pluripotency genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Knockdown of CTGF in TW2.6 cells was shown to reduce tumor formation and attenuate E-cadherin expression in xenotransplanted tumors. In HNSCC patient samples, CTGF expression was positively correlated with the levels of CDH1, NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Coexpression of CTGF and the pluripotency genes was found to be associated with a worse prognosis. These findings are valuable in elucidating the interplay between epithelial plasticity and stem-like properties during cancer progression and provide useful information for developing a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies for HNSCC.
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Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Taiwan.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Background: Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant (MRSA), is an important pathogen in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Carriage of S. aureus is a significant risk factor for subsequent infection. Objectives: To determine the current status of MRSA prevalence among NICU-hospitalized infants in Taiwan, we conducted this pilot island-wide survey. Methods: On two designated dates in 2011, each patient who stayed in the NICUs of 7 participating hospitals was included. Nasal and umbilical swabs were obtained and sent for detection of S. aureus. The prevalence and risk factors for MRSA carriage were analyzed. MRSA strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and underwent molecular characterization. Results: A total of 251 subjects were included. The overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage was 13 and 4.4%, respectively. Previous skin and soft tissue infection was the only predictor in multivariate analysis (OR 40.36; 95% CI 2.32-702.64; p = 0.011). Among 11 MRSA isolates, 3 pulsotypes were identified, with one major type (73%). Nine isolates carried a type IV staphylococcal chromosomal cassette, and 2 carried the type VT. All but one MRSA isolate belonged to linage sequence type 59, the community clone in Taiwan. Conclusions: On a designated date, 4.4% of the infants staying in NICUs in Taiwan carried almost genetically identical community strains of MRSA. MRSA colonization in these infants was significantly associated with previous skin and soft tissue infection. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Intranasal and subcutaneous administration of dopamine D3 receptor agonists functionally restores nigrostriatal dopamine in MPTP-treated mice.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a hallmark motor defect caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Intranasal drug administration may be useful for Parkinsons treatment because this route avoids first-pass metabolism and increases bioavailability in the brain. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotection/neurorestoration effect of dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) agonists administered via both intranasal and subcutaneous routes in the MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD mouse model. Furthermore, we employed D3R knock-out mice to validate the dependence on D3R signaling. We found that in wild-type mice, but not D3 receptor knockout mice, both intranasal and subcutaneous administration of D3R agonists rescue dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum as well as DA neuronal death in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment. Moreover, subcutaneous 7-OH-DPAT administration significantly improved gait performance (stride length and overall running speed) of MPTP-lesioned mice after 7 and 14 days of recovery. In addition, the distribution of D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT was measured in designated brain areas by mass spectrometry analysis after subcutaneous and intranasal administration. Our data suggest that intranasal administration of D3R agonist would be a practical approach to treat PD.
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Propofol inhibits superoxide production, elastase release, and chemotaxis in formyl peptide-activated human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Neutrophils play a critical role in acute and chronic inflammatory processes, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Binding of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) by N-formyl peptides can activate neutrophils and may represent a new therapeutic target in either sterile or septic inflammation. Propofol, a widely used i.v. anesthetic, has been shown to modulate immunoinflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of propofol remains to be established. In this study, we showed that propofol significantly reduced superoxide generation, elastase release, and chemotaxis in human neutrophils activated by fMLF. Propofol did not alter superoxide generation or elastase release in a cell-free system. Neither inhibitors of ?-aminobutyric acid receptors nor an inhibitor of protein kinase A reversed the inhibitory effects of propofol. In addition, propofol showed less inhibitory effects in non-FPR1-induced cell responses. The signaling pathways downstream from FPR1, involving calcium, AKT, and ERK1/2, were also competitively inhibited by propofol. These results show that propofol selectively and competitively inhibits the FPR1-induced human neutrophil activation. Consistent with the hypothesis, propofol inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analog of fMLF, to FPR1 in human neutrophils, differentiated THP-1 cells, and FPR1-transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells. To our knowledge, our results identify, for the first time, a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of propofol by competitively blocking FPR1 in human neutrophils. Considering the importance of N-formyl peptides in inflammatory processes, our data indicate that propofol may have therapeutic potential to attenuate neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases by blocking FPR1.
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Which FDG/PET parameters of the primary tumors in colon or sigmoid cancer provide the best correlation with the pathological findings?
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To compare (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxdeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) related parameters of primary colon or sigmoid cancer (CSC) with pathological findings.
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Laparoscopic versus open liver resection: a meta-analysis of long-term outcome.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic liver resection is growing in popularity, but the long-term outcome of patients undergoing laparoscopic liver resection for malignancy has not been established. This paper is a meta-analysis and compares the long-term survival of patients undergoing laparoscopic (LHep) versus open (OHep) liver resection for the treatment of malignant liver tumours. METHODS: A PubMed database search identified comparative human studies analysing LHep versus OHep for malignant tumours. Clinical and survival parameters were extracted. The search was last conducted on 18 March 2012. RESULTS: In total, 1002 patients in 15 studies were included (446 LHep and 556 OHep). A meta-analysis of overall survival showed no difference [1-year: odds ratio (OR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.20, P = 0.202; 3-years: OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.03, P = 0.076; 5-years: OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.10, P = 0.173]. Subset analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal metastases (CRM) were performed. There was no difference in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival for HCC or in the 1-year survival for CRM, however, a survival advantage was found for CRM at 3?years (LHep 80% versus OHep 67.4%, P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery should be considered an acceptable alternative for the treatment of malignant liver tumours.
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Relationship between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and subsequent stroke.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The correlation between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and subsequent stroke is unclear. This study aimed to review stroke incidence after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss among patients admitted to a tertiary referral center and aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with and without stroke.
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MicroRNA-17/20a functions to inhibit cell migration and can be used a prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for>90% oral cancer which is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis may well offer an opportunity to increase survival to this neoplasm. Micro(mi)RNA-interfered cancer progression is crucial, yet its migration machinery of OSCC is still unknown. To access whether the possible miRNA prognostic markers and underlying mechanisms, we developed a highly migratory TW2.6 MS-10 cells from TW2.6 cells to investigate the issue.
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FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML.
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Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts stress fiber formation and triggers apoptosis.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Cytoskeletal proteins are key participants in the cellular progression to apoptosis. In a previous study we injected nude mice with CCL13-HBx cells and identified in contrast to non-HBx transfected cells a differentially phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC) by two-dimensional PAGE and mass spectrometry of the tumor material. To investigate the role of HBx in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) signaling pathways, we analyzed the key molecules, p-MLC and MLCK, by western blotting. Immunofluorescence staining analysis showed that HBx disrupted stress fiber formation and that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were regulated by HBx-mediated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). We also used pharmacological inhibitors to explore the correlation between cytoskeletal rearrangements and HBx-mediated cell apoptosis via an MLCK and a PTEN-dependent pathway. The results showed that both ML9 and bvp restored the effects caused by HBx induction. Our findings suggest that HBx disrupts stress fiber formation and triggers apoptosis via an MLCK and a PTEN-dependent pathway.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human dental pulp and embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Methacrylate resin-based materials could release components into adjacent environment even after polymerization. The major components leached include triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA has been shown to induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying TEGDMA-induced COX-2 in 2 oral cell types, the primary culture of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and the human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts, and to propose potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues.
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Expression of G?12 predicts progression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Expression of G?12 is found to be associated with cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis.
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Increased Cdc7 expression is a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma and overexpression of Cdc7 contributes to the resistance to DNA-damaging agents.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase (Dbf4-dependent kinase, DDK) is an essential factor of DNA replication and DNA damage response (DDR), which is associated with tumorigenesis. However, Cdc7 expression has never been associated to the outcome of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and the mechanism underlying cancer cell survival mediated by Cdc7 remains unclear. The Cdc7 protein expression of 105 OSCC tumor and 30 benign tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry assay. Overall survival rates of 80 OSCC patients were measured using Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank tests. Cdc7 overexpression by adenovirus system was used to scrutinize the underlying mechanism contributed to cancer cell survival upon DDR. In silico analysis showed that increased Cdc7 is a common feature of cancer. Cdc7 overexpression was found in 96 of 105 (91.4%) studied cases of OSCC patients. Patients with higher Cdc7 expression, either categorized into two groups: Cdc7 high expression (2+ to 3+) versus Cdc7 low expression (0 to 1+) [hazard ratios (HR)=2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.28-5.43; P=0.0087] or four groups (0 to 3+) [HR=1.71; 95% CI=1.20-2.44; P=0.0032], exhibited a poorer outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that Cdc7 is an independent marker for survival prediction. Overexpressed Cdc7 inhibits genotoxin-induced apoptosis to increase the survival of cancer cells. In summary, Cdc7 expression, which is universally upregulated in cancer, is an independent prognostic marker of OSCC. Cdc7 inhibits genotoxin-induced apoptosis and increases survival in cancer cells upon DDR, suggesting that high expression of Cdc7 enhances the resistance to chemotherapy.
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Early Changes in Brain FDG Metabolism during Anticancer Therapy in Patients with Pharyngeal Cancer.
J Neuroimaging
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate whether therapy-related changes occurred in brain metabolism at an earlier stage during the course of anticancer therapy. METHODS: We recruited 14 non-diabetic male patients with newly diagnosed pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analyzed the patients serial brain FDG PET/CT scans by SPM8 to establish whether any therapy-related changes had occurred in brain FDG metabolism, either during or after the course of therapy. RESULTS: Decreased metabolism was noted during the anticancer therapy, displaying a symmetric pattern involving bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral occipital lobes. The decrease in FDG metabolism in these regions persisted after the anticancer therapy had terminated. However, relative recovery of the metabolism was noted in the bilateral occipital lobes, whereas further deterioration was noted in bilateral basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: The current study revealed that unappreciable changes in brain metabolism can occur during the early course of anticancer therapy, and persist even after therapy has terminated. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, these changes may be related to the systemic effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy as well as subclinical cancer-related depressive or adjustment mood disorder.
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Sensing performance of precisely ordered TiO2 nanowire gas sensors fabricated by electron-beam lithography.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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In this study, electron beam lithography, rather than the most popular method, chemical synthesis, is used to construct periodical TiO(2) nanowires for a gas sensor with both robust and rapid performance. The effects of temperature on the sensing response and reaction time are analyzed at various operation temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C. At the optimized temperature of 300 °C, the proposed sensor repeatedly obtained a rise/recovery time (?R: 0.9 R(0) to 0.1 R(0)) of 3.2/17.5 s and a corresponding sensor response (?R/R(0)) of 21.7% at an ethanol injection mass quantity of 0.2 ?g.
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The noseleaf of Rhinolophus formosae focuses the Frequency Modulated (FM) component of the calls.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Bats of the family Rhinolophidae emit their echolocation calls through their nostrils and feature elaborate noseleaves shaping the directionality of the emissions. The calls of these bats consist of a long constant-frequency component preceded and/or followed by short frequency-modulated sweeps. While Rhinolophidae are known for their physiological specializations for processing the constant frequency part of the calls, previous evidence suggests that the noseleaves of these animals are tuned to the frequencies in the frequency modulated components of the calls. In this paper, we seek further support for this hypothesis by simulating the emission beam pattern of the bat Rhinolophus formosae. Filling the furrows of lancet and removing the basal lappets (i.e., two flaps on the noseleaf) we find that these conspicuous features of the noseleaf focus the emitted energy mostly for frequencies in the frequency-modulated components. Based on the assumption that this component of the call is used by the bats for ranging, we develop a qualitative model to assess the increase in performance due to the furrows and/or the lappets. The model confirms that both structures decrease the ambiguity in selecting relevant targets for ranging. The lappets and the furrows shape the emission beam for different spatial regions and frequency ranges. Therefore, we conclude that the presented evidence is in line with the hypothesis that different parts of the noseleaves of Rhinolophidae are tuned to different frequency ranges with at least some of the most conspicuous ones being tuned to the frequency modulated components of the calls-thus yielding strong evidence for the sensory importance of the component.
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Single-particle studies of band alignment effects on electron transfer dynamics from semiconductor hetero-nanostructures to single-walled carbon nanotubes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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We utilize single-molecule spectroscopy combined with time-correlated single-photon counting to probe the electron transfer (ET) rates from various types of semiconductor hetero-nanocrystals, having either type-I or type-II band alignment, to single-walled carbon nanotubes. A significantly larger ET rate was observed for type-II ZnSe/CdS dot-in-rod nanostructures as compared to type-I spherical CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and to CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod structures. Furthermore, such rapid ET dynamics can compete with both Auger and radiative recombination processes, with significance for effective photovoltaic operation.
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Brain natriuretic peptide and biomarkers of myocardial ischemia increase after defibrillation threshold testing.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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During implantable cardioverter defibrillator insertion, induced ventricular fibrillation followed by test shocks (defibrillation threshold testing [DFT]) is utilized to confirm effective device function. The effect of DFT on ventricular function is uncertain. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker of ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that DFT causes increased BNP levels.
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Iron oxide nanoparticle-induced epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human stem cells for tumor therapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles show promise as labels for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the application of stem cell-based therapy. However, the unaddressed concerns about the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes make the feasibility of SPIO labeling uncertain. Here, we show that the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with ferucarbotran can induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression. Labeled hMSCs with their overexpressed EGFR were attracted by tumorous EGF and more effectively migrated toward tumor than unlabeled cells, resulting in more potent intrinsic antitumor activity. Moreover, the captured binding of tumorous EGF by overexpressed EGFR of labeled hMSCs blocked EGF/EGFR signaling-derived tumor growth, tumorous angiogenesis, and tumorous VEGF expression also responsible for tumor progression and development. Our results show that the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes is not necessarily harmful but can be cleverly used to be beneficial to stem cell-based therapy.
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To accomplish preliminary Qigong simulation state by acupuncture.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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The purpose of the study was to find out how to enter the preliminary Qigong simulation state in a short period of time.
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Synchronous squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus and renal pelvis.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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A 55-year-old man was incidentally diagnosed with a superficial squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. However, the systemic survey with FDG PET/CT revealed a picture of more advanced disease because of the regional lymph node metastases and a suspected distal metastasis in the left renal pelvis, which was somewhat strange for a small superficial esophageal cancer. Subsequently, the renal pelvic lesion was confirmed as squamous cell carcinoma. However, a primary tumor rather than metastasis in the renal pelvis was considered according to the histologic characteristics and radiologic findings.
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Patterns of diabetic periodontal wound repair: a study using micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemistry.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Diabetes is known to impair wound healing and deteriorate the periodontal condition. There is limited information about the patterns and events associated with periodontal wound repair. In this study, we evaluate the dynamics of periodontal wound repair using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and immunohistochemistry.
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Report card on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP): nationwide inpatient sample infection data 2001-2006.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The administration of appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion with discontinuation post-operatively is the first of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) initiatives and was expected to reduce post-operative infections significantly. This study aimed at determining whether SCIP has had an effect on surgical site infections (SSIs).
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Interaction abolishment between mutant caveolin-1(?62-100) and ABCA1 reduces HDL-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Our previous study shows that caveolin-1 colocalizes and interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which is intimately involved in cellular cholesterol efflux. In this study, we further clarified the region of caveolin-1 that interacts with ABCA1. We also examined the interaction between mutant caveolin-1 and ABCA1 in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. We constructed a panel of mutant caveolin-1 proteins and co-transfected them into rat aortic endothelial and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The co-immunoprecipitation shows that mutant oligomerization domain of caveolin-1, caveolin-1(?62-100), is required for the interaction of caveolin-1 with ABCA1. Caveolin-1(?62-100) did not colocalize with ABCA1 in the cholesterol-loaded cells after HDL incubation as observed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Concomitantly, caveolin-1(?62-100) suppressed HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. The results suggest that the region of caveolin-1 between amino acids 62 and 100 is an oligomerization domain as well as an attachment site for ABCA1 interaction that regulates HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux.
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Numerical investigation on the enhanced carrier collection efficiency of Ga-face GaN/InGaN?p-i-n solar cells with polarization compensation interlayers.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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The impact of the polarization compensation InGaN interlayer between the heterolayers of Ga-face GaN/InGaN?p-i-n solar cells is investigated numerically. Because of the enhancement of carrier collection efficiency, the conversion efficiency is improved markedly, which can be ascribed to both the reduction of the polarization-induced electric field in the InGaN absorption layer and the mitigation of potential barriers at heterojunctions. This beneficial effect is more remarkable in situations with higher polarization, such as devices with a lower degree of relaxation or devices with a higher indium composition in the InGaN absorption layer.
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Measurements of natural carbonate rare earth elements in femtogram quantities by inductive coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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A rapid and precise standard-bracketing method has been developed for measuring femtogram quantity rare earth element (REE) levels in natural carbonate samples by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry that does not require chemical separation steps. A desolvation nebulization system was used to effectively reduce polyatomic interference and enhance sensitivity. REE/Ca ratios are calculated directly from the intensities of the ion beams of (46)Ca, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (160)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb, and (175)Lu using external matrix-matched synthetic standards to correct for instrumental ratio drifting and mass discrimination. A routine measurement time of 3 min is typical for one sample containing 20-40 ppm Ca. Replicate measurements made on natural coral and foraminiferal samples with REE/Ca ratios of 2-242 nmol/mol show that external precisions of 1.9-6.5% (2 RSD) can be achieved with only 10-1000 fg of REEs in 10-20 ?g of carbonate. We show that different sources for monthly resolved coral ultratrace REE variability can be distinguished using this method. For natural slow growth-rate carbonate materials, such as sclerosponges, tufa, and speleothems, the high sample throughput, high precision, and high temporal resolution REE records that can be produced with this procedure have the potential to provide valuable time-series records to advance our understanding of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental dynamics on different time scales.
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Neuroimaging findings in a brain with Niemann-Pick type C disease.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by impaired cellular functions in processing and transporting low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In this report, we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectrography (MRS) and 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging results for a 22-year-old male NPC patient. The patients two MRI studies (at age 19 years and 22 years) demonstrated progressive changes of brain atrophy that were more prominent at the frontal lobes, and hyperintense signals in bilateral parietal-occipital periventricular white matter. MRS (at age 19 years) revealed no significant decrease in N-acetyl aspartate/choline ratio in the left frontal central white matter. PET (at age 22 years) showed significant bilateral hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial thalamus, and hypermetabolism in the parietal-occipital white matter, lenticular nucleus of the basal ganglia, cerebellum and pons. The imaging findings noted by MRI, MRS and 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET offered a possible supplementary explanation for the clinical neurological symptoms of this NPC patient.
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A unique finding on gallium-67 scintigraphy: widespread fatal skin manifestations of Pseudomonas sepsis.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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We report a case of a 25-year-old woman presented with neutropenic fever after chemotherapy for the relapse of acute biphenotypic leukemia. Gallium-67 scintigraphy for the detection of infectious foci demonstrated a unique pattern of numerous foci with intense and varying-sized radioactivity spreading throughout the body. The subsequent skin biopsy and culture proved Pseudomonas infection. Therefore, this unique image, in combination with clinical information, was compatible with cutaneous manifestations of Pseudomonas sepsis. Eventually, the patient died of uncontrolled systemic infection despite the aggressive antibiotic treatment. This case reminded clinicians and nuclear medicine physicians to notice the potentially fatal finding on gallium-67 scan.
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Symptomatic predictors for 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) infection with an emphasis for patients with a negative rapid diagnostic test.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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The clinical diagnosis of influenza is difficult because it shares nonspecific symptoms with a variety of diseases. Emergency departments and clinics were overwhelmed by a surge of anxious patients during the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) outbreak. Our objective was to identify symptomatic predictors of influenza virus infection for patients with a negative rapid diagnostic test.
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A rare case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome imaged with FDG PET/CT and MRI.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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We report on the imaging findings of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a 59-year-old patient. Clinical findings included periorbital pain, ptosis, disordered eye movements, and blurred vision. Treatment with intravenous administration of steroid resolved all symptoms. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunter syndrome for locating the inflammatory tissue and follow-up. This case of Tolosa-Hunter syndrome with representative (FDG PET/CT) images may imply that FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in detecting and monitoring of this disease.
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Initial systolic blood pressure and ongoing internal bleeding following torso trauma.
J Emerg Trauma Shock
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Recent studies have suggested that an initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the range of 90-110 mmHg in a trauma patient may be indicative of hypoperfusion and is associated with poor patient outcome. However, the use of initial SBP as a surrogate for predicting internal bleeding is yet to be validated. The purpose of this study was to assess the presenting SBPs in patients with torso trauma and evidence of ongoing internal hemorrhage.
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Thrombin-stimulated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) production in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts: Inhibition by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is associated with many human fibrotic disorders and was found to overexpress in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF is the result of persistent chemical irritation and microtrauma to oral mucosa from areca nut. Microtrauma could lead to the release of thrombin.
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Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwan before and after the introduction of a conjugate vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in Taiwan in October 2005. To evaluate the effect of the vaccination, we conducted an active, prospective, large-scale, long-term, and multicenter study to assess the prevalence of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in Taiwanese children.
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Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Neocallimastix patriciarum is one of the common anaerobic fungi in the digestive tracts of ruminants that can actively digest cellulosic materials, and its cellulases have great potential for hydrolyzing cellulosic feedstocks. Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) produced by this anaerobic fungus.
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Application of high throughput perfusion micro 3-D cell culture platform for the precise study of cellular responses to extracellular conditions -effect of serum concentrations on the physiology of articular chondrocytes.
Biomed Microdevices
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Mammalian cells are sensitive to extracellular microenvironments. In order to faithfully explore the physiological responses of cells to extracellular conditions, a steady, homogenous, and three-dimensional (3-D) culture environment is required because it can provide a more quantifiable and biologically-relevant culture condition. To achieve this, this study reports a perfusion micro cell culture platform encompassing 22 microbioreactor units for high throughput 3-D cell culture. The cell culture platform structurally consisting of a plug and a microbioreactor chamber module was simply fabricated by replica molding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer. The platform features in the proposed plug module with multiple molds incorporated, facilitating the preparation of cell encapsulated 3-D hydrogel constructs in a precise and efficient manner. This trait is found particularly useful for high-precision and high-throughput micro 3-D cell culture-based assay. In this study, the real value of the proposed platform to maintain a stable and homogenous culture condition was discussed. Besides, the application of the presented platform for precisely investigating the effect of serum concentration on the metabolic activities and biosynthetic abilities of articular chondrocytes was also demonstrated. As a whole, the proposed device has paved an alternative route to carry out high throughput micro-scale 3-D perfusion cell culture in a simple, cost-effective and precise manner. The promising applications include 3-D cell culture-based high throughput drug or toxicity testing/screening, or other investigations on the cell biology, where the precise quantification of the links between the cellular responses and extracellular conditions is required.
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YC-1 rescues cancer cachexia by affecting lipolysis and adipogenesis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Loss of adipose tissue, primarily due to increased lipolysis but also to an impairment of adipogenesis, is a key feature of weight loss in cancer cachexia. Because of the myriad pathogenic signaling pathways essential for atrophy of adipose tissue, effective therapeutic agents for cachectic adipose loss are lacking and urgently needed. The authors evaluated the effects of YC-1 on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, TNF-?- and tumor-cell-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and cachectic weight loss in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-bearing mice because YC-1 has been shown to possess versatile pharmacological actions, including anticancer activity. It was found that YC-1 promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes through activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways as well as activation of several adipogenic mediators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), insulin receptor ? (IR?), insulin receptor substrate-3 (IRS-3) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4). In the in vitro lipolysis models, YC-1 attenuates TNF-?-induced lipolysis of adipocytes by antagonizing TNF-?-mediated activation of ERK and downregulation of perilipin (PLIN). It was also found that YC-1 inhibits colon-26 adenocarcinoma cell-induced lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, YC-1 effectively rescues cachectic weight loss in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-bearing mice by blocking lipolysis, involving insulin. Taken together the results show that YC-1 with its anticancer and anticachexia talents is highly worth developing as a novel agent for cancer therapy.
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Development of a home-based telehealthcare model for improving the effectiveness of the chronic care of stroke patients.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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This study describes the development of an information technology (IT)-mediated home-based healthcare model designed to improve the effectiveness of caring for stroke patients who require chronic, home care. This model was evaluated at Kaohsiung Medical Hospital in Taiwan between 2005 and 2008; 84 newly diagnosed stroke patients diagnosed as the chronic covalence stage were enrolled for preliminary testing of this model. These patients required 24-hour in-home monitoring of their health status and emergency call service. Over the course of the study, 15 emergency transfers were carried out, and the acute stroke patients were sent to the emergency care within 26 minutes, on average. This system helped physicians, patients, and their families to more efficiently detect the occurrence of recurrent stroke. In addition, we found a statistically significant finding (p < 0.001) that daily blood pressure (BP) monitoring increased from 45.5% in the initial month of the study to 76% after 3-10 months of intervention. Meanwhile, the proportion of patients with an abnormal BP rate decreased from 20.5% in the initial month of the study to 10.9% after 3-10 months of intervention. This suggests that this model helped to improve patient behavior and their ability to care for themselves. This is the first study to develop an IT-mediated, home-based healthcare model in Taiwan. This model integrates both healthcare and clinical services and is capable of enhancing the effectiveness of the care provided to patients with chronic diseases, especially those in situations where self-care is essential for disease management.
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits proliferation and migration, and induces apoptosis in platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated human coronary smooth muscle cells.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Restenosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during treatment for coronary artery disease is closely related to smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration. In this study, we investigated the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its underlying mechanism on human coronary SMCs (HCSMCs) after platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) stimulation in vitro.
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Mimicry of physiological urinary FDG excretion: squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus metastasizing to psoas muscle.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Skeletal muscle metastases are rare and usually occur with various malignancies at more advanced stages. FDG PET/CT has been known as a useful tool to detect these lesions because of the character of whole-body scanning and superior contrast between malignant and normal tissues, except in areas with abundant physiological FDG radioactivity, such as the urinary system. We present a patient with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and an incidental, rare finding of psoas muscle metastasis that was initially omitted because of the similarity of its distribution to physiological urinary FDG excretion in the ureter.
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Clinically unrecognized pulmonary aspiration during gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation: a potential pitfall interfering the performance of 18F-FDG PET for cancer screening.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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We found several cases with unexpected pulmonary abnormalities on the 18F-FDG PET scan after the gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation during a compact health check-up course, interfering the interpretations of 18F-FDG PET scan for cancer screening. The current studies aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical relevance of this pulmonary finding.
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Myocardial bridging in Taiwanese: noninvasive assessment by 64-detector row coronary computed tomographic angiography.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital structural variant in which a segment of the epicardial coronary artery tunnels into and is surrounded by the myocardium. MB has been correlated to some clinical complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The depiction rate of MB varies significantly between catheter coronary angiography and autopsy studies. This study aimed to assess the depiction rate of MB among Taiwanese by coronary computed tomographyic angiography (CCTA), to determine the anatomical features of the tunneling vessels, and to evaluate the outcome of patients having MB.
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Differential toxicities of intraneurally injected mercuric chloride for sympathetic and somatic motor fibers: an ultrastructural study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Mercury is a well-known neurotoxin but the susceptibility of autonomic nerves to mercury poisoning in vivo has seldom been studied. Our previous studies have shown that the hypoglossal nerve in hamsters contains somatic motor and postganglionic sympathetic fibers. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the nervous system following intraneural injection of mercuric chloride into the hypoglossal nerve in hamsters.
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Highly efficient release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles enhances bone repair in rats.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Lovastatin exhibits higher thermal stability and lower degradation rate than simvastatin. However, the amount of research studying a lovastatin delivery device has been far less than similar research on simvastatin. As a consequence, a high lovastatin release rate system has not been developed. We hypothesized that highly efficient release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a short-term release (7 days) could provide an effective delivery system for bone repair. This study optimized the emulsion (o/w) technique in the fabrication process for PLGA nanoparticles, thereby producing the first recorded case of a high release rate (97%) of lovastatin. We also calculated the calibration curve of lovastatin using a UV spectrometer. The results demonstrated that the ALPase activity in human osteoblasts could be significantly stimulated by lovastatin carried in PLGA nanoparticles, but was prominently decreased by free lovastatin with the concentration higher than 4?µg/ml. Animal studies showed that the amount of lovastatin contained in 1?mg PLGA was the optimum dosage. These results suggest the new lovastatin-releasing PLGA delivery device exhibits potential for clinical treatment of bony defects.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.