Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression correlates with tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we show that RhoGDI2 functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with repression of E-cadherin by RhoGDI2 via upregulation of Snail. Overexpression of RhoGDI2 induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT in gastric cancer cells, including abnormal epithelial cell morphology, fibroblast-like properties, and reduced intercellular adhesion. RhoGDI2 overexpression also resulted in decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and ?-catenin and increased expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin. Importantly, RhoGDI2 overexpression also stimulated the expression of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of EMT, but not other family members such as Slug or Twist. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Snail expression suppressed RhoGDI2-induced EMT and invasion, confirming that the effect was Snail-specific. These results indicate that RhoGDI2 plays a critical role in tumor progression in gastric cancer through induction of EMT. Targeting RhoGDI2 may thus be a useful strategy to inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression is correlated with tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms by which RhoGDI2 promotes tumor cell survival and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that RhoGDI2 upregulates VEGF-C expression and RhoGDI2 expression is positively correlated with VEGF-C expression in human gastric tumor tissues as well as parental gastric cancer cell lines. VEGF-C depletion suppressed RhoGDI2-induced gastric cancer metastasis and sensitized RhoGDI2-overexpressing cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Secreted VEGF-C enhanced gastric cancer cell invasion and conferred cisplatin resistance to RhoGDI2-overexpressing cells. We also show that RhoGDI2 positively regulates Rac1 activity in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of Rac1 expression suppressed RhoGDI2-induced VEGF-C expression, and this inhibition was associated with decreased invasiveness and increased sensitivity to cisplatin in RhoGDI2-overexpressing cells. Our results indicate that RhoGDI2 might be a potential therapeutic target for simultaneously reducing metastasis risk and enhancing chemotherapy efficacy in gastric cancer.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) promotes tumor growth and malignant progression and enhances chemoresistance of gastric cancer. Recently, we noted an inverse correlation between RhoGDI2 and 14-3-3? expression, which suggests that 14-3-3? is a target of gastric cancer metastasis and the chemoresistance-promoting effect of RhoGDI2. Herein, we evaluated whether 14-3-3? is regulated by RhoGDI2 and is functionally important for the RhoGDI2-induced cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer cells. We used highly metastatic and cisplatin-resistant RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 cells and observed decreased 14-3-3? mRNA and protein expression. Depletion of 14-3-3? in SNU-484 control cells enhanced cisplatin resistance, whereas restoration of 14-3-3? in RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 cells impaired cisplatin resistance in vitro and in vivo. We also found that the phosphorylation levels of Erk and p38 kinases significantly decreased in RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 cells and recovered after 14-3-3? expression, and that decreased activities of these kinases were critical for RhoGDI2-induced cisplatin resistance. In conclusion, 14-3-3? is a RhoGDI2-regulated gene that appears to be important for suppressing the chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) is a regulator of the Rho family GTPases. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that RhoGDI2 expression potentially enhances resistance to cisplatin as well as promotes tumor growth and malignant progression in gastric cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that phospholipase C-gamma (PLC?) is required for RhoGDI2-mediated cisplatin resistance and cancer cell invasion in gastric cancer. The levels of phosphorylated PLC? are markedly enhanced in RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 cells and, by contrast, repressed in RhoGDI2-depleted MKN-28 cells. Depletion of PLC? expression or inhibition of its activity not only significantly increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis but also suppresses the invasive ability of RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PLC? plays a key role in RhoGDI2-mediated cisplatin resistance and cell invasion in gastric cancer cells.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI)2 has been identified as a regulator of Rho family GTPase. Recently, we suggested that RhoGDI2 could promote tumor growth and malignant progression in gastric cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that RhoGDI2 contributes to another important feature of aggressive cancers, i.e., resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. Forced expression of RhoGDI2 attenuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas RhoGDI2 depletion showed opposite effects in vitro. Moreover, the increased anti-apoptotic effect of RhoGDI2 on cisplatin was further validated in RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 xenograft model in nude mice. Furthermore, we identified Bcl-2 as a major determinant of RhoGDI2-mediated cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells. Depletion of Bcl-2 expression significantly increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis in RhoGDI2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells, whereas overexpression of Bcl-2 blocked cisplatin-induced apoptosis in RhoGDI2-depleted gastric cancer cells. Overall, these findings establish RhoGDI2 as an important therapeutic target for simultaneously enhancing chemotherapy efficacy and reducing metastasis risk in gastric cancer.
Gadd45b has been known as a positive mediator of apoptosis induced by certain cytokines and oncogenes. Here, we identified Gadd45b as an effector of Fas-induced apoptosis and found that p38-mediated Rb hyperphosphorylation is one of the mechanisms of Fas-induced apoptosis in murine hepatocyte AML12 cells. Gadd45b has been shown to activate p38 through its physical interaction with MTK1 and induce apoptosis. However, in this study, we have showed that the function of Gadd45b during Fas-induced apoptosis in AML12 cells is different from that reported in previous studies. Depletion of Gadd45b expression did not inhibit the phosphorylation of p38, but it suppressed p38-mediated Rb phosphorylation and apoptosis in response to Fas stimulation by reducing the interaction between p38 and Rb. Ectopic expression of Gadd45b was sufficient to enhance this interaction. These findings suggest that Gadd45b mediates p38-induced Rb phosphorylation by enhancing the interaction between p38 and Rb during Fas-induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) has been identified as a regulator of Rho family GTPase. However, there is currently no direct evidence suggesting whether RhoGDI2 activates or inhibits Rho family GTPase in vivo (and which type), and the role of RhoGDI2 in tumor remains controversial. Here, we assessed the effects of RhoGDI2 expression on gastric tumor growth and metastasis progression.
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a distant member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, has been reported to be upregulated and secreted from several cancers. We examined MIC-1 expression and secretion in gastric cancers.
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) was initially identified as a regulator of the Rho family of GTPases. Our recent works suggest that RhoGDI2 promotes tumor growth and malignant progression, as well as enhances chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which RhoGDI2 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and chemoresistance using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) on proteins derived from a RhoGDI2-overexpressing SNU-484 human gastric cancer cell line and control cells. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In total, 47 differential protein spots were identified; 33 were upregulated, and 14 were downregulated by RhoGDI2 overexpression. Upregulation of SAE1, Cathepsin D, Cofilin1, CIAPIN1, and PAK2 proteins was validated by Western blot analysis. Loss-of-function analysis using small interference RNA (siRNA) directed against candidate genes reveals the need for CIAPIN1 and PAK2 in RhoGDI2-induced cancer cell invasion and Cathepsin D and PAK2 in RhoGDI2-mediated chemoresistance in gastric cancer cells. These data extend our understanding of the genes that act downstream of RhoGDI2 during the progression of gastric cancer and the acquisition of chemoresistance.
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