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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of geometric lattice design on optical/electrical properties of transparent silver grid for organic solar cells.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Silver (Ag) grid transparent electrode is one of the most promising transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) to replace conventional indium tin oxide (ITO). We systematically investigate an effect of geometric lattice modifications on optical and electrical properties of Ag grid electrode. The reference Ag grid with 5 ?m width and 100 ?m pitch (duty of 0.05) prepared by conventional photo-lithography and lift-off processes shows the sheet resistance of 13.27 ?/sq, transmittance of 81.1%, and resultant figure of merit (FOM) of 129.05. Three different modified Ag grid electrodes with stripe added-mesh (SAM), triangle-added mesh (TAM), and diagonal-added mesh (DAM) are suggested to improve optical and electrical properties. Although all three of SAM, TAM, and DAM Ag grid electrodes exhibit the lower transmittance values of about 72 - 77%, they showed much decreased sheet resistance of 6 - 8 ?/sq. As a result, all of the lattice-modified Ag grid electrodes display significant improvement of FOM and the highest value of 171.14 is obtained from DAM Ag grid, which is comparable to that of conventional ITO electrode (175.46). Also, the feasibility of DAM Ag gird electrode for use in organic solar cell is confirmed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. Unlike a conventional ITO electrode, DAM Ag grid electrode can induce light scattering and trapping due to the diffuse transmission that compensates for the loss in optical transparency, resulting in comparable light absorption in the photo active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). P3HT:PC60BM based OSCs with the DAM Ag grid electrode were fabricated, which also showed the potential for ITO-free transparent electrode.
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Effects of Palm and Sunflower Oils on Serum Cholesterol and Fatty Liver in Rats.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ?49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.
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Characterization and quantification of ?-oryzanol in grains of 16 Korean rice varieties.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Abstract ?-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, is a nutritionally important group of rice secondary metabolites. A library of 27 ?-oryzanol was assembled from existing data and used to assist identification and quantification of ?-oryzanol isolated from 16 Korean rice varieties (11 white and 5 pigmented). ?-Oryzanol was analyzed with liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Nineteen different ?-oryzanol were observed and identified as stigmasterol, campesterol and sitosterol or common and hydroxylated triterpene alcohols. In the 16 varieties, the total ?-oryzanol content averaged 43.8?mg/100?g (range, 26.7-61.6?mg/100?g), which Josaengheugchal exhibited the highest level (61.6?mg/100?g). The Korean rice varieties were classified based on qualitative and quantitative ?-oryzanol data by multivariate statistical analysis. Clusters of specialty rice varieties exhibited higher ?-oryzanol levels than those of common rice varieties.
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Few-Layer Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors with Reduced Current Fluctuation.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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We investigated the reduction of current fluctuations in few-layer black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors resulting from Al2O3 passivation. In order to verify the effect of Al2O3 passivation on device characteristics, measurements and analyses were conducted on thermally annealed devices before and after the passivation. More specifically, static and low-frequency noise analyses were used in monitoring the charge transport characteristics in the devices. The carrier number fluctuation (CNF) model, which is related to the charge trapping/detrapping process near the interface between the channel and gate dielectric, was employed to describe the current fluctuation phenomena. Noise reduction due to the Al2O3 passivation was expressed in terms of the reduced interface trap density values Dit and Nit, extracted from the subthreshold slope (SS) and the CNF model, respectively. The deviations between the interface trap density values extracted using the SS value and CNF model are elucidated in terms of the role of the Schottky barrier between the few-layer BP and metal contact. Furthermore, the preservation of the Al2O3-passivated few-layer BP flakes in ambient air for two months was confirmed by identical Raman spectra.
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Galectin-3 Activates PPAR? and Supports White Adipose Tissue Formation and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding lectin, is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metformin treatment reduces galectin-3 levels. However, the role of galectin-3 in adipogenesis remains controversial. We found that 17-month-old galectin-3-deficient (lgals3(-/-)) mice had decreased body size and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) without related inflammatory diseases when fed normal chow. Galectin-3 knock-down significantly reduced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and also decreased expression of PPAR?, C/EBP?, and C/EBP?. Endogenous galectin-3 directly interacted with PPAR?, and galectin-3 ablation reduced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of PPAR?. After a 12-week high-fat diet (60% fat), lgals3(-/-) mice had lower body weight and eWAT mass than lgals3(+/+) mice. Moreover, the expression of PPAR? and other lipogenic genes was drastically decreased in the eWAT and liver of lgals3(-/-) mice. We suggest that galectin-3 directly activates PPAR? and leads to adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, galectin-3 might be a potential therapeutic target in metabolic syndromes as a PPAR? regulator.
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Compound K inhibits MMP-1 expression through suppression of c-Src-dependent ERK activation in TNF-?-stimulated dermal fibroblast.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Compound K (CK) is one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides exhibiting a variety of pharmacological properties such as anti-ageing, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective efficacy of CK in abnormal skin conditions with inflammatory responses was not examined. Here, we investigated the effects of CK on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type I procollagen production in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated human skin fibroblasts HS68 cells and human skin equivalents. We found that CK suppressed MMP-1 secretion and increased the level of reduced type I procollagen secretion, caused by the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, but not p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in TNF-?-stimulated HS68 cells. Then, we focused on the involvement of the c-Src and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as upstream signalling molecules for ERK activation by TNF-? in HS68 cells. CK suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Src/EGFR by TNF-?, which led to the inactivation of downstream signalling molecules including AKT and MEK. In addition, CK suppressed AP-1 (c-jun and c-fos) phosphorylation as downstream transcription factors of active ERK for MMP-1 expression in TNF?-stimulated HS68 cells. These results showed novel mechanisms by which CK inhibits TNF-?-induced MMP-1 expression through the inactivation of c-Src/EGFR-dependent ERK/AP-1 signalling pathway, resulting in the inhibition of collagen degradation in human fibroblast cells. Therefore, CK may be a promising protective agent for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as skin ageing and atopic dermatitis.
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Growth Suppression of Colorectal Cancer by Plant-Derived Multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via Inhibition of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM), plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAbP) CO17-1A and mAbP CO17-1A × BR55) with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2), but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAbP CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer.
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Oleanolic acid regulates NF-?B signaling by suppressing MafK expression in RAW 264.7 cells.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are common to many pathological conditions. Defense mechanisms protect cells from oxidative stress, but can become over-activated following injury and inflammation. NF-?B and Nrf2 transcription factors regulate proinflammatory and antioxidant gene expression, respectively. Studies have shown that many natural dietary compounds regulate NF-?B and Nrf2, preventing inflammation and oxidative stress. Here, we report major compounds of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina such as rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and caffeic acid as a potential therapeutic for oxidative stress and inflammation. The major compounds exhibited high anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO, PGE2 production, NF-?B expression and activating Nrf2 expression. In addition, we examined the effect of major compounds on MafK expression. Among the compounds, oleanolic acid significantly decreased MafK expression and MafK-mediated p65 acetylation. These findings suggest that oleanolic acid as NF-?B inhibitors can potentially be used in therapeutic applications for the treatment of oxidative stressnduced diseases.
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The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in female nursing students with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent in young women under stressful conditions. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been known to be effective in treating IBS.
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Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 ?m thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 ?m thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 ?m, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.
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Can Initial (18)F-FDG PET-CT Imaging Give Information on Metastasis in Patients with Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma?
Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of primary renal cancers with and without metastatic lesions, if any. We also studied the relationship between the size of primary renal cancers and their SUVmax, and tried to find a clinical value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT for the initial evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
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Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNF? mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.
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Prognostic Value of Metabolic Tumor Volume Estimated by (18)?F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Stage II or III Disease.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy.
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Preliminary evaluation of a three-dimensional, customized, and preformed titanium mesh in peri-implant alveolar bone regeneration.
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a customized, three-dimensional, preformed titanium mesh as a barrier membrane for peri-implant alveolar bone regeneration.
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Anti-asthmatic activities of an ethanol extract of Aster yomena in an ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Aster yomena is used in traditional remedies to treat cough, asthma and insect bites; however, its therapeutic mechanism is not completely understood. To elucidate the anti-asthmatic effect of A. yomena, we investigated the anti-asthmatic characteristics of an alcohol extract of A. yomena in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. In this study, we showed that A. yomena extract inhibited the overall pathophysiological features of asthma by suppressing Th2 responses and enzymes associated with the production of inflammatory mediators. This suppression resulted in decreased Th2 type cytokines and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and OVA-specific IgE in serum. Additionally, A. yomena extract significantly decreased airway hyperresponsiveness and abrogated the histopathological changes in the lungs, which reached normal levels in the OVA-challenged mice treated with A. yomena extract. These findings suggest that A. yomena could be a promising natural agent for treating bronchial asthma in humans.
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Maxillary Posterior Segmentation Using an Oscillating Saw in Le Fort I Posterior or Superior Movement Without Pterygomaxillary Separation.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Any remaining tuberosity or pterygoid plate frequently interferes with posterior or superior movement of the maxilla, if no pterygomaxillary separation is performed in low-level Le Fort I osteotomy. The objective of this report is to describe a technique for maxillary posterior segmentation using an oscillating saw in Le Fort I posterior or superior movement without pterygomaxillary separation and to present the authors' preliminary multicenter experience with this technique.
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Schwannoma of the heart.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who complained of chest pain at rest. A mass was detected adjacent to her left atrium. The mass was completely excised, and a pathologic examination revealed it to be a schwannoma. Schwannomas are tumors that originate in the nerve sheath and are rarely detected in the heart. Here, we describe a rare case of primary schwannoma of the left atrium.
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Progression of breast cancer cells was enhanced by endocrine-disrupting chemicals, triclosan and octylphenol, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway in cellular and mouse xenograft models.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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In the present study, we determined whether two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), triclosan (TCS) and octylphenol (OP), are able to alter the expression of two cell cycle regulators, cyclin D1 and p21, in both in vitro and mouse breast cancer models. In addition, we determined whether the stimulatory effects of OP or TCS on breast cancer progression may be associated with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathway. Altered expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 were observed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells treated with TCS and OP, which is linked to the G1/S transition of cell cycle, leading to cell proliferation. In a xenograft mouse model, breast tumor masses were established following exposure to TCS and OP for 8 weeks. In these animals, the tumor cells with BrdU-positive nuclei were increased by treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2), OP, and TCS compared to that of a control (corn oil), suggesting that TCS and OP increase DNA synthesis during the S phase in tumor cells. Increased level of cyclin D1 protein by TCS and OP was also observed in vivo, implying that the effects of these EDCs possessing estrogenic activity alter the expression of genes related to cancer progression. It was of interest that the effects of TCS and OP were reversed by ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, indicating that EDC-induced activities are mediated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS and OP may promote breast cancer progression, via an ER-mediated signaling cascade.
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Effects of anti-obesity drugs, phentermine and mahuang, on the behavioral patterns in Sprague-Dawley rat model.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.
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Methoxychlor and triclosan stimulates ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Methoxychlor and triclosan are emergent or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methoxychlor [MXC; 1,1,1-trichlor-2,2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl) ethane] is an organochlorine pesticide that has been primarily used since dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was banned. In addition, triclosan (TCS) is used as a common component of soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, and other hygiene products at concentrations up to 0.3%. In the present study, the potential impact of MXC and TCS on ovarian cancer cell growth and underlying mechanism(s) was examined following their treatments in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. As results, MXC and TCS induced BG-1 cell growth via regulating cyclin D1, p21 and Bax genes related with cell cycle and apoptosis. A methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed that the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells was stimulated by MXC (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M) or TCS (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M). Treatment of BG-1 cells with MXC or TCS resulted in the upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of p21 and Bax transcriptions. In addition, the protein level of cyclin D1 was increased by MXC or TCS while p21 and Bax protein levels appeared to be reduced in these cells. Furthermore, MXC- or TCS-induced alterations of these genes were reversed in the presence of ICI 182,780 (10(-7)M), suggesting that the changes in these gene expressions may be regulated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of our investigation indicate that two potential EDCs, MXC and TCS, may stimulate ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an ER-dependent pathway.
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Systematic reliability study of top-gate p- and n-channel organic field-effect transistors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We report on a systematic investigation on the performance and stability of p-channel and n-channel top-gate OFETs, with a CYTOP/Al2O3 bilayer gate dielectric, exposed to controlled dry oxygen and humid atmospheres. Despite the severe conditions of environmental exposure, p-channel and n-channel top-gate OFETs show only minor changes of their performance parameters without undergoing irreversible damage. When correlated with the conditions of environmental exposure, these changes provide new insight into the possible physical mechanisms in the presence of oxygen and water. Photoexcited charge collection spectroscopy experiments provided further evidence of oxygen and water effects on OFETs. Top-gate OFETs also display outstanding durability, even when exposed to oxygen plasma and subsequent immersion in water or operated under aqueous media. These remarkable properties arise as a consequence of the use of relatively air stable organic semiconductors and proper engineering of the OFET structure.
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A multicentre cohort study of acute heart failure syndromes in Korea: rationale, design, and interim observations of the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The Korean Acute Heart Failure registry (KorAHF) aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, hospital course, and long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) in Korea.
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Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lung.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Most cases of Ewing's sarcoma are reported in the bone, and extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely rare disease. Here, we report a rare case of primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma in a patient with hemoptysis. The patient underwent right upper lung lobe lobectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy and has been free of recurrent disease for 4 years.
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Influence of radiologically evident residual intimal tear on expansion of descending aorta following surgery for acute type I aortic dissection.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Although a residual intimal tear may contribute to the dilatation of the descending aorta following surgical repair of acute type I aortic dissection (AD), its causal relationship has not been elucidated by clinical data due to the limited resolution of imaging modalities.
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Regulation of MMP/TIMP by HUVEC transplantation attenuates ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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We elucidated the therapeutic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for ameliorating progressive heart failure in a myocardial infarction (MI) rat model.
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Facile preparation of ultra-large pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application to the encapsulation of large guest molecules.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Pore-enlarged mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared directly from as-prepared MSNs through a new, simple method using divalent Ca or Mg salts as both efficient silica etching reagents and as ion exchangers in methanolic solution under mild conditions. The resultant MSNs became almost template-free simultaneously during this etching process. The pore-enlarged MSNs, referred to as Ca-MSN or Mg-MSN, maintained their original hexagonal pore symmetry and particle sizes, but several ultra-large mesopores were generated inside and outside the MSNs together with regular mesopores having expanded pore dimension of around 4-5 nm. The average pore diameters for ultra-large pores were 47.5 nm for Ca-MSN and 52.4 nm for Mg-MSN. The generation of ultra-large pores can be regarded as the collapse of several mesopores into an ultra-large pore. Both Ca-MSN and Mg-MSN were good sorbents for positively charged porphyrin molecules. Additionally, these ultra-large pore MSNs exhibited better adsorption ability than calcined MSN for large proteins and antibodies, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG).
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Long-term survival following coronary artery bypass grafting: off-pump versus on-pump strategies.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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This study sought to compare long-term survival after off- and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
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Stable organic field-effect transistors for continuous and nondestructive sensing of chemical and biologically relevant molecules in aqueous environment.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as sensors in aqueous media has gained increased attention for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. However, stable operation of OFETs in aqueous media is particularly challenging because of electrolytic hydrolysis of water, high ionic conduction through the analyte, and irreversible damage of organic semiconductors when exposed to water. To date, OFET sensors have shown the capability of label-free sensing of various chemical/biological species, but they could only be used once because their operational stability and lifetime while operating in aqueous environments has been poor, and their response times typically slow. Here, we report on OFETs with unprecedented water stability. These OFETs are suitable for the implementation of reusable chemical/biological sensors because they primarily respond to charged species diluted in an aqueous media by rapidly shifting their threshold voltage. These OFET sensors present stable current baselines and saturated signals which are ideal for detection of low concentration of small or large molecules that alter the pH of an aqueous environment. The overall response of these OFET sensors paves the way for the development of continuous chemical/biological nondestructive sensor applications in aqueous media.
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The estrogen receptor signaling pathway activated by phthalates is linked with transforming growth factor-? in the progression of LNCaP prostate cancer models.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The distinct roles of estrogen receptors (ERs) related with androgen receptors (ARs) have been proposed in prostate cancer, while the involvement of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been reported in the progression of prostate cancer. In this study, we examined whether the TGF-? signaling pathway is associated with ER signaling in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, which express ER?, ER? and ARs. We determined whether the exposure to phthalates may induce prostate cancer progression by affecting molecular crosstalk between ER and TGF-? signaling pathways. Cell viability was measured in LNCaP cells by MTT assay following treatment with di-n-buthyl phthalate (DBP). RT-PCR and immunoblot assay were performed to examine the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes and the TGF-? signaling cascade. A mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was generated, and immunohistochemical and BrdU assay were carried out to determine the effect of DBP in this mouse model. DBP, a type of phthalate, was shown to promote LNCaP cell proliferation by upregulating the gene expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 and by downregulating the expression of p21. DBP significantly reduced the protein expression of p-smad similarly to E2. These regulations caused by DBP were reversed by ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, indicating that DBP may affect crosstalk between TGF-? and ER signals. In an in vivo mouse model, tumor volume of mice exposed to DBP was increased. Number of cells in S phase of cell cycle was increased by DBP, while expression of p21 protein was reduced in the tissues of DBP-treated mice. These results indicate that DBP may induce the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer by acting on the crosstalk between TGF-? and ER signaling pathways.
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Tumor suppressor PDCD4 inhibits NF-?B-dependent transcription in human glioblastoma cells by direct interaction with p65.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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PDCD4 is a tumor suppressor induced by apoptotic stimuli that regulates both translation and transcription. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PDCD4 leads to decreased anchorage-independent growth in glioblastoma (GBM)-derived cell lines and decreased tumor growth in a GBM xenograft model. In inflammatory cells, PDCD4 stimulates tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-?B, an oncogenic driver in many cancer sites. However, the effect of PDCD4 on NF-?B transcriptional activity in most cancers including GBM is still unknown. We studied the effect of PDCD4 on NF-?B-dependent transcriptional activity in GBM by stably overexpressing PDCD4 in U251 and LN229 cells. Stable PDCD4 expression inhibits NF-?B transcriptional activation measured by a luciferase reporter. The molecular mechanism by which PDCD4 inhibits NF-?B transcriptional activation does not involve inhibited expression of NF-?B p65 or p50 proteins. PDCD4 does not inhibit pathways upstream of NF-?B including the activation of IKK? and IKK? kinases or degradation of I?B?, events needed for nuclear transport of p65 and p50. PDCD4 overexpression does inhibit localization of p65 but not p50 in the nucleus. PDCD4 protein interacts preferentially with p65 protein as shown by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging. PDCD4 overexpression inhibits the mRNA expression of two NF-?B target genes in a p65-dependent manner. These results suggest that PDCD4 can significantly inhibit NF-?B activity in GBM cells by a mechanism that involves direct or indirect protein-protein interaction independent of the expected mRNA-selective translational inhibition. These findings offer novel opportunities for NF-?B-targeted interventions to prevent or treat cancer.
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Metabolic syndrome as an indicator of high cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Analyses based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients with either diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) are recognized as a high risk group for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several studies have demonstrated the clinical value of MS for predicting additional CVD risk in the DM population, although the clinical significance remains debatable.
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Fabrication of a silica nanocable using hydroxyl-group core-engineered filamentous virus.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Biological materials with surface-active proteins can be genetically modified to bind target materials. In particular, filamentous-shaped M13 bacteriophages (M13 phage) are attractive scaffolds for functional nanostructures due to their highly ordered protein-coat surface. This paper demonstrates a simple method for fabricating silica nanocables along a modified M13 phage. The M13 phage was genetically engineered to display the amino acid serine on the surface to provide hydroxyl groups for a sol-gel reaction. This M13 phage mutant offers homogeneous molecular templates for forming silica coated coaxial nanocables. Silica shell formation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The core-shell structures were clearly distinguishable in the TEM analysis, and the synthesized shells were observed by EDX analysis. In addition, we investigated the adsorption properties of M13 phages on the pretreated substrate as a function of concentration. The effect of the relative concentration of M13 phages on the substrate was observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We also fabricated top electrodes on the extremely dense network for measuring electrical properties of the M13 phage. The experimental DC measurement indicated that the wild-type phage has very low electrical conductance, similar to insulating material.
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Differentiation Potential and Profile of Nuclear Receptor Expression During Expanded Culture of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reveals PPAR? as an Important Regulator of Oct4 Expression.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Potential therapeutic use of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) requires the production of large cell numbers by in vitro expansion. However, long-term in vitro culture is associated with reduced stem cell characteristics and differentiation capability. We investigated the proliferation rate and expression of p16(INK4a) mRNA, surface stem cell markers, and stem cell transcription factors. The proliferation rate decreased significantly as passages increased, and the expression of p16(INK4a) mRNA significantly increased. FACS analysis of CD73, CD90, and CD105 expression showed no significant difference among examined passages; however, the mRNA expression levels of pluripotent markers, Oct4 and Nanog, were significantly decreased at higher passages. At passages 12 and 20, there was decreased differentiation capability into insulin-producing cells, evidenced by significantly decreased expression of insulin and related ? cell markers. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was also decreased at higher passages. We then analyzed the transcriptional expression profiles of 48 nuclear receptors at four different passages. We found that the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and thyroid hormone receptor TR? was significantly decreased at higher passages. Treatment with PPAR? activators or overexpression of PPAR? in hADSCs at passage 20 could recover Oct4 expression levels and increase Oct4 promoter activity. PPAR? inactivation by GW9662 inhibited the troglitazone-induced Oct4 mRNA expression. Furthermore, PPAR? overexpression in hADSC at passage 20 improved the differentiation potential to insulin-producing cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that hADSCs undergo characteristic changes and reduction of differentiation capability during expanded culture in vitro, and revealed the role of PPAR? as one potential factor in the regulation of Oct4 expression during in vitro aging of hADSCs.
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Co-existence of chronic urticaria and metabolic syndrome: clinical implications.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A systemic pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulating state occurs in subjects who have both chronic urticaria and metabolic syndrome. To investigate the prevalence and clinical impact of metabolic syndrome in Korean patients with chronic urticaria, a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 131 patients was performed. Metabolic syndrome was assessed by the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Programs Adult Treatment Panel III. Urticaria disease activity was assessed by total urticaria activity score (range 0-15). Thirty-nine patients (29.8%) had metabolic syndrome compared to 17.8% in a matched control group (p=0.001). Patients with chronic urticaria and metabolic syndrome were older, had a higher mean urticaria activity score and serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein, tumour necrosis factor-?, and complements, and showed a higher rate of negative autologous serum skin tests compared with those with-out metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression analysis indicated that an urticaria activity score of ? 13 (p=0.025) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (p=0.036) were independent predictors of uncontrolled chronic urticaria. We conclude that patients with severe and uncontrolled chronic urticaria should be evaluated for metabolic syndrome in order to reduce cardiovascular risk and improve chronic urticaria outcomes.
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CO2 selective dynamic two-dimensional Zn(II) coordination polymer.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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A CO2 selective dynamic two-dimensional (2D) MOF system, [Zn(glu)(?-bpe)]·2H2O (·2H2O) (glu = glutarate, bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), is prepared. Based on variable temperature PXRD patterns, I·2H2O exhibits a structural transformation of the framework upon desolvation. Various gas sorption analyses at low temperatures reveal that solvent-free I selectively adsorbs CO2 over N2, H2, and CH4. Stepped CO2 isotherms for solvent-free I with a large hysteresis between adsorption and desorption branches at 196 K indicate that I is a dynamic framework. Moreover, I·2H2O shows efficient heterogeneous catalytic reactivity for transesterification of various esters. The catalyst can be recycled multiple times without losing its original activity.
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Inhibition of Coxsackievirus-associated dystrophin cleavage prevents cardiomyopathy.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Heart failure in children and adults is often the consequence of myocarditis associated with Coxsackievirus (CV) infection. Upon CV infection, enteroviral protease 2A cleaves a small number of host proteins including dystrophin, which links actin filaments to the plasma membrane of muscle fiber cells (sarcolemma). It is unknown whether protease 2A-mediated cleavage of dystrophin and subsequent disruption of the sarcolemma play a role in CV-mediated myocarditis. We generated knockin mice harboring a mutation at the protease 2A cleavage site of the dystrophin gene, which prevents dystrophin cleavage following CV infection. Compared with wild-type mice, we found that mice expressing cleavage-resistant dystrophin had a decrease in sarcolemmal disruption and cardiac virus titer following CV infection. In addition, cleavage-resistant dystrophin inhibited the cardiomyopathy induced by cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of the CV protease 2A transgene. These findings indicate that protease 2A-mediated cleavage of dystrophin is critical for viral propagation, enteroviral-mediated cytopathic effects, and the development of cardiomyopathy.
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Neuronal Autophagy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Exp Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy pathway. Autophagy is a complex, bulky degradative process that involves the sequestration of cellular proteins, RNA, lipids, and cellular organelles into lysosomes. Despite recent progress in elucidating the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders, little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms and autophagy-related pathways involved in common neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, in this review, we focus on the current understanding of neuronal autophagy as well as recent findings on genetics and the roles of autophagy pathway in common neurodevelopmental disorders.
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NF-?B-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina in macrophages RAW 264.7.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina, a herbal medicine, has long been used in Korea for the treatment of sore throat, and to alleviate fever and accelerate wound healing. Although the therapeutic effect of P. vulgaris var. lilacina is likely associated with anti-inflammatory activity, the precise underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the various solvent fractions (hexane, butanol, chloroform and water) from the ethanol extract of P. vulgaris var. lilacina in activated macrophages. The hexane fraction exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities, inducing inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA expression in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, the hexane fraction from P. vulgaris var. lilacina significantly inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p50 and p65 subunits. These results indicate that P. vulgaris var. lilacina has an anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents.
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Selective antitumor effect of neural stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-beta against ductal breast cancer cells in cellular and xenograft models.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Due to their inherent tumor-tropic properties, genetically engineered stem cells may be advantageous for gene therapy treatment of various human cancers, including brain, liver, ovarian, and prostate malignancies. In this study, we employed human neural stem cells (HB1.F3; hNSCs) transduced with genes expressing Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3.CD) and human interferon-beta (HB1.F3.CD.IFN-?) as a treatment strategy for ductal breast cancer. CD can convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to its active chemotherapeutic form, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which induces a tumor-killing effect through DNA synthesis inhibition. IFN-? also strongly inhibits tumor growth by the apoptotic process. RT-PCR confirmed that HB1.F3.CD cells expressed CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells expressed both CD and IFN-?. A modified transwell migration assay showed that HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells selectively migrated toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. In hNSC-breast cancer co-cultures the viability of breast cancer cells which were significantly reduced by HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells in the presence of 5-FC. The tumor inhibitory effect was greater with the HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells, indicating an additional effect of IFN-? to 5-FU. In addition, the tumor-tropic properties of these hNSCs were found to be attributed to chemoattractant molecules secreted by breast cancer cells, including stem cell factor (SCF), c-kit, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor 2. An in vivo assay performed using MDA-MB-231/luc breast cancer mammary fat pad xenografts in immunodeficient mice resulted in 50% reduced tumor growth and increased long-term survival in HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? plus 5-FC treated mice relative to controls. Our results suggest that hNSCs genetically modified to express CD and/or IFN-? genes can be used as a novel targeted cancer gene therapy.
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Stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on visual sensitivity and electroretinography b-waves in the bullfrog eye.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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During the last decade, a large number of studies have focused on the development of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the vertebrate visual system. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized through photoluminescence, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, various electrophysiological recordings were obtained from the bullfrog eyecup preparations under various treatment conditions. Photoluminescence data showed a central peak at 386 nm while the UV-visible spectrum showed a sharp absorption band centered around 367 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure, with a round to oval shape and an average particle size of > 40 nm. Electroretinography (ERG) demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the ERG b-wave amplitude in dark-adapted bullfrog eyecups and in the presence of background illumination. Zinc oxide nanoparticles also improved the visual sensitivity by 0.7 log unit of light intensity and shortened the duration of rhodopsin regeneration. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles may be used to improve visual functions. The present study may add new dimensions to the biomedical applications of nanomaterials in eye research.
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In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions.
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Pseudopathologic vertebral body enhancement in the presence of superior vena cava obstruction on computed tomography.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can cause the development of collateral vessels. During contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography (CT), contrast material may reflux into the collaterals such as paravertebral venous plexus. However, an unusual pseudopathologic vertebral body enhancement on CT in the presence of SVC obstruction has not been studied previously.
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Effectiveness of emergency contraception in women after sexual assault.
Clin Exp Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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To assess the effectiveness of emergency single-dose levonorgestrel contraception in preventing unintended pregnancies among woman who visited the emergency department (ED) due to sexual assault (SA).
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Comparison of Specific IgE Antibodies to Wheat Component Allergens in Two Phenotypes of Wheat Allergy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Specific IgE to gliadin was proposed as a marker for wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis, while Tri a 14 was found to induce IgE response in bakers asthma. We evaluated whether these components could be used for discriminating phenotypes of wheat allergy. Twenty-nine patients who were wheat-induced anaphylaxis and/or urticaria (n=21, group I) and bakers asthma (n=8, group II) were enrolled. The prevalence of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 was higher in group II (25%) than in group I (4.8%), while the serum specific IgE to gliadin was significantly higher in group I (70%) than in group II (12.5%). The cutoff value for predicting the bakers asthma using the ratio of serum specific IgE to Tri a 14 to gliadin was 742.8 optical density×1,000/(kU/L) with high sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that Tri a 14/gliadin may be a potential marker for predicting bakers asthma.
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Preparation of anatase/rutile mixed-phase titania nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Acid-labile high surface mesoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 composite material is used as a novel hard template for the preparation of mesoporous amorphous TiO2. The template-free amorphous TiO2 material is then thermally crystallized at suitable temperature to control the relative ratio of anatase and rutile phases in a particle. Four different anatase/rutile (AR) mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles (AR-3, AR-15, AR-20, and AR-23 denoted for the samples of 3%, 15%, 20%, and 23% rutile phase, respectively) are prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in a TiO2 nanoparticle is visually confirmed by HRTEM analysis. These mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles are examined as candidates for photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The J-V curves and IPCE spectra for the DSSCs prepared from the mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles are obtained, and their photovoltaic properties are investigated. The photo-conversion efficiency (eta) indicates the highest value of 5.07% for AR-20. The synergistic effect of coexisting anatase and rutile phases with an optimal ratio in a TiO2 nanoparticle of AR-20 for an efficient interfacial transfer of photo-generated electrons is likely to lead to the highest efficiency among the AR-n samples.
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Molecular mechanisms of luteolin-7-O-glucoside-induced growth inhibition on human liver cancer cells: G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspase-independent apoptotic signaling pathways.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (LUT7G), a flavone subclass of flavonoids, has been found to increase anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as cytotoxic effects. However, the mechanism of how LUT7G induces apoptosis and regulates cell cycles remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effects of LUT7G on the growth inhibition of tumors, cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS generation, and the involved signaling pathway in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The proliferation of HepG2 cells was decreased by LUT7G in a dose-dependent manner. The growth inhibition was due primarily to the G2/M phase arrest and ROS generation. Moreover, the phosphorylation of JNK was increased by LUT7G. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative effect of LUT7G on HepG2 is associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by JNK activation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 611-616].
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A case of possible neurosarcoidosis presenting as intractable headache and panhypopituitarism.
Case Rep Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation of the involved organs. It is known that neurosarcoidosis involving the nervous system occurs in about 5% of patients with sarcoidosis. However, neurosarcoidosis without systemic involvement is extremely rare. We present a case of suspicious neurosarcoidosis affecting the pituitary gland, which was manifested as chronic uncontrolled headache, panhypopituitarism, central diabetes insipidus, and hypercalcemia. Though the biopsy at the pituitary lesion was not performed due to the high risk of surgical complication, treatment was needed urgently and we started steroid therapy. After steroid therapy, we observed the immediate symptom relief with improved hypercalcemia. According to the follow-up examination, no recurrent symptom was seen, and resolution of the pituitary lesion with improving panhypopituitarism was noted.
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Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 ?-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor ? and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ER? and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.
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Rutin inhibits B[a]PDE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by targeting EGFR kinase activity.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Rutin is a well-known flavonoid that exists in various natural sources. Accumulative studies have represented the biological effects of rutin, such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of rutin and its direct targets are not understood. We investigated whether rutin reduced B[a]PDE-induced-COX-2 expression. The transactivation of AP-1 and NF-?B were inhibited by rutin. Rutin also attenuated B[a]PDE-induced Raf/MEK/ERK and Akt activation, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of EGFR. An in vitro kinase assay revealed rutin suppressed EGFR kinase activity. We also confirmed direct binding between rutin and EGFR, and found that the binding was regressed by ATP. The EGFR inhibitor also inhibited the B[a]PDE-induced MEK/ERK and Akt signaling pathways and subsequently, suppressed COX-2 expression and promoter activity, in addition to suppressing the transactivation of AP-1 and NF-?B. In EGFR(-/-)mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, B[a]PDE-induced COX-2 expression was also diminished. Collectively, rutin inhibits B[a]PDE-induced COX-2 expression by suppressing the Raf/MEK/ERK and Akt signaling pathways. EGFR appeared to be the direct target of rutin.
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Piceatannol suppresses the metastatic potential of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells harboring mutated H-ras by inhibiting MMP-2 expression.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Metastasis is one of the most threatening features of the oncogenic process and the main cause of cancer-related mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are critical for tumor invasion and metastasis. Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic compound of red wine, has been reported to be a natural chemopreventive agent. However, the cancer preventive effects of piceatannol (3,5,3,4-tetrahydroxystilbene), a metabolite of resveratrol and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we report that piceatannol inhi-bits H-ras-induced MMP-2 activity and the invasive phenotype of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells harboring mutated H-ras (H-ras MCF10A cells) more effectively than resveratrol. Piceatannol attenuated the H-ras-induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas resveratrol, at the same concentrations, did not exert an inhibitory effect. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that piceatannol significantly inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and suppressed phospha-tidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) expression in the H-ras MCF10A cells. Ex vivo pull-down assays revealed that piceatannol directly bound to PI3K, inhibiting PI3K activity. Data from molecular docking suggested that piceatannol is a more tight-binding inhibitor than resveratrol due to the additional hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the backbone amide group of Val882 in the ATP-binding pocket of PI3K.
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Anticancer effects of the engineered stem cells transduced with therapeutic genes via a selective tumor tropism caused by vascular endothelial growth factor toward HeLa cervical cancer cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and/or human interferon-beta (IFN-?) gene against HeLa cervical cancer and the migration factors of the GESTECs toward the cancer cells. Anticancer effect of GESTECs was examined in a co-culture with HeLa cells using MTT assay to measure cell viability. A transwell migration assay was performed so as to assess the migration capability of the stem cells to cervical cancer cells. Next, several chemoattractant ligands and their receptors related to a selective migration of the stem cells toward HeLa cells were determined by real-time PCR. The cell viability of HeLa cells was decreased in response to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a prodrug, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic metabolite, was converted from 5-FC by CD gene and it caused the cell death in a co-culture system. When IFN-? was additionally expressed with CD gene by these GESTECs, the anticancer activity was significantly increased. In the migration assay, the GESTECs selectively migrated to HeLa cervical cancer cells. As results of real-time PCR, chemoattractant ligands such as MCP-1, SCF, and VEGF were expressed in HeLa cells, and several receptors such as uPAR, VEGFR2, and c-kit were produced by the GESTECs. These GESTECs transduced with CD gene and IFN-? may provide a potential of a novel gene therapy for anticervical cancer treatments via their selective tumor tropism derived from VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions between HeLa cells and the GESTECs.
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Stress cardiomyopathy associated with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after colonoscopy.
Chonnam Med J
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) is usually precipitated by a physiologically or psychologically stressful event. Although it occurs only rarely, hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced sympathetic activation may also cause SCM. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman affected with SCM after a routine colonoscopy. During the procedure, she aspirated residual polyethylene glycol from her stomach. Hypotension, resting dyspnea, and hemoptysis were subsequently observed. Laboratory findings revealed elevated cardiac enzymes, and a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed left ventricular (LV) global hypokinesia. She was ultimately diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage-associated SCM. After successful treatment with a ventilator and corticosteroids, her LV systolic function and dimensions normalized and she was discharged without complications.
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Plant-derived mAbs have effective anti-cancer activities by increasing ganglioside expression in colon cancers.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was selectively expressed in human colorectal carcinoma. Treatment with plant-derived anti-EpCAM mAb (mAbP CO17-1A) and RAW264.7 cells inhibited cell growth in the human colorectal cancer cell line SW620. In SW620 treated with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cells, expression of p53 and p21 increased, whereas the expression of G1 phase-related proteins, cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2, decreased, similar to mammalian-derived mAb (mAbM) CO17-1A. Similar to mAbM CO17-1A, treatment with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cell decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, TNF-?, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-8 and caspase-9, increased. Cells treated with mAbP CO17-1A and RAW264.7 cells expressed metastasis-related gangliosides, GM1 and GD1a, similar to mAbM CO17-1A. These results suggest that mAbP CO17-1A is as effective on anti-cancer activity as mAbM CO17-1A.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist suppresses human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression and aromatase activity in eutopic endometrial stromal cells from endometriosis.
Clin Exp Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist on the cell proliferation properties and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and aromatase in cultured endometrial stromal cell (ESC) from patients with endometriosis.
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MafK positively regulates NF-?B activity by enhancing CBP-mediated p65 acetylation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Reactive oxygen species, produced by oxidative stress, initiate and promote many metabolic diseases through activation/suppression of redox-sensitive transcription factors. NF-?B and Nrf2 are important regulators of oxidation resistance and contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. We identified MafK, a novel transcriptional regulator that modulates NF-?B activity. MafK knockdown reduced NF-?B activation, whereas MafK overexpression enhanced NF-?B function. MafK mediated p65 acetylation by CBP upon LPS stimulation, thereby facilitating recruitment of p65 to NF-?B promoters such as IL-8 and TNF?. Consistent with these results, MafK-depleted mice showed prolonged survival with a reduced hepatic inflammatory response after LPS and D-GalN injection. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which MafK controls NF-?B activity via CBP-mediated p65 acetylation.
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Bisphenol A reduces differentiation and stimulates apoptosis of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Bisphenol A (BPA), a major component of epoxy resins used in protective coatings, is a known endocrine-disrupting chemical. BPA has the ability of binding to estrogen receptors. In the current paper, we examine the direct effects of bisphenol A on in vitro osteoclast and osteoblast culture systems.
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Lentivirus-AIMP2-DX2 shRNA suppresses cell proliferation by regulating Akt1 signaling pathway in the lungs of AIMP2?/? mice.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The long-term survival of lung cancer patients treated with conventional therapies remains poor and has changed little in decades. The need for novel approaches remains urgent. Aerosol-mediated delivery of genes has potential for the treatment of a broad spectrum of pulmonary disorders and may offer numerous advantages over invasive modes of delivery.
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Hemoglobin a1c may be an inadequate diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus in anemic subjects.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Recently, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% has been determined to be a criterion for diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of DM. However, HbA1c may be influenced by a number of factors. Anemia is one of the most prevalent diseases with an influence on HbA1c; however, its effect on HbA1c varies based on the variable pathophysiology of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anemia on HbA1c levels.
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Risk factors for the progression of intima-media thickness of carotid arteries: a 2-year follow-up study in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries is known to have a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to identify risk factors affecting the progression of carotid IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) localizes to centrosomes and functions in the maintenance of centrosome integrity.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play roles in the cellular response to DNA interstrand cross-linking lesions; however, several reports have suggested that FA proteins play additional roles. To elucidate novel functions of FA proteins, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify binding partners of the Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) protein. The candidate proteins included never-in-mitosis-gene A (NIMA)-related kinase 2 (Nek2), which functions in the maintenance of centrosome integrity. The interaction of FANCA and Nek2 was confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells. Furthermore, FANCA interacted with ?-tubulin and localized to centrosomes, most notably during the mitotic phase, confirming that FANCA is a centrosomal protein. Knockdown of FANCA increased the frequency of centrosomal abnormalities and enhanced the sensitivity of U2OS osteosarcoma cells to nocodazole, a microtubule-interfering agent. In vitro kinase assays indicated that Nek2 can phosphorylate FANCA at threonine-351 (T351), and analysis with a phospho-specific antibody confirmed that this phosphorylation occurred in response to nocodazole treatment. Furthermore, U2OS cells overexpressing the phosphorylation-defective T351A FANCA mutant showed numerical centrosomal abnormalities, aberrant mitotic arrest, and enhanced nocodazole sensitivity, implying that the Nek2-mediated T351 phosphorylation of FANCA is important for the maintenance of centrosomal integrity. Taken together, this study revealed that FANCA localizes to centrosomes and is required for the maintenance of centrosome integrity, possibly through its phosphorylation at T351 by Nek2.
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Acute Profound Thrombocytopenia after Using Abciximab for No-Reflow during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists are well established for their effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Acute profound thrombocytopenia is a rare complication of abciximab. We present a case which was managed successfully for the rare complication of acute profound thrombocytopenia after using abciximab and an intra-aortic balloon pump for the treatment of a no-reflow phenomenon and consecutive cardiogenic shock during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
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Persimmon peel extract attenuates PDGF-BB-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell migration and invasion through inhibition of c-Src activity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The unregulated migration and invasion of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) into the intima is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the oriental persimmon extract (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Fuyu) has been investigated for its anti-atherogenic properties, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel and flesh extract on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-induced MMP-1 expression using Western blot, and abnormal migration and invasion of HASMCs using a modified Boyden chamber assay and a wound healing assay. We also evaluated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel extract on aortic vessel thickening using a rat aortic sprouting assay. Persimmon peel (PPE), but not flesh extract (PFE), inhibited PDGF-BB-induced MMP-1 expression, cell migration and invasion in HASMCs, while suppressing the rat aortic sprouting. Western blot and in vitro kinase assay data demonstrated that PPE inhibited Src kinase activity and subsequently attenuated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt signalling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that persimmon peel might possess a potential anti-atherogenic effect through attenuation of ASMCs migration and invasion and aortic sprouting by direct inhibition of the c-Src kinase activity.
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The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on odontogenic differentiation in dental pulp stem cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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This study aimed to identify the early genetic changes related to odontogenic differentiation when mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is applied to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).
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Benzophenone-1 stimulated the growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells by cell cycle regulation via an estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling pathway in cellular and xenograft mouse models.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1; BP-1) is an UV stabilizer primarily used to prevent polymer degradation and deterioration in quality due to UV irradiation. Recently, BP-1 has been reported to bioaccumulate in human bodies by absorption through the skin and has the potential to induce health problems including endocrine disruption. In the present study, we examined the xenoestrogenic effect of BP-1 on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs) and relevant xenografted animal models in comparison with 17-? estradiol (E2). In in vitro cell viability assay, BP-1 (10(-8)-10(-5)M) significantly increased BG-1 cell growth the way E2 did. The mechanism underlying the BG-1 cell proliferation was proved to be related with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, a cell cycle progressor, by E2 or BP-1. Both BP-1 and E2 induced cell growth and up-regulation of cyclin D1 were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, suggesting that BP-1 may mediate the cancer cell proliferation via an ER-dependent pathway like E2. On the other hand, the expression of p21, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 phase, was not altered by BP-1 though it was down-regulated by E2. In xenograft mouse models transplanted with BG-1 cells, BP-1 or E2 treatment significantly increased the tumor mass formation compared to a vehicle (corn oil) within 8 weeks. In histopathological analysis, the tumor sections of E2 or BP-1 group displayed extensive cell formations with high density and disordered arrangement, which were supported by the increased number of BrdUrd positive nuclei and the over-expression of cyclin D1 protein. Taken together, these results suggest that BP-1 is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that exerts xenoestrogenic effects by stimulating the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer via ER signaling pathway associated with cell cycle as did E2.
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Resveratrol regulates the cell viability promoted by 17?-estradiol or bisphenol A via down-regulation of the cross-talk between estrogen receptor ? and insulin growth factor-1 receptor in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and estrogens appear to promote development of estrogen-dependent cancers, including breast and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, we evaluated the cell viability effect of BPA on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells, along with the growth inhibitory effect of resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), a naturally occurring phytoestrogen. In addition, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of BPA and RES in regulating the interaction between estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signals, a non- genomic pathway induced by 17?-estradiol (E2). BPA induced a significant increase in BG-1 cell growth and up-regulated mRNA levels of ER? and IGF-1R. In parallel with its mRNA level, the protein expression of ER? was induced, and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (p-IRS-1), phosphorylated Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 were increased by BPA or E2. However, RES effectively reversed the BG-1 cell proliferation induced by E2 or BPA by inversely down-regulating the expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, these results suggest that RES is a novel candidate for prevention of tumor progression caused by EDCs, including BPA via effective inhibition of the cross-talk of ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways.
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20-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginseng, inhibits colon cancer growth by targeting TRPC channel-mediated calcium influx.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Abnormal regulation of Ca(2+) mediates tumorigenesis and Ca(2+) channels are reportedly deregulated in cancers, indicating that regulating Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells is considered as a promising strategy to treat cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Ca(2+) affects cancer cell death. Here, we show that 20-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20-GPPD), a metabolite of ginseng saponin, causes apoptosis of colon cancer cells through the induction of cytoplasmic Ca(2+). 20-GPPD decreased cell viability, increased annexin V-positive early apoptosis and induced sub-G1 accumulation and nuclear condensation of CT-26 murine colon cancer cells. Although 20-GPPD-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) played a key role in the apoptotic death of CT-26 cells, LKB1, a well-known upstream kinase of AMPK, was not involved in this activation. To identify the upstream target of 20-GPPD for activating AMPK, we examined the effect of Ca(2+) on apoptosis of CT-26 cells. A calcium chelator recovered 20-GPPD-induced AMPK phosphorylation and CT-26 cell death. Confocal microscopy showed that 20-GPPD increased Ca(2+) entry into CT-26 cells, whereas a transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) blocker suppressed Ca(2+) entry. When cells were treated with a TRPC blocker plus an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium blocker, 20-GPPD-induced calcium influx was completely inhibited, suggesting that the ER calcium store, as well as TRPC, was involved. In vivo mouse CT-26 allografts showed that 20-GPPD significantly suppressed tumor growth, volume and weight in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, 20-GPPD exerts potent anticarcinogenic effects on colon carcinogenesis by increasing Ca(2+) influx, mainly through TRPC channels, and by targeting AMPK.
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Ouabain, a Cardiac Glycoside, Inhibits the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Activated by DNA Interstrand Cross-Linking Agents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Modulation of the DNA repair pathway is an emerging target for the development of anticancer drugs. DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), one of the most severe forms of DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and mitomycin C (MMC), activates the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway. Inhibition of the FA/BRCA pathway can enhance the cytotoxic effects of ICL-inducing anticancer drugs and can reduce anticancer drug resistance. To find FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory small molecules, we established a cell-based high-content screening method for quantitating the activation of the FA/BRCA pathway by measuring FANCD2 foci on DNA lesions and then applied our method to chemical screening. Using commercial LOPAC1280 chemical library screening, ouabain was identified as a competent FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory compound. Ouabain, a member of the cardiac glycoside family, binds to and inhibits Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and has been used to treat heart disease for many years. We observed that ouabain, as well as other cardiac glycoside family members-digitoxin and digoxin-down-regulated FANCD2 and FANCI mRNA levels, reduced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, inhibited FANCD2 foci formation on DNA lesions, and abrogated cell cycle arrest induced by MMC treatment. These inhibitory activities of ouabain required p38 MAPK and were independent of cellular Ca(2+) ion increase or the drug uptake-inhibition effect of ouabain. Furthermore, we found that ouabain potentiated the cytotoxic effects of MMC in tumor cells. Taken together, we identified an additional effect of ouabain as a FA/BRCA pathway-inhibiting chemosensitization compound. The results of this study suggest that ouabain may serve as a chemosensitizer to ICL-inducing anticancer drugs.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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