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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Low-Temperature Roll-to-Roll Atmospheric Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Thin Films.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.
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Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.
J Ethn Subst Abuse
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.
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Effects of Palm and Sunflower Oils on Serum Cholesterol and Fatty Liver in Rats.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ?49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.
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PINK1 positively regulates HDAC3 to suppress dopaminergic neuronal cell death.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Deciphering the molecular basis of neuronal cell death is a central issue in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Dysregulation of p53 levels has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. The role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis has been recently emphasized; however, the molecular basis of modulation of p53 function by HDAC3 remains unclear. Here we show that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial Parkinson's disease, phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424 to enhance its HDAC activity in a neural cell-specific manner. PINK1 prevents H2O2-induced C-terminal cleavage of HDAC3 via phosphorylation of HDAC3 at Ser-424, which is reversed by protein phosphatase 4c. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC3 enhances its direct association with p53 and causes subsequent hypoacetylation of p53. Genetic deletion of PINK1 partly impaired the suppressive role of HDAC3 in regulating p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. However, depletion of HDAC3 fully abolished the PINK1-mediated p53 inhibitory loop. Finally, ectopic expression of phosphomometic-HDAC3(S424E) substantially overcomes the defective action of PINK1 against oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Together, our results uncovered a mechanism by which PINK1-HDAC3 network mediates p53 inhibitory loop in response to oxidative stress-induced damage.
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Graft survival after video-assisted minilaparotomy living-donor nephrectomy or conventional open nephrectomy: do left and right allografts differ?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To examine the effect of the side of the allograft (left vs right) on early graft failure and long-term graft survival rates after conventional open living-donor nephrectomy (OLDN) or video-assisted minilaparotomy living-donor nephrectomy (VLDN).
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Usefulness of the diameter-axial-polar nephrometry score for predicting perioperative parameters in robotic partial nephrectomy.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The present study aimed to verify the association between diameter-axial-polar (DAP) nephrometry and surgical outcomes, postoperative renal function, and perioperative complications in patients undergoing robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN).
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Alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in human normal ovaries and neoplastic ovarian cancers.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Most ovarian cancers originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian cancers might undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to various mediators or regulators such as EMT-inducing factors. In this study, ovarian tumor specimens from patients were analyzed to demonstrate alteration of EMT-related markers according to benign and malignant types of ovarian cancers. In the three ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and BG-1, the expression of epithelial (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) cell markers was identified by RNA and protein analysis. OVCAR-3 and BG-1 cells strongly expressed E-cadherin as well as morphological features such as epithelial cells, but vimentin was not observed. In contrast to these cancer cells, SKOV-3 showed a phenotype typical of mesenchymal cells. Alteration of EMT markers and EMT-related transcriptional factors were confirmed in clinical ovarian tissue samples obtained from 74 patients. E-cadherin was expressed in 57.1% of benign tumors, while vimentin was expressed in 83.3% of normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of E-cadherin and vimentin revealed the phenomenon in the tissue specimens. Evaluation of the EMT-associated transcriptional factors Snail, Slug, and Twist revealed that Snail was overexpressed by 7.1-fold in malignant ovarian cancer compared to normal ovaries or benign tumors. Although expression levels of other factors were higher in benign and malignant ovarian tumors, they were not closely correlated with the aforementioned ovarian cancer types. Overall, Snail may affect the EMT process in ovarian cancer development and upregulation of Snail expression followed by the downregulation of E-cadherin enhances the invasiveness of ovarian cancer.
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Influenza vaccination and associated factors among Korean cancer survivors : a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services.
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Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Quality of life is adversely affected by pelvic organ prolapse, the prevalence of which is increasing because of the persistently growing older population. Today, the tension-free vaginal mesh kit has grown in popularity owing to its comparable cure rate to traditional reconstructive surgery and the feasibility of an early return to normal life. However, significant debate remains over the long-term cure rate and the safety of tension-free vaginal mesh in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends obtaining informed consent about the safety and cure rate when the patient chooses surgery using the tension-free vaginal mesh kit or meshes before surgery. The goal of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is the restoration of anatomic defects. This review article provides an overview of basic surgical techniques and the results, advantages, and disadvantages of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.
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The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.
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Contralateral kidney volume change as a consequence of ipsilateral parenchymal atrophy promotes overall renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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To evaluate whether ischemic time is related to ipsilateral parenchymal atrophy (IPA) and contralateral compensational hypertrophy (CCH) and how CCH affects late functional outcome after partial nephrectomy.
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Stress and Coping with Racism and Their Role in Sexual Risk for HIV Among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.
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The expression of p21 is upregulated by forkhead box A1/2 in p53-null H1299 cells.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 is increased in response to various stimuli and stress signals through p53-dependent and independent pathways. We demonstrate in this study that forkhead box A1/2 (FOXA1/2) is a crucial transcription factor in the activation of p21 transcription via direct binding to the p21 promoter in p53-null H1299 lung carcinoma cells. In addition, histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)-mediated upregulation of p21 expression was repressed by knockdown of FOXA1/2 in H1299 cells. Consequently, these results suggest that FOXA1/2 is required for p53-independent p21 expression.
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Progression of breast cancer cells was enhanced by endocrine-disrupting chemicals, triclosan and octylphenol, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway in cellular and mouse xenograft models.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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In the present study, we determined whether two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), triclosan (TCS) and octylphenol (OP), are able to alter the expression of two cell cycle regulators, cyclin D1 and p21, in both in vitro and mouse breast cancer models. In addition, we determined whether the stimulatory effects of OP or TCS on breast cancer progression may be associated with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathway. Altered expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 were observed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells treated with TCS and OP, which is linked to the G1/S transition of cell cycle, leading to cell proliferation. In a xenograft mouse model, breast tumor masses were established following exposure to TCS and OP for 8 weeks. In these animals, the tumor cells with BrdU-positive nuclei were increased by treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2), OP, and TCS compared to that of a control (corn oil), suggesting that TCS and OP increase DNA synthesis during the S phase in tumor cells. Increased level of cyclin D1 protein by TCS and OP was also observed in vivo, implying that the effects of these EDCs possessing estrogenic activity alter the expression of genes related to cancer progression. It was of interest that the effects of TCS and OP were reversed by ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, indicating that EDC-induced activities are mediated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS and OP may promote breast cancer progression, via an ER-mediated signaling cascade.
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Effects of anti-obesity drugs, phentermine and mahuang, on the behavioral patterns in Sprague-Dawley rat model.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.
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Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury.
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Prospective measurement of urinary microalbumin in living kidney donor nephrectomy: toward understanding the renal functional recovery period.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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We determined the clinical implications of perioperative urinary microalbumin excretion in relation to renal function after living donor nephrectomy.
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Anticarcinogenic effects of products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re, a major constituent of ginseng berry, on human gastric cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Ginsenoside Re is a triol type triterpene glycoside and is abundantly present in ginseng berry. In the present study, we verified that ginsenoside Re can be transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely, Rg2, Rg6, and F4, by heat-processing. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re inhibited phosphorylation of CDK2 at Thr160 by upregulation of p21 level, resulting in S phase arrest. The products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re also activated caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, followed by cleavage of PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrently, alteration of mitochondrial factors such as Bcl-2 and Bax was also observed. Moreover, pretreatment with Z-VAD-fmk abrogated caspase-8, -9, and -3 activations by the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re. We further confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of heat-processed ginsenoside Re in AGS cells are mainly mediated via generation of less-polar ginsenosides Rg6 and F4.
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Methoxychlor and triclosan stimulates ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Methoxychlor and triclosan are emergent or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methoxychlor [MXC; 1,1,1-trichlor-2,2-bis (4-methoxyphenyl) ethane] is an organochlorine pesticide that has been primarily used since dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was banned. In addition, triclosan (TCS) is used as a common component of soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, and other hygiene products at concentrations up to 0.3%. In the present study, the potential impact of MXC and TCS on ovarian cancer cell growth and underlying mechanism(s) was examined following their treatments in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. As results, MXC and TCS induced BG-1 cell growth via regulating cyclin D1, p21 and Bax genes related with cell cycle and apoptosis. A methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay confirmed that the proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells was stimulated by MXC (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M) or TCS (10(-6), 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)M). Treatment of BG-1 cells with MXC or TCS resulted in the upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of p21 and Bax transcriptions. In addition, the protein level of cyclin D1 was increased by MXC or TCS while p21 and Bax protein levels appeared to be reduced in these cells. Furthermore, MXC- or TCS-induced alterations of these genes were reversed in the presence of ICI 182,780 (10(-7)M), suggesting that the changes in these gene expressions may be regulated by an ER-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of our investigation indicate that two potential EDCs, MXC and TCS, may stimulate ovarian cancer growth by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes via an ER-dependent pathway.
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Stereospecific effects of ginsenoside 20-Rg3 inhibits TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appearing cells, which, in turn, promotes the metastatic potential of cancer. Ginseng is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Panax that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities. Ginsenosides 20-Rg3, which is the active component of ginseng, has various medical effects, such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-angiogenesis, and anti-fatiguing activities. In addition, ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 are epimers, and this epimerization is produced by steaming. However, the possible role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the repressive role of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the potential use of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 as inhibitors of TGF-?1-induced EMT development in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that 20(R)-Rg3, but not 20(S)-Rg3, markedly increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin during initiation of the TGF-?1-induced EMT. 20(R)-Rg3 also inhibited the TGF-?1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited TGF-?1-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and activation of Smad2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that 20(R)-Rg3 suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-?1-induced EMT.
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Role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its effects on embryonic stem cells.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for embryonic development and the formation of various tissues or organs. However, EMT dysfunction in normal cells leads to diseases, such as cancer or fibrosis. During the EMT, epithelial cells are converted into more invasive and active mesenchymal cells. E-box-binding proteins, including Snail, ZEB and helix-loop-helix family members, serve as EMT-activating transcription factors. These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors. Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-?, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3?, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process. Although the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in cancer or embryonic development have been identified, the mechanism(s) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remain unclear. In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.
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Larval chigger mites collected from small mammals in 3 provinces, Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals.
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Anti-melanoma activity of Cynanchi atrati Radix is mediated by regulation of NF-kappa B activity and pro-apoptotic proteins.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Cynanchi atrati Radix has been traditionally prescribed for patients with inflammatory fever or chronic tumoral disorders. Melanoma is one of the most devastating cancer types, in which overexpression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) enables the cancer to survive without apoptosis. To identify a potential anti-melanoma candidate, we evaluated the apoptotic activity of an ethanol extract of Cynanchi atrati Radix (CAE) on melanoma and its underlying mechanisms.
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Serum and ultrastructure responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The uptake of nanoparticles by aquatic organisms such as fish has raised concerns about the possible adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects in juvenile common carp exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for 12 weeks. The carp were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.8, and 2.4mg/L of ZnO-NPs under a flow-through exposure system. Fish were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks to test for zinc in the test water and blood, and biochemistry analysis; further, they were sampled at 12 weeks to observe ultrastructural changes in the liver, kidney, and gill. In the organic serum, changes in the glutamic pyruvic transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (GPT/ALT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (GOT/AST) levels were significant, but changes in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were not significantly different across all exposure periods. In the inorganic serum, the magnesium (Mg), inorganic phosphorus (IP), sodium (Na(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) levels were significantly different in the exposure group and across exposure periods. However, calcium (Ca) and potassium (K(+)) levels were not significantly different. In the enzyme serum, the glucose (GLU) level significantly increased for the highest exposure group, but the total cholesterol (TCHO), triglyceride (Tg), and total protein (TP) levels were not significantly different during the exposure period. Ultrastructural changes in the liver induced changes in the black granules (of various sizes) in the lysosomes, indistinct nucleus membrane, and non-spherical nucleus. In the kidney, some mild changes were observed in the size and number of the lysosomes in the renal tubule. Desquamation and hypertrophy of pavement epithelial cells and vacuolation in the cytoplasm of the chloride cells were observed in the gill. Nanoparticles were also observed in the red blood cells, cytoplasm of all tissues, and glomerulus of the kidney. The observed changes in the serum and tissues may provide useful information regarding environmental conditions and risk assessments of aquatic organisms.
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Anti-atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia effects of herbal mixture, Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura and Curcuma longa Linne, in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Artemisiaiwayomogi Kitamura and Curcuma longa Linne. (ACE) has been popularly used to treat atherosclerosis as well as hyperlipidemia in the Asian countries.
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The estrogen receptor signaling pathway activated by phthalates is linked with transforming growth factor-? in the progression of LNCaP prostate cancer models.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The distinct roles of estrogen receptors (ERs) related with androgen receptors (ARs) have been proposed in prostate cancer, while the involvement of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) has been reported in the progression of prostate cancer. In this study, we examined whether the TGF-? signaling pathway is associated with ER signaling in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, which express ER?, ER? and ARs. We determined whether the exposure to phthalates may induce prostate cancer progression by affecting molecular crosstalk between ER and TGF-? signaling pathways. Cell viability was measured in LNCaP cells by MTT assay following treatment with di-n-buthyl phthalate (DBP). RT-PCR and immunoblot assay were performed to examine the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes and the TGF-? signaling cascade. A mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was generated, and immunohistochemical and BrdU assay were carried out to determine the effect of DBP in this mouse model. DBP, a type of phthalate, was shown to promote LNCaP cell proliferation by upregulating the gene expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 and by downregulating the expression of p21. DBP significantly reduced the protein expression of p-smad similarly to E2. These regulations caused by DBP were reversed by ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, indicating that DBP may affect crosstalk between TGF-? and ER signals. In an in vivo mouse model, tumor volume of mice exposed to DBP was increased. Number of cells in S phase of cell cycle was increased by DBP, while expression of p21 protein was reduced in the tissues of DBP-treated mice. These results indicate that DBP may induce the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer by acting on the crosstalk between TGF-? and ER signaling pathways.
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A social-ecological perspective on power and HIV/AIDS with a sample of men who have sex with men of colour.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This paper applies a social-ecological theory of power to posit that individual HIV-related vulnerability stems from how power is leveraged across situations over time. The current study identified six power domains and explored how the interchangeability of power shapes HIV-related vulnerability among men who have sex with men of colour. Data were collected as part of a mixed-methods study on the social networks and experiences of racial/ethnic and sexual minority status. A total of 35 Asian/Pacific Islander, Black and Latino men who have sex with men were recruited and individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Results showed that men who have sex with men of colour actively traded upon various domains to alter their relative power within a given situation. Results suggest that power interchangeability, or the degree to which power from one domain can be leveraged to gain power in another, may shape HIV-related vulnerability. Findings offer a dynamic understanding of the nature of HIV risk as derived from everyday power exchanges and provide theoretical foundation for future work on individual resilience against HIV-related risks over time.
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The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24?years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.
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Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group). The ad libitum (AL) group (normal eating pattern) and the food restriction (FR) group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount) were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.
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Ethanolic extract of astragali radix and salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-?B was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and interferon-? in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-?B modulation.
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Effects of 4-Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on Stimulation of Cell Growth via Disruption of the Transforming Growth Factor-? Signaling Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Models.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling pathway is a major pathway in cellular processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. The signaling pathway activated by 17?-estadiol (E2) appeared to inhibit the TGF-? signaling pathway by cross-talk with the TGF-? components in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-otylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenon-1 (BP-1), in the TGF-? signaling pathway in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). The transcriptional and translational levels of TGF-? related genes were examined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and xenograft mouse models of ovarian cancer cells. As a result, treatment with NP, OP, and BPA induced the expressions of SnoN, a TGF-? pathway inhibitor, and c-Fos, a TGF-? target transcription factor. Treatment with NP, BPA, and BP-1 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Smad3, a downstream target of TGF-?. These results indicate that NP and BPA may stimulate the proliferation of BG-1 cells via inhibition of the TGF-? signaling pathway. In a xenograft mouse model, transplanted BG-1 ovarian cancer cells showed significantly decreased phosphorylation of Smad3 and increased expression of SnoN in the ovarian tumor masses following treatment with E2, NP, or BPA. In parallel with an in vitro model, the expressions of these TGF-? signaling pathway were similarly regulated by NP or BPA in a xenograft mouse model. These results support the fact that the existence of an unproven relationship between EDCs/ER-? and TGF-? signaling pathway and a further study are required in order to verify more profound and distinct mechanism(s) for the disturbance of the TGF-? signaling pathway by diverse EDCs.
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Fabrication of nanostructured copper indium diselenide (CIS) thin films by electrohydrodynamic atomization technique.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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In this article, we report a non-vacuum electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique for deposition of CulnSe2 (CIS) thin films. The CIS ink has been prepared with three different concentrations (7.5 wt.%, 12.5 wt.% and 15 wt.%) by using suitable solvent mixture (ethanol:terpineol as 1:1 molar ratio) with surfactant to achieve a stable dispersions. The important physical parameters for achieving homogeneous with non-agglomerated CIS layers through EHDA technique are investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the crystalline structure of CIS layers oriented in the chalcopyrite phase. The film uniformity has been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Different thickness of CIS layers has been achieved by varying the concentration of CIS particles in the precursor ink solution. The optical properties of CIS layers show the two optical band gaps in UV-visible and near infra-red (NIR) region with band gap of about 2.67-2.49 eV and 1.34-1.29 eV respectively. The energy band gap of CIS thin films have been decreased with the increase of film thickness. The X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed presence of binding energy corresponding to CulnSe2. The electrical study observed the sheet resistivity 76-33 Omega cm with respect to film thickness.
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p53 regulates the transcription of the anti-inflammatory molecule developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1).
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endothelium-derived anti-inflammatory molecule that is downregulated by inflammatory stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Del-1 transcription is regulated. In the present study, a DNA sequence upstream of the Del-1 gene was analyzed and putative p53 response elements (p53REs) were identified. An approximately 2 kb fragment upstream of the translation start site displayed the highest Del-1 transcriptional activity, and the transcriptional activity of this fragment was enhanced by overexpression of p53. Chemical activation of endogenous p53 elevated the levels of Del-1 mRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis of CATG in the consensus sequences of the 2 kb fragment to TATA significantly reduced the transcription of Del-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed recruitment of p53 to the p53REs of the Del-1 promoter, resulting in increased Del-1 transcription. Finally, primary endothelial cells isolated from mice with reduced levels of p53 showed a decrease in Del-1 mRNA compared to wild-type endothelial cells. Moreover, Del-1 reciprocally enhanced p53 expression in primary endothelial cells. Thus, these findings suggest that Del-1 is a novel transcriptional target gene of p53.
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Optimization of experimental parameters to determine the jetting regimes in electrohydrodynamic printing.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The harmony of ink and printing method is of importance in producing on-demand droplets and jets of ink. Many factors including the material properties, the processing conditions, and the nozzle geometry affect the printing quality. In electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing where droplets or jets are generated by the electrostatic force, the physical as well as the electrical properties of the fluid should be taken into account to achieve the desired performance. In this study, a systematic approach was suggested for finding the processing windows of the EHD printing. Six dimensionless parameters were organized and applied to the printing system of ethanol/terpineol mixtures. On the basis of the correlation of the dimensionless voltage and the charge relaxation length, the jet diameter of cone-jet mode was characterized, and the semicone angle was compared with the theoretical Taylor angle. In addition, the ratio of electric normal force and electric tangential force on the charged surface of the Taylor cone was recommended as a parameter that determines the degree of cone-jet stability. The cone-jet became more stable as this ratio got smaller. This approach was a systematic and effective way of obtaining the Taylor cone of the cone-jet mode and evaluating the jetting stability. The control of the inks with optimized experimental parameters by this method will improve the jetting performance in EHD inkjet printing.
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Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: data from a national community health survey.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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This study investigated factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening using data from a nationwide community survey. A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 253 administrative districts of Korea. The breast and cervical cancer screening rate was negatively associated with the obesity (? = -2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.73 to -1.03; ? = -1.93, 95% CI = -3.43 to -0.43), positively associated with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale (? =2.53, 95% CI = 0.24 to 4.81; ? = 2.51, 95% CI = 0.68 to 4.34). Moreover, higher alcohol consumption rate was negatively related to screening rates for breast cancer, while areas with higher proportion of diabetes were found to have higher screening rates. Area with higher rate of osteoarthritis had a lower screening rate for cervical cancer. This study showed breast and cervical cancer screening was associated with particular area characteristics. This ecological approach is thought to be a major complement to measures of health attributes.
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Prevalence of and factors associated with osteoporosis among Korean cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Identifying and managing osteoporosis among cancer survivors is an important issue, yet little is known about the bone health of cancer survivors in Korea. This study was designed to measure the prevalence of osteoporosis and to assess related factors among Korean cancer survivors.
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Neobavaisoflavone sensitizes apoptosis via the inhibition of metastasis in TRAIL-resistant human glioma U373MG cells.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Neobavaisoflavone (NBIF), an isoflavone isolated from Psoralea corylifolia (Leguminosae), has striking anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. NBIF inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
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Sox4-mediated caldesmon expression facilitates differentiation of skeletal myoblasts.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Caldesmon (CaD), which was originally identified as an actin-regulatory protein, is involved in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling processes, including cell migration and proliferation, in various cells. The cellular function of CaD has been studied primarily in the smooth muscle system; nothing is known about its function in skeletal muscle differentiation. In this study, we found that the expression of CaD gradually increased as differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts progressed. Silencing of CaD inhibited cell spreading and migration, resulting in a decrease in myoblast differentiation. Promoter analysis of the caldesmon gene (Cald1) and gel mobility shift assays identified Sox4 as a major trans-acting factor for the regulation of Cald1 expression during myoblast differentiation. Silencing of Sox4 decreased not only CaD protein synthesis but also myoblast fusion in C2C12 cells and myofibril formation in mouse embryonic muscle. Overexpression of CaD in Sox4-silenced C2C12 cells rescued the differentiation process. These results clearly demonstrate that CaD, regulated by Sox4 transcriptional activity, contributes to skeletal muscle differentiation.
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Social network characteristics and HIV risk among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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To examine how social networks influence HIV risk among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether the associations of social network characteristics with risk vary by race/ethnicity.
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Uwhangchungsimwon, a traditional herbal medicine, protects brain against oxidative injury via modulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response in a chronic restraint mice model.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Uwhangchungsimwon (UCW) is a representative traditional herbal medicine for central nervous system disorders in East Asia countries over thousand years. To evaluate the pharmacological effects of UCW against oxidative brain injury in a chronic restraint stress mice model.
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Selective antitumor effect of neural stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-beta against ductal breast cancer cells in cellular and xenograft models.
Stem Cell Res
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Due to their inherent tumor-tropic properties, genetically engineered stem cells may be advantageous for gene therapy treatment of various human cancers, including brain, liver, ovarian, and prostate malignancies. In this study, we employed human neural stem cells (HB1.F3; hNSCs) transduced with genes expressing Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (HB1.F3.CD) and human interferon-beta (HB1.F3.CD.IFN-?) as a treatment strategy for ductal breast cancer. CD can convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to its active chemotherapeutic form, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which induces a tumor-killing effect through DNA synthesis inhibition. IFN-? also strongly inhibits tumor growth by the apoptotic process. RT-PCR confirmed that HB1.F3.CD cells expressed CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells expressed both CD and IFN-?. A modified transwell migration assay showed that HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells selectively migrated toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. In hNSC-breast cancer co-cultures the viability of breast cancer cells which were significantly reduced by HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells in the presence of 5-FC. The tumor inhibitory effect was greater with the HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells, indicating an additional effect of IFN-? to 5-FU. In addition, the tumor-tropic properties of these hNSCs were found to be attributed to chemoattractant molecules secreted by breast cancer cells, including stem cell factor (SCF), c-kit, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor 2. An in vivo assay performed using MDA-MB-231/luc breast cancer mammary fat pad xenografts in immunodeficient mice resulted in 50% reduced tumor growth and increased long-term survival in HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? plus 5-FC treated mice relative to controls. Our results suggest that hNSCs genetically modified to express CD and/or IFN-? genes can be used as a novel targeted cancer gene therapy.
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Effects of octylphenol on the expression of cell cycle-related genes and the growth of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is defined as blood that exists in the placenta and in the attached umbilical cord following childbirth. Cord blood is now used for research purposes as it contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent stromal cells which have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Among endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), octylphenol (OP) is one of the alkylphenols, which are widely used industrial chemicals; these chemicals cause a number of serious side-effects, such as reproductive abnormalities. In this study, we isolated human MSCs from UCB and demonstrate that cultured MSCs express the surface marker, CD34, but not CD105. We further examined the effects of OP on human UCB-derived MSCs following exposure to OP by cell proliferation assay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results revealed that the transcriptional and translational levels of cyclin D1 were increased, while the levels of p21 were suppressed in the MSCs treated with OP compared with the negative controls. This collapse of the regulation of the cell cycle may directly stimulate the growth of the MSCs under culture conditions. The results from the present study provide further insight into the effects of common EDCs on MSCs derived from human UCB. However, further studies are required to identify the signaling pathways which mediate the effects of EDCs on MSCs.
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Structural and electrical properties of Ag grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) coatings for diode application through advanced printing technology.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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This paper is focused on printed techniques for the fabrication of hybrid structure of silver (Ag) grid/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) as a flexible substrate. Ag grid has been printed on PET substrate by using gravure offset printing process, followed by PEDOT:PSS thin film deposition on Ag grid through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The important parameters for achieving uniform hybrid structure of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS through printed techniques have been clearly discussed. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies revealed the uniformity of printed Ag grid with homogeneous deposition of PEDOT:PSS on Ag grid. The optical properties of Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS were measured by UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed nearly 80-82% of transparency in the visible region and it was nearly same as PEDOT:PSS thin film on PET substrate. Current-voltage (I-V) analysis of fabricated hybrid device by using printed Ag grid/PEDOT:PSS as a bottom electrode showed good rectifying behavior with possible interfacial mechanisms. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis was carried over different frequencies. These results suggest that fabrication of hybrid structure through printed techniques will play a significant role in mass production of printed electronic devices for commercial application by using flexible substrate.
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Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment.
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Biomechanical comparison of anterior lumbar interbody fusion: stand-alone interbody cage versus interbody cage with pedicle screw fixation -- a finite element analysis.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) followed by pedicle screw fixation (PSF) is used to restore the height of the intervertebral disc and provide stability. Recently, stand-alone interbody cage with anterior fixation has been introduced, which eliminates the need for posterior surgery. We compared the biomechanics of the stand-alone interbody cage to that of the interbody cage with additional PSF in ALIF.
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The herbal formula CGX ameliorates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in alcoholic liver fibrosis.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The Chunggan extract (CGX) is a traditional herbal formula prescribed for patients suffering from various liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease, in which the mechanism of CGX action remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the anti-hepatic fibrosis effects of CGX and its underlying mechanisms in alcohol-induced rat livers.
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Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 ?-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor ? and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ER? and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.
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Development and application of neural stem cells for treating various human neurological diseases in animal models.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Stem cells derived from adult tissues or the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the mammalian blastocyst (BL) stage are capable of self-renewal and have remarkable potential for undergoing lineage-specific differentiation under in vitro culturing conditions. In particular, neural stem cells (NSCs) that self-renew and differentiate into major cell types of the brain exist in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). The exact function and distribution of NSCs has been assessed, and they represent an interesting population that includes astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Many researchers have demonstrated functional recovery in animal models of various neurological diseases such as stroke, Parkinsons disease (PD), brain tumors, and metastatic tumors. The safety and efficacy of stem cell-based therapies (SCTs) are also being evaluated in humans. The therapeutic efficacy of NSCs has been shown in the brain disorder-induced animal models, and animal models may be well established to perform the test before clinical stage. Taken together, data from the literature have indicated that therapeutic NSCs may be useful for selectively treating diverse types of human brain diseases without incurring adverse effects.
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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in korean cancer survivors.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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This study was designed to evaluate prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among cancer survivors compared to non-cancer controls from a population-based sample and to identify associated risk factors.
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PKA negatively regulates PP2C? to activate NF-?B-mediated inflammatory signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Protein phosphatase 2C? (PP2C?) was found to act as a negative regulator of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory signaling; however, its regulatory mechanism has not been examined. Here, we show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates the PP2C?, which was inhibited by PKA-specific inhibitor, H89. Mutation analysis of serine residues in PP2C? revealed that Ser-195 in PP2C? is phosphorylated by PKA. Importantly, PKA inhibition by H89 abrogated the Forskolin-induced destabilization of PP2C? against ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation pathway. Furthermore, H89 treatment efficiently reversed the negative effect of Forskolin on the anti-inflammatory function of PP2C?. Collectively, these data suggest that PKA destabilizes PP2C? upon inflammatory stimuli via phosphorylation of Ser-195 in PP2C?.
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CK2-NCoR signaling cascade promotes prostate tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The aberrant expressions of casein kinase 2 (CK2) was found in prostate cancer patient and cell lines, but little is known of the detailed mechanisms implicated in prostate tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that both CK2 activity and CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation are significantly elevated in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 and PC-3 compared with RWPE1 and LNCaP cells. Increased phosphorylation inversely correlates with the mRNA level of the NCoR-regulated gene, interferon-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). CK2 inhibition abrogated NCoR phosphorylation, IP-10 transcriptional repression, and the invasion activity of PC-3 cells. Inhibition of the CK2-NCoR network significantly reduced in vivo PC-3 cell tumorigenicity, likely due to transcriptional derepression of IP-10. Clinicopathological analyses revealed that increased CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation significantly correlates with poor survival among prostate cancer patients. These findings elucidate a CK2-modulated oncogenic cascade in prostate tumorigenesis.
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Anticancer effects of the engineered stem cells transduced with therapeutic genes via a selective tumor tropism caused by vascular endothelial growth factor toward HeLa cervical cancer cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and/or human interferon-beta (IFN-?) gene against HeLa cervical cancer and the migration factors of the GESTECs toward the cancer cells. Anticancer effect of GESTECs was examined in a co-culture with HeLa cells using MTT assay to measure cell viability. A transwell migration assay was performed so as to assess the migration capability of the stem cells to cervical cancer cells. Next, several chemoattractant ligands and their receptors related to a selective migration of the stem cells toward HeLa cells were determined by real-time PCR. The cell viability of HeLa cells was decreased in response to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a prodrug, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic metabolite, was converted from 5-FC by CD gene and it caused the cell death in a co-culture system. When IFN-? was additionally expressed with CD gene by these GESTECs, the anticancer activity was significantly increased. In the migration assay, the GESTECs selectively migrated to HeLa cervical cancer cells. As results of real-time PCR, chemoattractant ligands such as MCP-1, SCF, and VEGF were expressed in HeLa cells, and several receptors such as uPAR, VEGFR2, and c-kit were produced by the GESTECs. These GESTECs transduced with CD gene and IFN-? may provide a potential of a novel gene therapy for anticervical cancer treatments via their selective tumor tropism derived from VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions between HeLa cells and the GESTECs.
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Dimensions of racism and their impact on partner selection among men of colour who have sex with men: understanding pathways to sexual risk.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men of colour who have sex with men, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk.
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Improvement of cognitive function and physical activity of aging mice by human neural stem cells over-expressing choline acetyltransferase.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Aging is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive and memory functions as well as decrease in physical activities. In the present study, a human neural stem cell line (F3 NSC) over-expressing choline acetyltransferase (F3.ChAT), an enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis, was generated and transplanted in the brain of 18-month-old male ICR mice. Four weeks post-transplantation, neurobehavioral functions, expression of ChAT enzyme, production of acetylcholine and neurotrophic factors, and expression of cholinergic nervous system markers in transplanted animals were investigated. F3.ChAT NSCs markedly improved both the cognitive function and physical activity of aging animals, in parallel with the elevation of brain acetylcholine level. Transplanted F3 and F3.ChAT cells were found to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes, and to produce ChAT proteins. Transplantation of the stem cells increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), enhanced expression of Trk B, and restored host microtubule-associated protein 2 and cholinergic nervous system. The results demonstrate that human NSCs over-expressing ChAT improve cognitive function and physical activity of aging mice, not only by producing ACh directly but also by restoring cholinergic neuronal integrity, which might be mediated by neurotrophins BDNF and NGF.
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Detection of Rickettsia monacensis from Ixodes nipponensis collected from rodents in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea.
Exp. Appl. Acarol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A total of 1,305 ticks were collected from wild rodents captured monthly, except July and August, during 2008 at three US-ROK operated military training sites and three US military installations in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Ixodes nipponensis was the most frequently collected tick (n = 1,299, 99.5 %), followed by Ixodes pomerantzevi (n = 6, 0.5 %). The ticks were pooled (1-15/sample) and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae with primer sets targeting the outer membrane protein B (ompB), citrate synthase (gltA), and 17-kDa antigen gene loci. A total of 115/197 (58.4 %) pools were positive by nPCR for the outer membrane protein ompB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 105/115 (91.3 %) ompB targeted nPCR positive products showed a high degree of similarity to Rickettsia monacensis (99.3-100 %, n = 87) and R. japonica (99.5-100 %, n = 18). From the 87 positive samples demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis, 15 were selected and analyzed by nPCR for gltA and the 17-kDa genes. A total of 12/15 pooled samples were positive for by nPCR for gltA, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.3-99.7 %). A total of 13/15 pooled samples were positive by nPCR for the 17-kDa gene, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.4-100 %). These findings demonstrate that R. monacensis is distributed throughout Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces in the ROK. Furthermore, data suggest a relative high prevalence of R. monacensis in the tick, I. nipponensis.
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Myelophil attenuates brain oxidative damage by modulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in a chronic cold-stress mouse model.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Myelophil is composed of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, according to the long traditional pharmacological practices, and it has been used for patients with chronic fatigue-associated symptoms including concentration problem or memory loss.
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Hepatoprotective effect of Amomum xanthoides against dimethylnitrosamine-induced sub-chronic liver injury in a rat model.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Amomum xanthioides Wall. ex Baker (Zingiberaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant that is commonly utilized in the treatment of digestive system disorders in Asia for a long time.
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Spotted fever group rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia monacensis isolated from ticks in South Jeolla province, Korea.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Rickettsia monacensis, a spotted fever group rickettsia, was isolated from Ixodes nipponensis ticks collected from live-captured small mammals in South Jeolla province, Korea in 2006. Homogenates of tick tissues were inoculated into L929 and Vero cell monolayers using shell vial assays. After several passages, Giemsa staining revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the inoculated Vero cells, but not the L929 cells. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ompA-small part (25-614?bp region), ompA-large part (2849-4455?bp region), nearly full-length ompB (58-4889?bp region) and gltA (196-1236?bp region) of the isolates had similarities of 100%, 99.8%, 99.3% and 99.5%, respectively, to those of R. monacensis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was grouped into the cluster in the same way as R. monacensis in the trees of all genes examined. These results strongly suggest that the isolate is closely related to R. monacensis. As far as is known, this is the first report of isolation of R. monacensis from ticks in Korea.
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Aqueous extract of Artemisia capillaris exerts hepatoprotective action in alcohol-pyrazole-fed rat model.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Artemisia capillaris, also called "InJin" in Korean, has been widely used to treat various hepatic disorders in traditional Oriental medicine.
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Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity.
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Bone formation of middle ear cavity using biphasic calcium phosphate lyophilized with Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 using animal model.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The aim of the study was to analyze the value of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) coated biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) for the obliteration of middle ear bone defect after mastoid surgery.
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Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets.
Korean J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets.
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Intraoperative discography for detecting concealed lumbar discal cysts.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Lumbar discal cyst is a rare cause of radiculopathy. Their exact pathogenesis and the optimal treatment modality remain unidentified. Depending on their location, discal cysts cannot always be easily identified intraoperatively. We describe 2 patients with discal cysts and introduce an intraoperative discography technique for discal cyst location. Both patients were treated with surgical excision; with intraoperative discography, the cystic lesions could easily be detected and removed.
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Pancreatic tumor mass in a xenograft mouse model is decreased by treatment with therapeutic stem cells following introduction of therapeutic genes.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality. In the present study, we employed 2 types of therapeutic stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase (CD) with or without human interferon-? (IFN??), HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-? cells, respectively, to selectively treat pancreatic cancer. The CD gene converts the non-toxic prodrug, 5-flurorocytosine (5-FC), into the toxic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, human IFN-? is a potent cytokine that has antitumor effects. To generate a xenograft mouse model, PANC-1 cells (2x10(6)/mouse) cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS were mixed with Matrigel and were subcutaneously injected into Balb/c nu/nu mice. In the migration assay, the stem cells expressing the CD or IFN-? gene effectively migrated toward the pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting the presence of chemoattractant factors secreted by the pancreatic tumors. In the co-culture and MTT assay, antitumor activity of the therapeutic stem cells was observed in the presence of 5-FC was shown that the growth of PANC-1 cells was inhibited. Furthermore, these effects were confirmed in the xenograft mouse model bearing tumors originating from PANC-1 cells. Analyses by histological and fluorescence microscopy showed that treatment with the stem cells resulted in the inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth in the presence of 5-FC. Taken together, these results indicate that stem cells expressing the CD and/or IFN-? gene can be used to effectively treat pancreatic cancer and reduce the side-effects associated with conventional therapies.
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Clinical implications for graft function of a new equation model for the ratio of living donor kidney volume to recipient body surface area.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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We propose an equation that predicts graft function after kidney transplantation by using donated kidney volume and recipient body surface area (BSA).
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Simplified zero ischemia in robot assisted partial nephrectomy: initial yonsei experience.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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To evaluate the safety and feasibility of a simplified zero ischemia technique using kidney donor computed tomographic (CT) angiography and conventional laparoscopic bulldog clamps.
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Do People Have Healthier Lifestyles in Greener Environments? An Analysis of the Association between Green Environments and Physical Activity in Seven Large Korean Cities.
Korean J Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Recent studies suggest that neighborhood environments influence levels of health and disease in individuals. Evidence suggests that green environments have positive effects on physical and psychological health. In this study, we examined the association between public park per person (PPP) and physical activity in 7 large Korean cities with a population of over 1 million.
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Resveratrol regulates the cell viability promoted by 17?-estradiol or bisphenol A via down-regulation of the cross-talk between estrogen receptor ? and insulin growth factor-1 receptor in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and estrogens appear to promote development of estrogen-dependent cancers, including breast and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, we evaluated the cell viability effect of BPA on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells, along with the growth inhibitory effect of resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), a naturally occurring phytoestrogen. In addition, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of BPA and RES in regulating the interaction between estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signals, a non- genomic pathway induced by 17?-estradiol (E2). BPA induced a significant increase in BG-1 cell growth and up-regulated mRNA levels of ER? and IGF-1R. In parallel with its mRNA level, the protein expression of ER? was induced, and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (p-IRS-1), phosphorylated Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 were increased by BPA or E2. However, RES effectively reversed the BG-1 cell proliferation induced by E2 or BPA by inversely down-regulating the expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt1/2/3, and cyclin D1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, these results suggest that RES is a novel candidate for prevention of tumor progression caused by EDCs, including BPA via effective inhibition of the cross-talk of ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.