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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Real-time continuous-wave terahertz line scanner based on a compact 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate real-time continuous-wave terahertz (THz) line-scanned imaging based on a 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with a scan velocity of 25 cm/s, a scan line length of 12 cm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. Foreign substances, such as a paper clip with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm that is hidden under a cracker, are clearly detected by this THz line-scanning system. The system consists of the SBD array detector, a 200-GHz gyrotron source, a conveyor system, and several optical components such as a high-density polyethylene cylindrical lens, metal cylindrical mirror, and THz wire-grid polarizer. Using the THz polarizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the SBD array detector improves because the quality of the source beam is enhanced.
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Posterior Precortical Vitreous Pocket in Children.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the profile of posterior precortical vitreous pocket (PPVP) in children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare the profile with that of adults. Materials and methods: In this retrospective comparative study, the height at the fovea and the horizontal diameter of PPVP in healthy children and adults in the upright position were measured based on OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) images. PPVP diameter was divided into nasal length and temporal length based on the center of the fovea. The proportion of temporal length to the entire horizontal diameter was calculated as temporal length/horizontal diameter of PPVP. The association of age with the height and the proportion of temporal length to the entire horizontal diameter were evaluated in each group. The two values were also compared between the two groups. Results: Sixty-three eyes of 63 children (mean age: 6.9?±?1.8 years) and 44 eyes of 44 young adults (mean age: 32.1?±?5.3 years) were included. The height of PPVP at the fovea was 355.3?±?80.3?µm in children and 367.8?±?75.6?µm in adults. The proportion of temporal length to the entire horizontal diameter was 0.45?±?0.05 and 0.50?±?0.03. The proportion was significantly greater in adults than in children (p?
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Disulfiram modulates stemness and metabolism of brain tumor initiating cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are among the most malignant pediatric brain tumors. Cells from brain tumors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have a number of characteristics that are similar to brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ALDH inhibition using disulfiram (DSF) against BTICs from AT/RT.
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Oligomerization of FtsZ converts the FtsZ tail motif (CCTP) into a multivalent ligand with high avidity for partners ZipA and SlmA.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A short conserved motif located at the carboxy terminus of FtsZ, referred to here as the CCTP (conserved C-terminal peptide), is required for the interaction of FtsZ with many of its partners. In E. coli interaction of FtsZ with its membrane anchors, ZipA and FtsA, as well as the spatial regulators of Z-ring formation, MinC and SlmA, requires the CCTP. ZipA interacts with FtsZ with high affinity and interacts with the CCTP with low affinity, but the reason for this difference is not clear. In this study we show that this difference is due to the oligomerization of FtsZ converting the CCTP to a multivalent ligand that binds multiple ZipAs bound to a surface with high avidity. Artificial dimerization of the CCTP is sufficient to increase the affinity for ZipA in vitro. Similar principles apply to the interaction of FtsZ with SlmA. Although done in vitro these results have implications for the recruitment of FtsZ to the membrane in vivo, the interaction of FtsZ with spatial regulators and the reconstitution of FtsZ systems in vitro.
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Intake levels of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids modify the association between the genetic variation in PCSK5 and HDL cholesterol.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A low serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5) modulates HDL-C metabolism through the inactivation of endothelial lipase activity.
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Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Korean Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A CREDOS Study.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Background & Objective: Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, onset age <65 years) may differ from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in terms of cognitive profiles and neuropsychiatric symptoms. There have been few studies for Korean EOAD patients using well-structured databases. Previous studies focusing on cognitive profiles between the two groups had a variety of demographic data and comparability. The purpose of this study was to identify the unique profiles of cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Korean EOAD patients that differentiate from LOAD. Methods: Through propensity score matching, a total of 435 patients with EOAD and a total of 435 patients with LOAD were included in this nationwide, multicenter, hospital-based study. Each patient underwent comprehensive neurological examination, interview for caregiver, neuropsychological tests, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Neuropsychological test results showed worse performances on frontal/executive functions, visuospatial function, and visual memory in EOAD patients as compared to LOAD patients. In terms of neuropsychiatric symptoms, apathy was more common in EOAD patients, while delusions were more prevalent in LOAD patients. The differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms between the two groups were most pronounced in patients with the APOE ?4 allele, suggesting that neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD may be influenced by the APOE genotype. Conclusion: Our results suggested that EOAD may be an important phenotype, fronto-parietal dysfunction, in the spectrum of AD, and this finding can provide for early diagnosis of EOAD patients.
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[Current issues on the treatment of chronic constipation].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Chronic constipation is a very common clinical problem with its prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. It is not a life-threatening disease, but since patient's satisfaction to the treatment is known to be as low as 50%, chronic constipation still remains a clinically challenging problem. Fortunately, many new treatments have been introduced or are to be introduced in the near future. This article will review the basic concepts and the results of recent studies on the new treatments for chronic constipation.
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Clinical outcome of pediatric choroid plexus tumors: retrospective analysis from a single institute.
Childs Nerv Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Choroid plexus tumor is a rare brain tumor with variable clinical features according to the histological grade. We reviewed the treatment outcome of 23 children, focusing on the biological behavior of the atypical choroid plexus papilloma (ACPP) and the current therapeutic strategy in choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC).
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Pediatric supratentorial high-grade glioma: multicenter retrospective observational study of the Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We analyzed the prognostic factors of Korean pediatric patients with supratentorial high-grade glioma (HGG). Between 1997 and 2011, 62 patients with 34 glioblastomas and 28 anaplastic gliomas were surgically operated at nine institutions. The male-to-female ratio was 33 to 29 and the median age was 12 years (range 1-18). The prognostic significance of tumor location, extent of removal, pathologic grade, treatment method, and pattern of recurrence was analyzed. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.3 (±0.8) and 17.8 (±1.9) months, respectively. Glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma showed OSs of 15.9 (±1.3) and 19.6 (±2.4) months, respectively. Based on the univariate analysis, gross total removal (GTR) and initial combined chemoradiotherapy improved PFS (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003) and OS (p = 0.030 and p = 0.013), respectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination showed poor OS (p = 0.001). Based on the multivariate analysis, GTR and initial combined chemoradiotherapy resulted in an improved PFS [(hazard ratio 0.360; 95 % CI 0.177-0.733; p = 0.005) and (hazard ratio 0.458; 95 % CI 0.230-0.911; p = 0.026), respectively]. GTR, initial combined chemoradiotherapy, and no CSF seeding resulted in an improved OS [(hazard ratio 0.417; 95 % CI 0.201-0.861; p = 0.018), (hazard ratio 0.406; 95 % CI 0.206-0.800; p = 0.009), and (hazard ratio 0.288; 95 % CI 0.148-0.563; p = 0.000), respectively]. No significant difference in PFS and OS was observed between glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma. CSF dissemination was observed in 22 patients (35.5 %) during total follow-up. Pediatric anaplastic glioma showed poor survival, similarly to glioblastoma. GTR and initial combined chemoradiotherapy were associated with improved survival.
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A randomised clinical trial of 10-day concomitant therapy and standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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As a result of increased resistance to antibiotics, Helicobacter pylori eradication rates using standard triple therapy have been declining.
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Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory bone resorption by targeting BET proteins and epigenetic regulation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Emerging evidence suggests that RANKL-induced changes in chromatin state are important for osteoclastogenesis, but these epigenetic mechanisms are not well understood and have not been therapeutically targeted. In this study, we find that the small molecule I-BET151 that targets bromo and extra-terminal (BET) proteins that 'read' chromatin states by binding to acetylated histones strongly suppresses osteoclastogenesis. I-BET151 suppresses pathologic bone loss in TNF-induced inflammatory osteolysis, inflammatory arthritis and post-ovariectomy models. Transcriptome analysis identifies a MYC-NFAT axis important for osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, I-BET151 inhibits expression of the master osteoclast regulator NFATC1 by suppressing expression and recruitment of its newly identified upstream regulator MYC. MYC is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis macrophages and its induction by RANKL is important for osteoclastogenesis and TNF-induced bone resorption. These findings highlight the importance of an I-BET151-inhibited MYC-NFAT axis in osteoclastogenesis, and suggest targeting epigenetic chromatin regulators holds promise for treatment of inflammatory and oestrogen deficiency-mediated pathologic bone resorption.
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Evaluation and management of caustic injuries from ingestion of Acid or alkaline substances.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Although the numbers have decreased compared with in the past, cases of patients who ingest caustic substances and visit the emergency room are not rare. However, well-summarized data about caustic injuries are insufficient. Therefore, in this article, I will discuss the etiologic causative agents, injury mechanism, and clinical characteristics, as well as the endoscopic evaluation of the degree of injury and proper management of the patient, in gastrointestinal caustic injury.
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Clinical outcome of relapsed or refractory burkitt lymphoma and mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Despite the rapid improvement in survival rate from Burkitt lymphoma and mature B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in children, a small subset of patients do not respond to first-line chemotherapy or experience relapse (RL). Herein, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients.
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Associations between estimated desaturase activity and insulin resistance in korean boys.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Obesity in childhood increases the risk of obesity in adulthood, and is predictive of the development of metabolic disorders. The fatty acid compositions of various tissues, including blood, are associated with obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Thus, tracking plasma phospholipid (PL) features and metabolic parameters in young individuals may strengthen the utility of fatty acid composition as an early biomarker of future metabolic disorders.
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Development of a Web-based, self-reporting symptom diary for Crohn's Disease, and its correlation with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index: Web-based, self-reporting symptom diary for Crohn's Disease.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) is complex, time-consuming, and impractical. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a newly developed, simple, web-based self-reporting Crohn's Disease symptom diary (CDSD) was as effective as CDAI in assessing disease severity.
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Favorable outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a targeted once-daily IV busulfan fludarabine etoposide regimen in pediatric and infant ALL patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Conditioning regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) usually include total body irradiation (TBI), but TBI may result in serious sequelae. Busulfan and cyclophosphamide have been used as an alternative to TBI. Etoposide also has been widely used to enhance anti-leukemic effect. But toxicities have been reported in some studies using busulfan, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (BuCyVP) regimen. Recently, a reduced toxicity myeloablative regimen using busulfan and fludarabine showed promising results. Also, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and administration of targeted dose of busulfan has been recommended to improve the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we evaluated the outcome of HSCT using a targeted once-daily intravenous (IV) busulfan fludarabine etoposide (BuFluVP) regimen in pediatric and infant ALL. Busulfan (? 1 year-120 mg/m(2) and < 1 year-80 mg/m(2)) was administered once daily as the first dose on day -8, and targeted dose of busulfan was used according to the TDM results on day -7 ? -5. A total of 44 patients were evaluated. Donor-type neutrophil engraftment was achieved in all patients. Veno-occlusive disease occurred in 7 (15.9%) patients, but all of them were successfully treated. Cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality and relapse were 9.1% and 9.9%. One-year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) of all patients were 86.2% and 83.8%, respectively. Twelve patients (27.3%) were infants at diagnosis, and 1-year OS of these patients was 83.3%. Our study demonstrated that HSCT using a targeted once-daily IV BuFluVP regimen showed favorable outcome and could be one option for HSCT in pediatric and infant ALL.
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Relationship between Serum Levels of Body Iron Parameters and Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Children.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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An increase in serum ferritin and levels of the cleaved soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR) are related to several metabolic conditions. We evaluated the relationship between body iron status indicators, including ferritin and sTfR, and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean children.
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Clinical Outcomes of the Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Early Gastric Cancer Are Comparable between Absolute and New Expanded Criteria.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) techniques have led to the development of expanded criteria for endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes for ESD using indication criteria.
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Non-curative endoscopic resection does not always lead to grave outcomes in submucosal invasive early gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely performed for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of ESD in submucosal invasive gastric cancers (SM-GC), with a special focus on patients who underwent non-curative resection.
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Treatment outcome of osteosarcoma after bilateral retinoblastoma: a retrospective study of eight cases.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To analyse clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma that developed in survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma.
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Effect of Rivastigmine or Memantine Add-on Therapy Is Affected by Butyrylcholinesterase Genotype in Patients with Probable Alzheimer's Disease.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Background: The K variant of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE-K) exhibits a reduced acetylcholine-hydrolyzing capacity; so the clinical response to rivastigmine may differ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with the BCHE-K gene. Objective: To investigate the clinical response to rivastigmine transdermal patch monotherapy or memantine plus rivastigmine transdermal patch therapy in AD patients based on the BCHE-K gene. Methods: A total of 146 probable AD patients consented to genetic testing for butyrylcholinesterase and underwent the final efficacy evaluations. Responders were defined as patients with an equal or better score on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) at 16 weeks compared to their baseline score. Results: BCHE-K carriers showed a lower responder rate on the ADAS-cog than non-carriers (38.2 vs. 61.7%, p = 0.02), and this trend was evident in AD patients with apolipoprotein E ? 4 (35 vs. 60.7%, p = 0.001). The presence of the BCHE-K allele predicted a worse response on the ADAS-cog (odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.87), after adjusting for demographic and baseline cognitive and functional variables. Conclusion: The BCHE-K genotype may be related to a poor cognitive response to rivastigmine patch or memantine add-on therapy, especially in the presence of apolipoprotein E ? 4. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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An optical coherence tomography-based analysis of choroidal morphologic features and choroidal vascular diameter in children and adults.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To analyze choroidal sub-layers and vascular diameter in children, and to compare these choroidal features with those of adults.
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Endoscopic experience improves interobserver agreement in the grading of esophagitis by Los Angeles classification: conventional endoscopy and optimal band image system.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Interobserver variation by experience was documented for the diagnosis of esophagitis using the Los Angeles classification. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interobserver agreement can be improved by higher levels of endoscopic experience in the diagnosis of erosive esophagitis.
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Continuous-wave terahertz system based on a dual-mode laser for real-time non-contact measurement of thickness and conductivity.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Terahertz (THz) waves have been exploited for the non-contact measurements of thickness and refractive index, which has enormous industrial applicability. In this work, we demonstrate a 1.3-?m dual-mode laser (DML)-based continuous-wave THz system for the real-time measurement of a commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass. The system is compact, cost-effective, and capable of performing broadband measurement within a second at the setting resolution of 1 GHz. The thickness of the glass and the sheet conductivity of the ITO film were successfully measured, and the measurements agree well with those of broadband pulse-based time domain spectroscopy and Hall measurement results.
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Inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic classification of colorectal laterally spreading tumors: a multicenter study between experts and trainees.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The risk of cancer varies with the subtype of colorectal "laterally spreading tumors" (LSTs). However, visual interpretations vary among endoscopists. The aim of this study was to evaluate inter-observer agreement and accuracy in the endoscopic classification of LST subtypes among experts and trainees.
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Early life adversity is associated with elevated levels of circulating leptin, irisin, and decreased levels of adiponectin in midlife adults.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Early-life adversity, defined as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and neglect before 18 years of age, is associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult life. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood, and whether adipomyokines are associated with early-life adversity independent of other factors such as body mass index, psychosocial risks, and health behaviors is not known.
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Multiple Hypointense Vessels on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Surrogate Marker of Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Penumbra?
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Background: Multiple hypointense vessels (MHV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) are frequently observed in patients with acute cerebral ischemia, but their implication has not been clearly established. To elucidate the clinical significance of MHV on SWI, we investigated the association of MHV on SWI with clinical data and other MR markers in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We enrolled acute stroke patients with internal carotid or proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion who underwent MRI including SWI within 3 days from stroke onset. Baseline clinical data were reviewed. Stroke severity was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We graded the degree of MHV on SWI as four groups of none, subtle, relative, or extensive by the modified Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scan (ASPECTS) system. To evaluate the degree of collateral flow, distal hyperintense vessels (DHV) on FLAIR and vessels on post-contrast time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) source images were graded respectively as 3 groups: none/subtle/prominent and poor/moderate/good. Diffusion and perfusion lesion volume and diffusion-perfusion mismatch (DPM) ratio were measured in all patients. We analyzed the association of the degree of MHV on SWI with clinical data and MR markers. Results: Eighty patients were included in the study. The mean MR time from stroke onset was 12.4 h (range 0.5-63.0). There is no difference in MR time from stroke onset between groups of MHV on SWI. MHV were observed in 68 (85%) of 80 patients: none in 12, subtle in 11, relative in 13, and extensive in 44. There were no statistically significant associations between MHV on SWI and vascular risk factors. Patients with more extensive MHV on SWI had a smaller diffusion volume (p < 0.001), larger DPM (p < 0.001), and lower initial NIHSS scores (p = 0.022). Prominent DHV was presented in 29 of 44 patients with extensive MHV (p < 0.001). Good collateral flow on TOF MRA source images was presented in 37 of 44 patients with extensive MHV (p < 0.001). Conclusions: More extensive MHV on SWI in acute ischemic stroke is associated with lower initial NIHSS scores, smaller diffusion lesion volume, better collateral flow, and larger DPM. Our results show the possibility that MHV on SWI may be a useful surrogate marker for predicting increased oxygen extraction fraction and diffusion-perfusion mismatch in acute ischemic hemisphere. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Shifting prevalence of gallbladder polyps in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future.
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Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow (Gardenia jasminoides) and cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia or cochineal) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0.48%, which was enhanced compared to single-dye adsorption. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.
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Reproducibility of horizontal extraocular muscle insertion distance in anterior segment optical coherence tomography and the effect of head position.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To investigate the reproducibility of horizontal extraocular muscle insertion distance measurements in anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to evaluate the effect of eye position on the measurement.
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The clinical characteristics of colonic pseudo-obstruction and the factors associated with medical treatment response: a study based on a multicenter database in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) is defined as marked colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of CPO and the factors associated with the response to medical treatment by using a multicenter database in Korea. CPO was diagnosed as colonic dilatation without mechanical obstruction by using radiologic and/or endoscopic examinations. Acute CPO occurring in the postoperative period in surgical patients or as a response to an acute illness was excluded. CPO cases were identified in 15 tertiary referral hospitals between 2000 and 2011. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. In total, 104 patients (53 men; mean age at diagnosis, 47 yr) were identified. Seventy-seven of 104 patients (74%) showed a transition zone on abdominal computed tomography. Sixty of 104 patients (58%) showed poor responses to medical treatment and underwent surgery at the mean follow-up of 7.4 months (0.5-61 months). Younger age at the time of diagnosis, abdominal distension as a chief complaint, and greater cecal diameter were independently associated with the poor responses to medical treatment. These may be risk factors for a poor response to medical treatment.
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[Trends in the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori infection in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea: multicenter study over 13 years].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori infection have been reported to have decreased over the years due to antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate the trend of eradication rates of first-line triple therapy for H. pylori over the past 13 year period, and to evaluate factors affecting H. pylori eradication in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.
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Larval chigger mites collected from small mammals in 3 provinces, Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals.
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Complementary role of semiquantitative analysis of breast-specific gamma imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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We investigated whether the interpretation of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) with visual and semiquantitative analyses can improve the diagnosis of breast cancer.
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Irritable bowel syndrome: emerging paradigm in pathophysiology.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. These symptoms cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and there is no specific laboratory test or biomarker for IBS. Therefore, IBS is classified as a functional disorder with diagnosis dependent on the history taking about manifested symptoms and careful physical examination. Although a great deal of research has been carried out in this area, the pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not completely understood. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the symptoms in IBS patients; altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and the brain-gut interaction are important classical concepts in IBS pathophysiology. New areas of research in this arena include inflammation, postinfectious low-grade inflammation, genetic and immunologic factors, an altered microbiota, dietary factors, and enteroendocrine cells. These emerging studies have not shown consistent results, provoking controversy in the IBS field. However, certain lines of evidence suggest that these mechanisms are important at least a subset of IBS patients, confirming that IBS symptoms cannot be explained by a single etiological mechanism. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that IBS requires a more holistic approach to determining effective treatment and understanding the underlying mechanisms.
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Spontaneous isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection: rare but underdiagnosed cause of ischemic stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Spontaneous isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection (PICAD) is a very rare cause of ischemic stroke. Clinical and radiologic features of ischemic type of isolated spontaneous PICAD are not well established.
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Negative impact of sedation on esophagogastric junction evaluation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To compare the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) areas observed in sedated and non-sedated patients during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
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Constipation misperception is associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and constipation symptoms experienced.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients' perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features.
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Efficacy and Safety of Tiropramide in the Treatment of Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Non-inferiority Trial, Compared With Octylonium.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Antispasmodics such as octylonium are widely used to manage irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. However, the efficacy and safety of another antispasmodic, tiropramide, remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiropramide compared with octylonium in patients with IBS.
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Characterization and application of electrospun alumina nanofibers.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Alumina nanofibers were prepared by a technique that combined the sol-gel and electrospinning methods. The solution to be electrospun was prepared by mixing aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) in ethanol, which was then refluxed in the presence of an acid catalyst and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) in ethanol. The characterization results showed that alumina nanofibers with diameters in the range of 102 to 378 nm were successfully prepared. On the basis of the results of the XRD and FT-IR, the alumina nanofibers calcined at 1,100°C were identified as comprising the ?-alumina phase, and a series of phase transitions such as boehmite????-alumina????-alumina were observed from 500°C to 1,200°C. The pore size of the obtained ?-alumina nanofibers is approximately 8 nm, and it means that they are mesoporous materials. The kinetic study demonstrated that MO adsorption on alumina nanofibers can be seen that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.
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Comparison of a novel bedside portable endoscopy device with nasogastric aspiration for identifying upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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To compare outcomes using the novel portable endoscopy with that of nasogastric (NG) aspiration in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.
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Is the environment of the endoscopy unit a reservoir of pathogens?
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Given the characteristic procedures involved in the endoscopy unit, the spread of pathogens is much more frequent in this unit than in other environments. However, there is a lack of data elucidating the existence of pathogens in the endoscopy unit. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of possible pathogens in the endoscopy unit.
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Ankle Kinematics and Performance on the Y-Balance Test are Associated With Inclinometer Measurements on the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test.
J Sport Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been often measured under the weight-bearing condition in the clinical setting; however, little is known about the relationship between weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT) and both ankle kinematics and performance on dynamic postural control tests.
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DICOM-based intravascular ultrasound signal intensity analysis: an Echoplaque Medical Imaging Bench study.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Most intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data are stored digitally using the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard. This allows random access to studies and improves on the major limitation of conventional grayscale IVUS.
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A Double-Blind, Randomized, Active Drug Comparative, Parallel-Group, Multi-Center Clinical Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Probiotics (Bacillus licheniformis, Zhengchangsheng® capsule) in Patients with Diarrhea.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Bacillus Licheniformis, a probiotic used in the treatment of diarrhea, has been shown to suppress the growth of pathologic bacteria. This study was performed to assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Zhengchangsheng® (Bacillus Licheniformis) in comparison with another probiotic, Bioflor® (Saccharomyces Boulardii) for the treatment of diarrhea.
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Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: 22 years' experience of 154 patients at a single center.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Large studies by single institutions have been infrequent because of the rarity of the disease and the diversity of clinical manifestations. In this study, the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively for the 154 patients diagnosed and treated with LCH at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 1986 to December 2007. A total of 154 patients were evaluated. One hundred and six patients (68.8%) had single system disease, 48 patients (31.2%) had multisystem disease. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) had risk organ involvement. Twenty-nine patients (18.8%) relapsed and the overall survival (OS) of the total study population was 97.1% with a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Patients less than 4 years old, with involvement more than 2 organs and with risk organ involvement showed lower progression free survival (PFS) (P = .001, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Estimated 10-year PFS of patients with and without risk organ involvement were 52.6% and 83.8%, respectively. Patients with single system LCH had excellent prognosis showing 89.6% of PFS and 100% of OS. Patients with multisystem LCH also had a high survival rate, although the incidences of relapse remain to be solved. A new strategy to decrease the incidence of relapse is needed.
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Association between Serum Irisin Levels and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Health Screen Examinees.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls) were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml) were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4±32.6 vs. 43.0±29.7, p<0.001) and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3±38.2 vs. 56.6±21.2, p<0.001). Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4±34.2 vs. 45.8±22.9, p?=?0.492); however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9±31.7 vs. 73.1±48.5 vs 59.7±18.0, p<0.001) and obese groups (35.0±17.0 vs. 62.9±21.2 vs. 54.6±23.3, p<0.001). Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.
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Low-temperature-grown InGaAs terahertz photomixer embedded in InP thermal spreading layer regrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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A novel buried photomixer for integrated photonic terahertz devices is proposed. The active region of the mesa-structure InGaAs photomixer is buried in an InP layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to improve heat dissipation, which is an important problem for terahertz photomixers. The proposed photomixer shows good thermal properties compared to a conventional planar-type photomixer. The MOCVD regrowth process indicates the possibility for THz photomixers to be integrated monolithically with conventional photonic devices.
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Unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for non-malignant disorders in children and adolescents.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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This study analyzes the data reported to the Korean Cord Blood Registry between 1994 and 2008, involving children and adolescents with non-malignant diseases. Sixty-five patients were evaluated in this study: SAA (n = 24), iBMFS, (n = 16), and primary immune deficiency/inherited metabolic disorder (n = 25). The CI of neutrophil recovery was 73.3% on day 42. By day 100, the CI of acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease was 32.3%. At a median follow-up of 71 months, five-yr OS was 50.7%. The survival rate (37.5%) and CI of neutrophil engraftment (37.5%) were lowest in patients with iBMFS. Deaths were mainly due to infection, pulmonary complications, and hemorrhage. In a multivariate analysis, the presence of >3.91 × 10(5) /kg of infused CD34 +  cells was the only factor consistently identified as significantly associated with neutrophil engraftment (p = 0.04) and OS (p = 0.03). UCBT using optimal cell doses appears to be a feasible therapy for non-malignant diseases in children and adolescents for whom there is no appropriate HLA-matched related donor. Strategies to reduce transplant-related toxicities would improve the outcomes of UCBT in non-malignant diseases.
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InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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We present a terahertz (THz) broadband antenna-integrated 1 × 20 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with an average responsivity of 98.5 V/W at a frequency of 250 GHz, which is measured without attaching external amplifiers and Si lenses, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of 106.6 pW/?Hz. The 3-dB bandwidth of the SBD detector is also investigated at approximately 180 GHz. For implementing an array-type SBD detector by a simple fabrication process to achieve a high yield, a structure comprising an SiN(x) layer instead of an air bridge between the anode and the cathode is designed. THz line beam imaging using a Gunn diode emitter with a center frequency of 250 GHz and a 1 × 20 SBD array detector is successfully demonstrated.
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Long-term changes in refractive error in children with myopic tilted optic disc compared to children without tilted optic disc.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To compare changes in the spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error between children with and without myopic tilted optic disc.
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Trigemino-abducens synkinesis after lateral orbitotomy.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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A 30-year-old man underwent lateral orbitotomy with removal of dermoid cyst in the right orbit. One month after operation, the patient started to experience double vision. He had 25 prism diopters of esotropia in primary gaze with marked limitation of abduction in the right eye. Seven months after the operation, he developed synkinetic movement of the eye when clenching his teeth. He could abduct his right eye while gritting his teeth. This is the fourth reported case of trigemino-abducens synkinesis and the first reported case without brain trauma.
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Intracranial fibromuscular dysplasia presenting as various ocular manifestations.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that mainly affects renal, extracranial carotid, and vertebral arteries. Intracranial FMD is uncommon unlike extracranial or renal FMD, and the primary manifestation of intracranial FMD is intracranial aneurysm. We report an unusual case of intracranial FMD showing various ocular manifestations, including central retinal artery occlusion, transient monocular blindness, and oculomotor nerve palsy without renal involvement.
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Clinical characteristics of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in childhood.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a frequent complication in patients with cancer. There are an increasing number of reports of permanent CIA.
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Cord blood levels of osteopontin as a phenotype marker of gestational age and neonatal morbidities.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Objectives: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with metabolic syndrome. Extreme birth weight categories including small for gestational age (SGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) are risk factors for metabolic syndrome. However, normal levels of plasma OPN in neonates, and the relationship of OPN to fetal growth remain unknown. We evaluated the association of umbilical cord blood OPN with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal outcomes. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 261 newborns of all gestational ages beginning at week 26, and 26 adults for comparison. We collected umbilical cord blood from newborns and analyzed plasma for OPN by ELISA. Results: Plasma OPN was significantly higher in neonates (414.65±136.72 ng/mL) compared to adults (33.37±14.66 ng/mL, p<0.001). There was an inverse correlation between OPN and gestational age (r= -0.48, p<0.0001). LGA infants had lower OPN than appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants, but LGA was not an independent predictor of OPN in multivariate analysis. Among preterm infants, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was independently associated with higher OPN (OR=2.49, p=0.02). Conclusion: Our results raise the possibility that OPN has a physiologic role in fetal growth and development, and may be a useful biomarker for PDA.
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Analysis of spectral domain optical coherence tomography measurements in optic neuritis: differences in neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, isolated optic neuritis and normal healthy controls.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Purpose:? To compare the retinal layer thickness of eyes with optic neuritis (ON) and that of control eyes and ON eyes with and without neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods:? Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans of the fovea were undertaken for 56 patients with ON with and without NMO or MS and for 24 healthy controls. Patients with ON were divided into three groups: NMO, MS and isolated ON without NMO or MS. The thickness of each retinal layer was compared between ON and healthy control eyes, and between ON eyes with and without NMO or MS. Results:? Compared with healthy control eyes, ON eyes showed significant thinning of the ganglion cell layer plus the inner plexiform layer (GCL?+?IPL) at all eight inner and outer macular locations. Significant differences in thickness were observed for the retinal layers of NMO, MS and isolated ON without NMO or MS at several retinal locations. Conclusions:? Our SD-OCT data revealed a notable difference in the GCL?+?IPL thickness between ON and healthy control eyes. It also showed differences in the thickness of several retinal layers for ON subgroups including NMO, MS and isolated ON. This may be helpful for distinguishing the aetiology of ON.
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Cross-cultural adaptation of the korean version of the minneapolis-manchester quality of life instrument-adolescent form.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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We verified the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Instrument-Adolescent Form (KMMQL-AF) among Korean childhood cancer survivors. A total of 107 childhood cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment and 98 childhood cancer survivors who completed cancer treatment were recruited. To assess the internal structure of the KMMQL-AF, we performed multi-trait scaling analyses and exploratory factor analysis. Additionally, we compared each domains of the KMMQL-AF with those of the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and the Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Internal consistency of the KMMQL-AF was sufficient (Cronbachs alpha: 0.78-0.92). In multi-trait scaling analyses, the KMMQL-AF showed sufficient construct validity. The "physical functioning" domain showed moderate correlation with Karnofsky scores and the "psychological functioning" domain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the RCMAS. The KMMQL-AF discriminated between subgroups of different adolescent cancer survivors depending on treatment completion. The KMMQL-AF is a sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life among Korean childhood cancer survivors.
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Clinical characteristics of pediatric thalassemia in Korea: a single institute experience.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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Few literatures have elaborated on the clinical characteristics of children with thalassemia from low-prevalence areas. A retrospective analysis was conducted on children genetically confirmed with thalassemia at Seoul National University Childrens Hospital in Korea. Nine children (1? thalassemia trait, 6? thalassemia minor, 2? thalassemia intermedia) were diagnosed with thalassemia at median age of 4.3 yr old with median hemoglobin of 9.7 g/dL. Seven (78%) children were incidentally found to be anemic and only 2 with ? thalassemia intermedia had presenting symptoms. Five children (56%) were initially misdiagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Despite the comorbidities due to ? thalassemia mental retardation syndrome, the child with ? thalassemia trait had mild hematologic profile. Children with ? thalassemia intermedia had the worst phenotypes due to dominantly inherited mutations. None of the children was transfusion dependent and most of them had no complications associated with thalassemia. Only 1 child (11%) with codon 60 (T?A) mutation of the HBB gene needed red blood cell transfusions. He also had splenomegaly, cholelithiasis, and calvarial vault thickening. Pediatricians in Korea must acknowledge thalassemia as a possible diagnosis in children with microcytic hypochromic hemolytic anemia. High level of suspicion will allow timely diagnosis and managements.
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Myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors: results of Korean Society of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO) S-053 study.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs). Eleven patients with non-germinomatous germ cell tumors and nine patients with germinomas were enrolled. Patients received between two and eight cycles of conventional chemotherapy prior to HDCT/autoSCT with or without radiotherapy. Overall, 16 patients proceeded to the first HDCT/autoSCT, and nine proceeded to the second HDCT/autoSCT. CTE (carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide) and cyclophosphamide-melphalan (CM) regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively. Toxicities during HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable, and there were no treatment-related deaths. Twelve patients experienced relapse or progression; however, four patients with germinomas remain alive after subsequent RT. Therefore, a total of 12 patients (four NGGCTs and eight germinomas) remain alive with a median follow-up of 47 months (range 22-90) after relapse or progression. The probability of 3-year overall survival was 59.1 ± 11.2 % (36.4 ± 14.5 % for NGGCTs vs. 88.9 ± 10.5 % for germinomas, P = 0.028). RT, particularly craniospinal RT, was associated with a better tumor response prior to HDCT/autoSCT and a better final outcome. In conclusion, HDCT/autoSCT was feasible, and survival rates were encouraging. Further study with a larger cohort of patients is needed to elucidate the role of HDCT/autoSCT in the treatment of relapsed or progressed CNS-GCTs.
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Chronic kidney disease, hemodynamic instability, and endoscopic high-risk appearance are associated with 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The results of studies that evaluated predictive factors for rebleeding in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding in these patients. A consecutive 312 patients presenting symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Clinical and demographic characteristics and endoscopic findings were evaluated for potential factors associated with 30-day rebleeding using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 176 patients were included (male, 80.1%; mean age, 59.7±16.0 yr). Rebleeding within 7 and 30 days occurred in 21 (11.9%) and 27 (15.3%) patients, respectively. We found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 10.29; 95% CI, 2.84-37.33; P<0.001), tachycardia (pulse>100 beats/min) during the admission (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.25-11.49; P=0.019), and Forrest classes I, IIa, and IIb (OR, 6.14; 95% CI, 1.36-27.66; P=0.018) were significant independent predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding. However, neither Rockall nor Blatchford scores showed statistically significant relationships with 30-day rebleeding in a multivariate analysis. CKD, hemodynamic instability during hospitalization, and an endoscopic high-risk appearance are significantly independent predictors of 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These factors may be useful for clinical management of such patients.
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Negative regulation of osteoclast precursor differentiation by CD11b and ?2 integrin-B-cell lymphoma 6 signaling.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Negative regulation of osteoclastogenesis is important for bone homeostasis and prevention of excessive bone resorption in inflammatory and other diseases. Mechanisms that directly suppress osteoclastogenesis are not well understood. In this study we investigated regulation of osteoclast differentiation by the ?2 integrin CD11b/CD18 that is expressed on myeloid lineage osteoclast precursors. CD11b-deficient mice exhibited decreased bone mass that was associated with increased osteoclast numbers and decreased bone formation. Accordingly, CD11b and ?2 integrin signaling suppressed osteoclast differentiation by preventing receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced induction of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and of downstream osteoclast-related NFATc1 target genes. CD11b suppressed induction of NFATc1 by the complementary mechanisms of downregulation of RANK expression and induction of recruitment of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) to the NFATC1 gene. These findings identify CD11b as a negative regulator of the earliest stages of osteoclast differentiation, and provide an inducible mechanism by which environmental cues suppress osteoclastogenesis by activating a transcriptional repressor that makes genes refractory to osteoclastogenic signaling.
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Choroidal thickness in healthy children.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To evaluate the choroidal thickness profiles of healthy children using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.
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Detection of Rickettsia monacensis from Ixodes nipponensis collected from rodents in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea.
Exp. Appl. Acarol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A total of 1,305 ticks were collected from wild rodents captured monthly, except July and August, during 2008 at three US-ROK operated military training sites and three US military installations in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, the Republic of Korea (ROK). Ixodes nipponensis was the most frequently collected tick (n = 1,299, 99.5 %), followed by Ixodes pomerantzevi (n = 6, 0.5 %). The ticks were pooled (1-15/sample) and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae with primer sets targeting the outer membrane protein B (ompB), citrate synthase (gltA), and 17-kDa antigen gene loci. A total of 115/197 (58.4 %) pools were positive by nPCR for the outer membrane protein ompB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 105/115 (91.3 %) ompB targeted nPCR positive products showed a high degree of similarity to Rickettsia monacensis (99.3-100 %, n = 87) and R. japonica (99.5-100 %, n = 18). From the 87 positive samples demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis, 15 were selected and analyzed by nPCR for gltA and the 17-kDa genes. A total of 12/15 pooled samples were positive for by nPCR for gltA, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.3-99.7 %). A total of 13/15 pooled samples were positive by nPCR for the 17-kDa gene, with amplicons demonstrating a high degree of similarity to R. monacensis (99.4-100 %). These findings demonstrate that R. monacensis is distributed throughout Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces in the ROK. Furthermore, data suggest a relative high prevalence of R. monacensis in the tick, I. nipponensis.
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Dynamic sensor interrogation using wavelength-swept laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We report a high-speed (~2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.
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Spotted fever group rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia monacensis isolated from ticks in South Jeolla province, Korea.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Rickettsia monacensis, a spotted fever group rickettsia, was isolated from Ixodes nipponensis ticks collected from live-captured small mammals in South Jeolla province, Korea in 2006. Homogenates of tick tissues were inoculated into L929 and Vero cell monolayers using shell vial assays. After several passages, Giemsa staining revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the inoculated Vero cells, but not the L929 cells. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ompA-small part (25-614?bp region), ompA-large part (2849-4455?bp region), nearly full-length ompB (58-4889?bp region) and gltA (196-1236?bp region) of the isolates had similarities of 100%, 99.8%, 99.3% and 99.5%, respectively, to those of R. monacensis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was grouped into the cluster in the same way as R. monacensis in the trees of all genes examined. These results strongly suggest that the isolate is closely related to R. monacensis. As far as is known, this is the first report of isolation of R. monacensis from ticks in Korea.
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Observable Laryngopharyngeal Lesions during the Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Regardless of outstanding developments in the endoscopic field, laryngopharyngeal lesions are generally considered as a field of otolaryngology, and thus it is thought that not a lot of gastrointestinal endoscopists commonly take interest in these lesions during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. Therefore, here in this thesis, I reviewed the availability of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in laryngopharyngeal area, normal structures of laryngopharynx, and the lesions that can be observed with the standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure.
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The effect of previous orbital decompression on results of strabismus surgery in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To evaluate the effect of previous orbital decompression on the success of strabismus surgery in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.