OBJECTIVE. This article will discuss the most common forms of torsion encountered in the emergency department. CONCLUSION. Torsion refers to the twisting of an object about its axis and represents the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying an important group of disorders affecting both the bowel and the solid organs of the abdomen and pelvis. Although these disorders typically present with the acute onset of pain, clinical findings are often nonspecific, with imaging playing a key role in diagnosis. Missed or delayed diagnosis may result in complications, such as ischemia; end-organ loss; and, in some cases, death. Therefore, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging findings of these entities to avoid the morbidity and mortality associated with a missed or delayed diagnosis.
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the major contributor to the dramatically increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. Low-risk PTC shows the most rapid rate of increase because of changing trends in neck imaging and the use of fine needle aspiration to investigate thyroid nodules. The need for a paradigm shift in the management of these patients, to provide personalized treatment and surveillance plans, has led to the focus on molecular biomarker research. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) compose a class of molecules with promising applications for every stage of PTC management, including diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and surveillance. Although most of the miRNA studies are currently preclinical, given the rapid progress of scientific discovery, clinical trials will not be far away. Thyroid clinicians will be expected to have good insights into the current status of PTC-related molecular translational research. This article focuses on the potential roles of miRNA in PTC management in the context of contemporary recommended clinical practice.
Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice.
Eosinophilia is a feature of the host immune response that distinguishes parasitic worms from other pathogens, yet a discrete function for eosinophils in worm infection has been elusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying the striking and unexpected observation that eosinophils protect intracellular, muscle-stage Trichinella spiralis larvae against NO-mediated killing. Our findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. Early recruitment is essential for larval survival. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10(+) myeloid dendritic cells and CD4(+) IL-10(+) T lymphocytes that inhibit inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and protect intracellular larvae. The results document a novel immunoregulatory function of eosinophils in helminth infection, in which eosinophil-derived IL-10 drives immune responses that eventually limit local NO production. In this way, the parasite co-opts an immune response in a way that enhances its own survival.
We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory.
Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is known to play important roles in immune and inflammatory disease such as in asthma, but its functions in allergic airway inflammation are still controversial, and the molecular mechanisms mediating these functions remain unclear. Increased production of eosinophils in bone marrow and their emergence in the airway have been linked to the onset and progression of allergic asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-17 on allergic airway inflammation, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through eosinophil generation. Exogenous IL-17 significantly attenuated the features of allergic inflammation induced by ovalbumin in mice. It inhibited eosinophil differentiation both in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by down-regulated expression of CC chemokine receptor 3(Ccr3), Gata-1, and Gata-2, as well as reduced formation of common myeloid progenitors and eosinophil progenitors, but without influencing eosinophil apoptosis. IL-17 also significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in IL-5 transgenic mice, although it notably increased the levels of IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF. In addition, IL-17 had little effect on secretion of the inflammatory cytokines by eosinophils. Neutralization of endogenous IL-17 significantly augmented eosinophil recruitment in the airways. Together, these findings suggest that exogenous IL-17 protects against allergic airway inflammation most likely through inhibition of the eosinophil differentiation in bone marrow.
We report a fundamental study of how the electropermeabilization of a cell is affected by nearby cells. Previous researchers studying electroporation of dense suspensions of cells have observed, both theoretically and experimentally, that such samples cannot be treated simply as collections of independent cells. However, the complexity of those systems makes quantitative modeling difficult. We studied the change in the minimum applied electric field, the threshold field, required to affect electropermeabilization of a cell due to the presence of a second cell. Experimentally, we used optical tweezers to accurately position two cells in a custom fluidic electroporation device and measured the threshold field for electropermeabilization. We also captured video of the process. In parallel, finite element simulations of the electrostatic potential distributions in our systems were generated using the 3-layer model and the contact resistance methods. Reasonably good agreement with measurements was found assuming a model in which changes in a cell's threshold field were predicted from the calculated changes in the maximum voltage across the cell's membrane induced by the presence of a second cell. The threshold field required to electroporate a cell is changed ?5%-10% by a nearby, nearly touching second cell. Cells aligned parallel to the porating field shield one another. Those oriented perpendicular to the field enhance the applied field's effect. In addition, we found that the dynamics of the electropermeabilization process are important in explaining observations for even our simple two-cell system.
Interferon gamma (IFN?) has complex immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. While IFN? is detected in the airways in response to infection with the pneumovirus pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; Family Paramyxoviridae), its role in promoting disease has not been fully explored. Here, we evaluate PVM infection in IFN?(-/-) mice. Although the IFN? gene-deletion has no impact on weight loss, survival or virus kinetics, expression of IFN?, IFN?2/3 and IFN-stimulated 2-5' oligoadenylate synthetases was significantly diminished compared to wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, PVM infection in IFN?(-/-) mice promoted prominent inflammation, including eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration into the airways and lung parenchyma, observed several days after peak virus titer. Potential mechanisms include over-production of chemoattractant and eosinophil-active cytokines (CXCL1, CCL11, CCL3 and IL5) in PVM-infected IFN?(-/-) mice; likewise, IFN? actively antagonized IL5-dependent eosinophil survival ex vivo. Our results may have clinical implications for pneumovirus infection in individuals with IFN? signaling defects.
Contact toxicant reactions are accompanied by localized skin inflammation and concomitant increases in site-specific itch responses. The role(s) of eosinophils in these reactions is poorly understood. However, previous studies have suggested that localized eosinophil-nerve interactions at sites of inflammation significantly alter tissue innervation.
Eosinophils accumulate at the site of allergic inflammation and are critical effector cells in allergic diseases. Recent studies have also suggested a role for eosinophils in the resolution of inflammation.
The siRNA LOR-1284 targets the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2) and has shown promise in cancer therapy. In this study, transferrin (Tf) conjugated lipid nanoparticles (Tf-NP-LOR-1284) were synthesized by microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF) and evaluated for the targeted delivery of LOR-1284 siRNA into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The in vitro study showed that Tf-NP-LOR-1284 can protect LOR-1284 from serum nuclease degradation. Selective uptake of Tf-NP-LOR-1284 was observed in MV4-11 cells. In addition, qRT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that Tf-NP-LOR-1284 was more effective than the free LOR-1284 in reducing the R2 mRNA and protein levels. The Tf-NP-LOR-1284 showed prolonged circulation time and increased AUC after i.v. administration relative to the free LOR-1284. Furthermore, Tf-NP-LOR-1284 facilitated increased accumulation at the tumor site along with the decreased R2 mRNA and protein expression in a murine xenograft model. These results suggest that Tf-conjugated NPs prepared by MHF provide a suitable platform for efficient and specific therapeutic delivery of LOR-1284 into AML cells.
The analysis of eosinophil shape change and mediator secretion is a useful tool in understanding how eosinophils respond to immunological stimuli and chemotactic factors. Eosinophils undergo dramatic shape changes, along with secretion of the granule-derived enzyme eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in response to chemotactic stimuli including platelet-activating factor and CCL11 (eotaxin-1). Here, we describe the analysis of eosinophil shape change by confocal microscopy analysis and provide an experimental approach for comparing unstimulated cells with those that have been stimulated to undergo chemotaxis. In addition, we illustrate two different degranulation assays for EPX using OPD and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and show how eosinophil degranulation may be assessed from in vitro as well as ex vivo stimulation.
The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing.
Among heterogeneous glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells, glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) is a subpopulation having a critical role in tumor initiation and therapy resistance. Thus targeting GSCs would be an essential step to completely eradicate this lethal disease. MicroRNA-1 (miR-1) expression is deregulated in GBM patients and restoration of miR-1 by viral-vector in GBM cells has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor initiation and attenuate cell migration. Here, we show that a transferrin-targeting non-invasive nanoparticle delivery system (Tf-NP) can efficiently deliver miR-1 to GBM patient-derived GSC-enriched sphere cultures (GBM spheres).
Although numerous investigations have compared gene expression microarray platforms, preprocessing methods and batch correction algorithms using constructed spike-in or dilution datasets, there remains a paucity of studies examining the properties of microarray data using diverse biological samples. Most microarray experiments seek to identify subtle differences between samples with variable background noise, a scenario poorly represented by constructed datasets. Thus, microarray users lack important information regarding the complexities introduced in real-world experimental settings. The recent development of a multiplexed, digital technology for nucleic acid measurement enables counting of individual RNA molecules without amplification and, for the first time, permits such a study.
Pancreatitis occurs in approximately 4% of patients treated with the thiopurines azathioprine or mercaptopurine. Its development is unpredictable and almost always leads to drug withdrawal. We identified patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who had developed pancreatitis within 3 months of starting these drugs from 168 sites around the world. After detailed case adjudication, we performed a genome-wide association study on 172 cases and 2,035 controls with IBD. We identified strong evidence of association within the class II HLA region, with the most significant association identified at rs2647087 (odds ratio 2.59, 95% confidence interval 2.07-3.26, P = 2 × 10(-16)). We replicated these findings in an independent set of 78 cases and 472 controls with IBD matched for drug exposure. Fine mapping of the HLA region identified association with the HLA-DQA1*02:01-HLA-DRB1*07:01 haplotype. Patients heterozygous at rs2647087 have a 9% risk of developing pancreatitis after administration of a thiopurine, whereas homozygotes have a 17% risk.
The view of eosinophils (Eos) as solely effector cells involved in host parasite defense and in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases has been challenged in recent years. In fact, there is a growing realization that these cells interact with other components of innate and adaptive immunity. For example, mouse Eos were recently demonstrated to promote plasma cell retention in the bone marrow. However, it remains unknown whether Eos influence the biology of normal B lymphocytes. In this study, we specifically assessed the effect of Eos on B cell survival, proliferation, and Ig secretion. Our data first revealed that the genetic deletion of Eos from NJ1638 IL-5 transgenic hypereosinophilic mice (previously shown to display profound B cell expansion) resulted in the near abolishment of the B cell lymphocytosis. In vitro studies using human tissues demonstrated Eos' proximity to B cell follicles and their ability to promote B cell survival, proliferation, and Ig secretion via a contact-independent mechanism. Additionally, this ability of Eos to enhance B cell responsiveness was observed in both T-independent and T-dependent B cell activation and appears to be independent of the activation state of Eos. Finally, a retrospective clinical study of hypereosinophilic patients revealed a direct correlation between peripheral blood eosinophil levels and B cell numbers. Taken together, our study identifies a novel role for Eos in the regulation of humoral immunity via their impact on B cell homeostasis and proliferation upon activation.
Nucleic acid based therapeutics has been widely explored to treat genetic and acquired diseases. However, the clinical translation of nucleic acid based therapies has been challenged by low delivery efficiency, off-target effects, poor cellular uptake, and limited serum stability. Lipopoplex nanoparticles, as one of the major nanocarrier systems, have shown great potential in overcoming these challenges. Current techniques for lipoplex nanoparticle preparation rely on self-assembly at macroscale, which suffers from limited control over particle structure and composition due to local fluctuations in the concentration of the constituent materials. We have developed a discontinuous dewetting/imprinting method that guided the assembly of lipoplex nanoparticles containing siRNA in a microwell array, which achieved much better control on particle size and composition. The lipoplex nanoparticles prepared by the discontinuous dewetting/imprinting method showed unilamellar core-shell-like structure in contrast to the multilamellar onion-like structure generally observed in lipoplex nanoparticles prepared by the conventional bulk mixing method.
Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.
Significant advances have been made with respect to our understanding of the critical role of agents targeting angiogenic pathways in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The approval of 3 agents that target angiogenic signaling, bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, and regorafenib, provides strong evidence that angiogenesis is an important process in mCRC. The addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy in the first- and second-line treatment of mCRC has resulted in meaningful improvement in overall and progression-free survival. The standard of care for mCRC has evolved to incorporate cytotoxic chemotherapy as the backbone regimens (eg, FOLFOX [folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin], FOLFIRI [folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan]) with or without bevacizumab, and epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapies (eg, cetuximab, panitumumab) in the setting of wild-type KRAS. The development of ziv-aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI has improved clinical efficacy in the second-line treatment of mCRC. Regorafenib, a small-molecule multikinase inhibitor, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as single-agent therapy in the treatment of refractory and progressive mCRC. Each of these agents has been integrated into an evidence-based-albeit, still evolving-treatment continuum for initial treatment, treatment after first progression, and treatment after second progression. However, the most effective strategy for the use of these agents, and others in development remains unclear. This review provides an overview of the current clinical evidence for the use of antiangiogenic agents targeting in the treatment of mCRC.
Acute suppurative thyroiditis and recurrent abscess formation due to third and fourth branchial anomalies typically present in children. However, thyroid abscesses in branchial anomalies may occur in adulthood as well. Failure to recognize and delayed drainage of a neck abscess may lead to a fulminant life-threatening outcome.
Use of the colonoscope magnetic imaging device (ScopeGuide, Olympus Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) is currently contraindicated by the manufacturer for patients with implantable cardiac devices, a group of patients that is increasing annually along with the number of colonoscopies performed in the era of colorectal cancer screening. This is the first study to examine the safety of ScopeGuide in patients with permanent pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Biologic pathways with significant genetic conservation across human populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The evaluation of the role of recipient genetic variation in PGD has thus far been limited to single, candidate gene analyses.
Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is a new parathyroid localization technique not previously reported in Australia. It provides both functional and anatomical imaging in a single test, with superior sensitivity compared with sestamibi scintigraphy (SeS). This study examines the utility of 4DCT in defined clinical situations.
The heritability of a trait (h(2)) is the proportion of its population variance caused by genetic differences, and estimates of this parameter are important for interpreting the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In recent years, researchers have adopted a novel method for estimating a lower bound on heritability directly from GWAS data that uses realized genetic similarities between nominally unrelated individuals. The quantity estimated by this method is purported to be the contribution to heritability that could in principle be recovered from association studies employing the given panel of SNPs (h(2)(SNP)). Thus far, the validity of this approach has mostly been tested empirically. Here, we provide a mathematical explication and show that the method should remain a robust means of obtaining h(2)(SNP)) under circumstances wider than those under which it has so far been derived.
OSU-2S is a novel anti-cancer and immune modulatory agent designed specifically to avert the immunosuppressive effects and related toxicities observed in clinical studies with its predecessor analog, FTY720. To characterize its preclinical pharmacokinetics, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of OSU-2S in mouse plasma. Ethyl acetate extraction of samples containing OSU-2S and the internal standard, Sph-17, was followed by separation with a 6min gradient (water/0.1% formic acid and methanol/0.1% formic acid) on a reverse-phase C18 column at room temperature. Selected reaction monitoring was used for detection on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive ionization. The assay was linear over the concentration range 3-3000ng/mL with accuracy ranging from 103 to 111%, and both within- and between-run precision (CV%) ?11%. All stability samples were within ±15% of nominal values, and replicates were within 15% CV. The assay was successfully applied to a mouse pharmacokinetic study of OSU-2S with intravenous and intraperitoneal administration. OSU-2S non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters, area under the concentration-time curve, clearance, and elimination half-life were estimated at 1522h?g/L, 3.06L/h/kg and 15.6h, respectively, for intravenous injection. Systemic availability after intraperitoneal injection was approximately 46%. These data demonstrate the OSU-2S compound displays acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for further in vivo pharmacologic evaluation, which can be facilitated by the validated LC-MS/MS assay.
The aim of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is to isolate DNA markers for variants affecting phenotypes of interest. This is constrained by the fact that the number of markers often far exceeds the number of samples. Compressed sensing (CS) is a body of theory regarding signal recovery when the number of predictor variables (i.e., genotyped markers) exceeds the sample size. Its applicability to GWAS has not been investigated.
Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in three distinct mouse models of Th2-cytokine-driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, while activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense.
Noninvasive early detection methods have the potential to reduce mortality rates of both cancer and infectious diseases. Here, we present a novel assay by which tethered cationic lipoplex nanoparticles containing molecular beacons (MBs) can capture cancer cell-derived exosomes or viruses and identify encapsulated RNAs in a single step. A series of ultracentrifugation and Exoquick isolation kit were first used to isolate exosomes from the cell culture medium and human serum, respectively. Cationic lipoplex nanoparticles linked onto the surface of a thin glass plate capture negatively charged viruses or cell-secreted exosomes by electrostatic interactions to form larger nanoscale complexes. Lipoplex/virus or lipoplex/exosome fusion leads to the mixing of viral/exosomal RNAs and MBs within the lipoplexes. After the target RNAs specially bind to the MBs, exosomes enriched in target RNAs are readily identified by the fluorescence signals of MBs. The in situ detection of target extracellular RNAs without diluting the samples leads to high detection sensitivity not achievable by existing methods, e.g., quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Here we demonstrate this concept using lentivirus and serum from lung cancer patients.
The cellular NAD(+)/NADH level controls Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) deacetylase activity in regulating aging in lower species. Much work has been put forth to identify ways to activate SIRT1, the mammalian ortholog of Sir2. The identification of p53 as a bona fide substrate of SIRT1 deacetylation has linked SIRT1 to a role in tumorigenesis. Here, we review the various SIRT1 endogenous and small molecular activators and inhibitors that regulate p53 acetylation and subsequent activation of p53 tumor suppression activity.
A clear contradiction exists between cytotoxic in-vitro studies demonstrating effectiveness of Gemcitabine to curtail pancreatic cancer and in-vivo studies failing to show Gemcitabine as an effective treatment. The outcome of chemotherapy in metastatic stages, where surgery is no longer viable, shows a 5-year survival <5%. It is apparent that in-vitro experiments, no matter how well designed, may fail to adequately represent the complex in-vivo microenvironmental and phenotypic characteristics of the cancer, including cell proliferation and apoptosis. We evaluate in-vitro cytotoxic data as an indicator of in-vivo treatment success using a mathematical model of tumor growth based on a dimensionless formulation describing tumor biology. Inputs to the model are obtained under optimal drug exposure conditions in-vitro. The model incorporates heterogeneous cell proliferation and death caused by spatial diffusion gradients of oxygen/nutrients due to inefficient vascularization and abundant stroma, and thus is able to simulate the effect of the microenvironment as a barrier to effective nutrient and drug delivery. Analysis of the mathematical model indicates the pancreatic tumors to be mostly resistant to Gemcitabine treatment in-vivo. The model results are confirmed with experiments in live mice, which indicate uninhibited tumor proliferation and metastasis with Gemcitabine treatment. By extracting mathematical model parameter values for proliferation and death from monolayer in-vitro cytotoxicity experiments with pancreatic cancer cells, and simulating the effects of spatial diffusion, we use the model to predict the drug response in-vivo, beyond what would have been expected from sole consideration of the cancer intrinsic resistance. We conclude that this integrated experimental/computational approach may enhance understanding of pancreatic cancer behavior and its response to various chemotherapies, and, further, that such an approach could predict resistance based on pharmacokinetic measurements with the goal to maximize effective treatment strategies.
Sutureless thyroid surgery utilizing thermal sealing is now well established. However, incremental advances in technology still require formal clinical evaluation in order to ensure that added technology does not compromise safety. In this study, we compared a new thermal sealing device incorporating a tissue divider (LigaSure Small Jaw) with the device we have previously reported for use in total thyroidectomy (LigaSure Precise).
Eosinophil degranulation has been implicated in inflammatory processes associated with allergic asthma. Rab27a, a Rab-related GTPase, is a regulatory intracellular signaling molecule expressed in human eosinophils. We postulated that Rab27a regulates eosinophil degranulation. We investigated the role of Rab27a in eosinophil degranulation within the context of airway inflammation. Rab27a expression and localization in eosinophils were investigated by using subcellular fractionation combined with Western blot analysis, and the results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Rab27a and the granule membrane marker CD63. To determine the function of eosinophil Rab27a, we used Ashen mice, a strain of Rab27a-deficient animals. Ashen eosinophils were tested for degranulation in response to PAF and calcium ionophore by measuring released EPX activity. Airway EPX release was also determined by intratracheal injection of eosinophils into mice lacking EPX. Rab27a immunoreactivity colocalized with eosinophil crystalloid granules, as determined by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. PAF induced eosinophil degranulation in correlation with redistribution of Rab27a(+) structures, some of which colocalized with CD63(+) crystalloid granules at the cell membrane. Eosinophils from mice had significantly reduced EPX release compared with normal WT eosinophils, both in vitro and in vivo. In mouse models, Ashen mice demonstrated reduced EPX release in BAL fluid. These findings suggest that Rab27a has a key role in eosinophil degranulation. Furthermore, these findings have implications for Rab27a-dependent eosinophil degranulation in airway inflammation.
Interleukin (IL)-10 is elevated in cancer and is thought to contribute to immune tolerance and tumor growth. Defying these expectations, the adoptive transfer of IL-10-expressing T cells to mice with polyposis attenuates microbial-induced inflammation and suppresses polyposis. To gain better insights into how IL-10 impacts polyposis, we genetically ablated IL-10 in T cells in APC(?468) mice and compared the effects of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. We found that T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) were a major cellular source of IL-10 in both the healthy and polyp-bearing colon. Notably, T cell-specific ablation of IL-10 produced pathologies that were identical to mice with a systemic deficiency in IL-10, in both cases increasing the numbers and growth of colon polyps. Eosinophils were found to densely infiltrate colon polyps, which were enriched similarly for microbiota associated previously with colon cancer. In mice receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, we observed reductions in microbiota, inflammation, and polyposis. Together, our findings establish that colon polyposis is driven by high densities of microbes that accumulate within polyps and trigger local inflammatory responses. Inflammation, local microbe densities, and polyp growth are suppressed by IL-10 derived specifically from T cells and Tregs.
Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec(®)/Glivec(®)) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemias and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and there is evidence for an exposure response relationship. Calcium carbonate is increasingly used as a calcium supplement and in the setting of gastric upset associated with imatinib therapy. Calcium carbonate could conceivably elevate gastric pH and complex imatinib, thereby influencing imatinib absorption and exposure. We aimed to evaluate whether use of calcium carbonate has a significant effect on imatinib pharmacokinetics.
Despite many attractive properties and well-developed micro/nano manufacturing technologies based on silicon (Si) wafers, severe adhesions between Si and glass at high temperature have limited its application as a mold material in precision glass molding. In this Letter, a coating using carbide-bonded graphene is introduced to build nonstick Si molds for glass molding. The coating has extraordinary mechanical properties and can effectively prevent Si-glass adhesion under high temperature. We demonstrated fabrications of a Fresnel lens and glass parts with micrometer pillars using graphene-coated Si molds. This newly developed process enables the use of Si as a mold material to fabricate sophisticated structures with high-precision dimensions that was not previously available. This technology will greatly improve precision glass molding process and allow high-precision low-cost glass optics to be manufactured in large quantity.
In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fishers ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fishers original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fishers distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology.
We explain why traits of interest to behavioral scientists may have a genetic architecture featuring hundreds or thousands of loci with tiny individual effects rather than a few with large effects and why such an architecture makes it difficult to find robust associations between traits and genes.
Leukotrienes (i.e., products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway) are thought to be contributors to lung pathologies. Moreover, eosinophils have been linked with pulmonary leukotriene activities both as potential sources of these mediators and as responding effector cells. The objective of the present study was to define the role(s) of leukotrienes in the lung pathologies accompanying eosinophil-associated chronic respiratory inflammation. A transgenic mouse model of chronic T helper (Th) 2-driven inflammation expressing IL-5 from T cells and human eotaxin-2 locally in the lung (I5/hE2) was used to define potential in vivo relationships among eosinophils, leukotrienes, and chronic Th2-polarized pulmonary inflammation. Airway levels of cys-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are both significantly elevated in I5/hE2 mice. The eosinophil-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) characteristic of these mice was abolished in the absence of leukotrienes (i.e., 5-lipoxygenase-deficient I5/hE2). More importantly, the loss of leukotrienes led to an unexpectedly significant decrease in collagen deposition (i.e., pulmonary fibrosis) that accompanied elevated levels of IL-4/-13 and TGF-? in the lungs of I5/hE2 mice. Further studies using mice deficient for the LTB4 receptor (BLT-1(-/-)/I5/hE2) and I5/hE2 animals administered a cys-leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) demonstrated that the AHR and the enhanced pulmonary fibrosis characteristic of the I5/hE2 model were uniquely cys-leukotriene-mediated events. These data demonstrate that, similar to allergen challenge models of wild-type mice, cys-leukotrienes underlie AHR in this transgenic model of severe pulmonary Th2 inflammation. These data also suggest that an underappreciated link exists among eosinophils, cys-leukotriene-mediated events, and fibrotic remodeling associated with elevated levels of IL-4/-13 and TGF-?.
We describe here the development and characterization of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel liposomal formulation for FTY720 delivery, LP-FTY720. The mean diameter of LP-FTY720 was ~157nm, and the FTY720 entrapment efficiency was ~85%. The liposomal formulation protected FTY720 from degradation in aqueous buffer and showed toxicity in CLL patient B cells comparable to that of free FTY720. Following intravenous injection in ICR mice, LP-FTY720 had an increased elimination phase half-life (~28 vs. ~19hr) and decreased clearance (235 vs. 778mL/h/kg) compared to the free drug. Antibodies against CD19, CD20 and CD37 were incorporated into LP-FTY720, which provided targeted delivery to CLL patient B cells and thus achieved higher killing efficacy. The novel liposomal carrier of FTY720 demonstrated improved pharmacokinetic properties, comparable activity, and a potential platform for targeted delivery to CLL by overcoming the limited application of free FTY720 to B malignancy treatment.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are powerful osteoinductive growth factors but are associated with exorbitant costs and undesirable side effects. Oxysterols are biocompatible cholesterol oxidation products with osteoinductive properties that may represent an alternative to BMP. In this study, the authors examine the osteogenic potential and mechanisms of actions of oxysterol 49, a novel oxysterol analogue, in primary rabbit bone marrow stromal cells.
Identifying the precise locus of general cognitive ability (g) in the flow of information between perception and action is an important goal of differential psychology. To localize the negative correlation between g and reaction time to a specific processing stage, we administered a speeded number-comparison task to two groups differing in average g. The participants had to respond to two stimuli in each trial, which produced the well-known slowing of the second reaction time known as the psychological refractory period. The difference in the second reaction time favoring the high-g group doubled as the stimulus onsets became very close together. This finding affirms that the faster reaction times of higher-g individuals reflect an advantage exclusively in the serial bottleneck of central processing and not in the parallel peripheral stages.
Eosinophil activities are often linked with allergic diseases such as asthma and the pathologies accompanying helminth infection. These activities have been hypothesized to be mediated, in part, by the release of cationic proteins stored in the secondary granules of these granulocytes. The majority of the proteins stored in these secondary granules (by mass) are major basic protein 1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). Unpredictably, a knockout approach targeting the genes encoding these proteins demonstrated that, unlike in mice containing a single deficiency of only MBP-1 or EPX, the absence of both granule proteins resulted in the near complete loss of peripheral blood eosinophils with no apparent impact on any other hematopoietic lineage. Moreover, the absence of MBP-1 and EPX promoted a concomitant loss of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors in the marrow, identifying a specific blockade in eosinophilopoiesis as the causative event. Significantly, this blockade of eosinophilopoiesis is also observed in ex vivo cultures of marrow progenitors and is not rescued in vivo by adoptive bone marrow engraftment, suggesting a cell-autonomous defect in marrow progenitors. These observations implicate a role for granule protein gene expression as a regulator of eosinophilopoiesis and provide another strain of mice congenitally deficient of eosinophils.
The delivery of biomolecules, including siRNAs (?21 bp) and large plasmids (?10 kbp), into living cells holds a great promise for therapeutic and research applications. Lipoplex nanoparticles are popular nanocarriers for gene delivery. In conventional transfection methods, the cellular uptake of lipoplex nanoparticels occurs through the endocytosis process. The entrapment of lipoplex nanoparticles into endocytic vesicle is a major barrier in achieving efficient gene silencing and expression. Here, a novel nanochannel electroporation (NEP) method is employed to facilitate the cellular uptake and release of siRNAs/DNAs from lipoplexes. First, it is demonstrated that in a NEP device, lipoplex nanoparticles can be injected directly into the cell cytoplasm within several seconds. Specifically, it is found that lipoplexes containing MCL-1 siRNA delivered by NEP can more efficiently down-regulate the expression of MCL-1 mRNA in A549 cancer cells than conventional transfection. Quantum dot-mediated Förster resonance energy transfer (QD-FRET) reveals that lipoplexes delivered via NEP can directly release siRNA in the cytoplasm without going through the endocytosis route, which unravels the responsible mechanism for efficient gene delivery. Furthermore, the advantage of combining NEP with lipoplex nanoparticles by the successful delivery of large plasmids (pCAG2LMKOSimO, 13 kbp) into CHO cells is demonstrated.
Many cationic lipids have been developed for lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) for delivery of siRNA and microRNA (miRNA). However, less attention has been paid to "helper lipids". Here, we investigated several "helper lipids" and examined their effects on the physicochemical properties such as particle size and zeta potential, as well as cellular uptake and transfection efficiency. We found that inclusion of oleic acid (OA), an unsaturated fatty acid, into the LNP formulation significantly enhanced the delivery efficacy for siRNA and miRNA. For proof-of-concept, miR-122, a liver-specific microRNA associated with many liver diseases, was used as a model agent to demonstrate the hepatic delivery efficacy both in tumor cells and in animals. Compared to Lipofectamine 2000, a commercial transfection agent, LNPs containing OA delivered microRNA-122 in a more efficient manner with a 1.8-fold increase in mature miR-122 expression and a 20% decrease in Bcl-w, a target of microRNA-122. In comparison with Invivofectamine, a commercial transfection agent specifically designed for hepatic delivery, LNPs containing OA showed comparable liver accumulation and in vivo delivery efficiency. These findings demonstrated the importance of "helper lipid" components of the LNP formulation on the cellular uptake and transfection activity of siRNA and miRNA. LNPs containing OA is a promising nanocarrier system for the delivery of RNA-based therapeutics in liver diseases.
Currently, there is no reliable tool to predict response to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Based on the fact that BCG is a Th1-polarizing immunotherapy, we attempt to correlate the pretreatment immunologic tumor microenvironment (Th1 or Th2) with response to therapy.
Social media platforms have revolutionized the way human beings communicate, yet there is little evidence describing how the plastic surgery community has adopted social media. In this article, the authors evaluate current trends in social media use by practicing plastic surgeons.
Eosinophils are generally linked to innate host defense against helminths, as well as the pathologies associated with allergic diseases, such as asthma. Nonetheless, the activities of eosinophils remain poorly understood, which in turn, has prevented detailed definitions of their role(s) in health and disease. Homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells was used to insert a mammalianized Cre recombinase in the ORF encoding Epx. This knock-in strategy overcame previous inefficiencies associated with eosinophil-specific transgenic approaches and led to the development of a knock-in strain of mice (eoCRE), capable of mediating recombination of "floxed" reporter cassettes in >95% of peripheral blood eosinophils. We also showed that this Cre expression was limited exclusively to eosinophil-lineage committed cells with no evidence of Cre-mediated toxicity. The efficiency and specificity of Cre expression in eoCRE mice were demonstrated further in a cross with a knock-in mouse containing a "(flox-stop-flox)" DTA cassette at the ROSA26 locus, generating yet another novel, eosinophil-less strain of mice. The development of eoCRE mice represents a milestone in studies of eosinophil biology, permitting eosinophil-specific gene targeting and overexpression in the mouse as part of next-generation studies attempting to define eosinophil effector functions.
A versatile method for achieving atomic carbide-bonded graphene networks on both metallic and non-metallic substrates is described. This consists of vacuum-assisted thermal exfoliation and floatation of functional graphenes at elevated temperatures, followed by deposition on substrates and in situ formation of carbide bonds. The cross-linked graphene networks with an interlayer distance of angstroms exhibits a unique combination of unprecedented properties.
MicroRNA-29b (miR-29b) expression has been shown to be reduced in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Here, we have identified the oncogene cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) as a direct target of miR-29b in lung cancer. We hypothesized that in vivo restoration of miR-29b and thus targeting of genes important to tumor initiation and progression may represent an option for lung cancer treatment. We developed a cationic lipoplexes (LPs)-based carrier that efficiently delivered miR-29b both in vitro and in vivo. LPs containing miR-29b (LP-miR-29b) efficiently delivered miR-29b to NSCLC A549 cells, reduced the expression of key targets CDK6, DNMT3B, and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), as well as cell growth and clonogenicity of A549 cells. In addition, the IC50 for cisplatin in the miR-29b-treated cells was effectively reduced. In a xenograft murine model, LPs efficiently accumulated at tumor sites. Systemic delivery of LP-miR-29b increased the tumor miR-29b expression by approximately fivefold, downregulated the tumor mRNA expression of CDK6, DNMT3B, and MCL1 by ~57.4, ~40.5, and ~52.4%, respectively, and significantly inhibited tumor growth by ~60% compared with LP-miR-NC (negative control). Our results demonstrate that cationic LPs represent an efficient delivery system that holds great potential in the development of miRNA-based therapeutics for lung cancer treatment.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e84; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.14; published online 16 April 2013.
The clinical course and eventual outcome, or prognosis, of complex diseases varies enormously between affected individuals. This variability critically determines the impact a disease has on a patients life but is very poorly understood. Here, we exploit existing genome-wide association study data to gain insight into the role of genetics in prognosis. We identify a noncoding polymorphism in FOXO3A (rs12212067: T > G) at which the minor (G) allele, despite not being associated with disease susceptibility, is associated with a milder course of Crohns disease and rheumatoid arthritis and with increased risk of severe malaria. Minor allele carriage is shown to limit inflammatory responses in monocytes via a FOXO3-driven pathway, which through TGF?1 reduces production of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF?, and increases production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10. Thus, we uncover a shared genetic contribution to prognosis in distinct diseases that operates via a FOXO3-driven pathway modulating inflammatory responses.
miR-122, a liver-specific tumor suppressor microRNA, is frequently down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LNP-DP1, a cationic lipid nanoparticle formulation, was developed as a vehicle to restore deregulated gene expression in HCC cells by miR-122 delivery. LNP-DP1 consists of 2-dioleyloxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-aminopropane (DODMA), egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and cholesterol-polyethylene glycol. In vitro, LNP-DP1-mediated transfection of a miR-122 mimic to HCC cells down-regulated miR-122 target genes by >95%. In vivo, siRNAs/miRNAs encapsulated in LNP-DP1 were preferentially taken up by hepatocytes and tumor cells in a mouse HCC model. The miR-122 mimic in LNP-DP1 was functional in HCC cells without causing systemic toxicity. To demonstrate its therapeutic potential, LNP-DP1 encapsulating miR-122 mimic was intratumorally injected and resulted in ~50% growth suppression of HCC xenografts within 30 days, which correlated well with suppression of target genes and impairment of angiogenesis. These data demonstrate the potential of LNP-DP1-mediated microRNA delivery as a novel strategy for HCC therapy.
Despite advances in chemo and immunotherapeutic agents for B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), the undesirable adverse side effects due to non-specific cellular uptake remain to be addressed. We identified anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody immunoliposomes (ILs) as vehicles for targeted delivery to B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. To achieve maximal benefits for all patients, a new strategy of dual-ligand immunoliposomes (dILs) was developed. A combinatorial antibody microarray technology was adapted to quickly identify optimal antibody combinations for individual patient cells. For proof-of-concept, a B-cell specific antibody, either anti-CD19 or anti-CD20, was combined with anti-CD37 to construct dILs with enhanced selectivity and efficacy. Consistent with data from the antibody microarray, these dILs provided highly specific targeting to both leukemia cell lines and B-CLL patient cells. Compared with the single antibody ILs, the anti-CD19/CD37 dILs clearly demonstrated superior delivery efficiency and apoptosis induction to B-CLL patient cells, whereas the anti-CD20/anti-CD37 dILs were found to be the most efficient for delivery to leukemia cell lines. In addition, it was observed that anti-CD37 ILs without payload drug mediated effective CD37 cross-linking and induced potent apoptosis induction. The anti-CD19/CD20 dILs showed the improved cell apoptosis induction compared to either anti-CD19 ILs or anti-CD20 ILs. Our findings suggest that the dual-ligand ILs may provide a preferred strategy of personalized nanomedicine for the treatment of B-cell malignancies.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), defined by resistance to the 2 most effective first-line drugs, isoniazid and rifampin, is on the rise globally and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the increasing availability of novel rapid diagnostic tools for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drug susceptibility testing, the clinical applicability of these methods is unsettled. In this study, the mechanisms of action and resistance of Mtb to isoniazid and rifampin, and the utility, advantages and limitations of the available Mtb drug susceptibility testing tools are reviewed, with particular emphasis on molecular methods with rapid turnaround including line probe assays, molecular beacon-based real-time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. The authors conclude that neither rapid molecular drug testing nor phenotypic methods are perfect in predicting Mtb drug susceptibility and therefore must be interpreted within the clinical context of each patient.
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) persistence or recurrence and the need for long-term surveillance can cause significant inconvenience and morbidity in patients. Currently, recurrence risk stratification is accomplished by using clinicopathologic factors, and serum thyroglobulin is the only commercially available marker for persistent or recurrent disease. The objective of this study was to determine microRNA (miRNA) expression in PTC and determine whether 1 or more miRNAs could be measured in plasma as a biomarker for recurrence.
Many delivery methods have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and facilitate the clinical translation of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. A facile surface-mediated nucleic acid delivery by lipoplexes is prepared in a microwell array, which combines the advantages of lipoplexes as an efficient carrier system, surface-mediated delivery, and the control of surface topography. Uniform disc-like lipoplexes containing nucleic acids are formed in the microwell array with a diameter of ?818 nm and thickness of ?195 nm. The microwell array-mediated delivery of lipoplexes containing FAM-oligodeoxynucleotides is ?18.6 and ?10.6 times more efficient than the conventional transfection method in an adherent cell line (A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells) and a suspension cell line (KG-1a acute myelogenous leukemia cells), respectively. MicroRNA-29b is then used as a model nucleic acid to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lipoplexes delivered by the microwell array. Compared to conventional transfection methods, the effective therapeutic dosage of microRNA-29b is reduced from the microgram level to the nanogram level by lipoplexes prepared in the microwell array. The microwell array is also a very flexible platform. Both nucleic acid therapeutics and imaging reagents are incorporated in lipoplexes and successfully delivered to A549 cells, demonstrating its potential applications in theranostic medicine.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension, which is associated with an increased risk of death. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, survival is directly related to the capacity of the right ventricle to adapt to elevated pulmonary vascular load. The relative importance of right ventricular function in IPF is not well understood. Our objective was to evaluate right ventricular echocardiographic and hemodynamic predictors of mortality in a cohort of patients with IPF referred for lung transplant evaluation.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants of modest-effect size at hundreds of loci for common autoimmune diseases; however, a substantial fraction of heritability remains unexplained, to which rare variants may contribute. To discover rare variants and test them for association with a phenotype, most studies re-sequence a small initial sample size and then genotype the discovered variants in a larger sample set. This approach fails to analyse a large fraction of the rare variants present in the entire sample set. Here we perform simultaneous amplicon-sequencing-based variant discovery and genotyping for coding exons of 25 GWAS risk genes in 41,911 UK residents of white European origin, comprising 24,892 subjects with six autoimmune disease phenotypes and 17,019 controls, and show that rare coding-region variants at known loci have a negligible role in common autoimmune disease susceptibility. These results do not support the rare-variant synthetic genome-wide-association hypothesis (in which unobserved rare causal variants lead to association detected at common tag variants). Many known autoimmune disease risk loci contain multiple, independently associated, common and low-frequency variants, and so genes at these loci are a priori stronger candidates for harbouring rare coding-region variants than other genes. Our data indicate that the missing heritability for common autoimmune diseases may not be attributable to the rare coding-region variant portion of the allelic spectrum, but perhaps, as others have proposed, may be a result of many common-variant loci of weak effect.
There is significant heterogeneity within the primary graft dysfunction (PGD) syndrome. We aimed to identify distinct grade 3 PGD phenotypes based on severity of lung dysfunction and patterns of resolution.
The PTEN tumor suppressor is a lipid phosphatase that has a central role in regulating the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction cascade. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the PTEN activity is regulated in cells needs further elucidation. Although previous studies have shown that ubiquitination of PTEN can modulate its stability and subcellular localization, the role of ubiquitination in the most critical aspect of PTEN function, its phosphatase activity, has not been fully addressed. Here, we identify a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase of PTEN, Ret finger protein (RFP), that is able to promote atypical polyubiquitinations of PTEN. These ubiquitinations do not lead to PTEN instability or relocalization, but rather significantly inhibit PTEN phosphatase activity and therefore modulate its ability to regulate the PI3K signal transduction cascade. Indeed, RFP overexpression relieves PTEN-mediated inhibitory effects on AKT activation; in contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous RFP enhances the ability of PTEN to suppress AKT activation. Moreover, RFP-mediated ubiquitination of PTEN inhibits PTEN-dependent activation of TRAIL expression and also suppresses its ability to induce apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role of RFP-mediated ubiquitination in controlling PTEN activity.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease. We recently described an animal model in which repeated epicutaneous applications of a house dust mite extract and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced eczematous skin lesions. In this study we showed that global gene expression patterns are very similar between human AD skin and allergen/staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced mouse skin lesions, particularly in the expression of genes related to epidermal growth/differentiation, skin barrier, lipid/energy metabolism, immune response, or extracellular matrix. In this model, mast cells and T cells, but not B cells or eosinophils, were shown to be required for the full expression of dermatitis, as revealed by reduced skin inflammation and reduced serum IgE levels in mice lacking mast cells or T cells (TCR?(-/-) or Rag1(-/-)). The clinical severity of dermatitis correlated with the numbers of mast cells, but not eosinophils. Consistent with the idea that T helper type 2 (Th2) cells play a predominant role in allergic diseases, the receptor for the Th2-promoting cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, were required to attain maximal clinical scores. Therefore, this clinically relevant model provides mechanistic insights into the pathogenic mechanism of human AD.
Therapeutic central neck dissection (CND) is an accepted part of the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), while prophylactic CND remains controversial. Regardless of the indication for CND, the lower anatomic border of the central compartment, specifically the inclusion or otherwise of level VII, is not always clearly defined in the literature. This study aimed to determine if the routine inclusion of level VII lymph node dissection as part of CND confers increased utility in the detection of macrometastatic lymph nodes compared with level VI dissection alone.
The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family represents a new class of cellular restriction factors that block early stages of viral replication; the underlying mechanism is currently not known. Here we provide evidence that IFITM proteins restrict membrane fusion induced by representatives of all three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins. IFITM1 profoundly suppressed syncytia formation and cell-cell fusion induced by almost all viral fusion proteins examined; IFITM2 and IFITM3 also strongly inhibited their fusion, with efficiency somewhat dependent on cell types. Furthermore, treatment of cells with IFN also markedly inhibited viral membrane fusion and entry. By using the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope and influenza A virus hemagglutinin as models for study, we showed that IFITM-mediated restriction on membrane fusion is not at the steps of receptor- and/or low pH-mediated triggering; instead, the creation of hemifusion was essentially blocked by IFITMs. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a chemical known to promote the transition from hemifusion to full fusion, was unable to rescue the IFITM-mediated restriction on fusion. In contrast, oleic acid (OA), a lipid analog that generates negative spontaneous curvature and thereby promotes hemifusion, virtually overcame the restriction. To explore the possible effect of IFITM proteins on membrane molecular order and fluidity, we performed fluorescence labeling with Laurdan, in conjunction with two-photon laser scanning and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We observed that the generalized polarizations (GPs) and fluorescence lifetimes of cell membranes expressing IFITM proteins were greatly enhanced, indicating higher molecularly ordered and less fluidized membranes. Collectively, our data demonstrated that IFITM proteins suppress viral membrane fusion before the creation of hemifusion, and suggested that they may do so by reducing membrane fluidity and conferring a positive spontaneous curvature in the outer leaflets of cell membranes. Our study provides novel insight into the understanding of how IFITM protein family restricts viral membrane fusion and infection.
The bark of magnolia has been used in Oriental medicine to treat a variety of remedies, including some neurological disorders. Magnolol (Mag) and honokiol (Hon) are isomers of polyphenolic compounds from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, and have been identified as major active components exhibiting anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigate the ability of these isomers to suppress oxidative stress in neurons stimulated by the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells activated by interferon-? (IFN?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also attempt to elucidate the mechanism and signaling pathways involved in cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglial cells.
BACKGROUND: The prognostic influence of lateral neck nodal metastases present at the time of diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains controversial. This study aims to document disease outcomes and nodal recurrence rates in such patients. METHODS: Patients with PTC and lateral neck nodal metastases who underwent concurrent total thyroidectomy, central and lateral compartment neck dissection between 2000 and 2010 were identified from the prospectively maintained surgical databases of The University of Sydney and University of Wisconsin Endocrine Surgical Units. Disease outcomes and nodal recurrence rates were compared at 12 months post-operatively and in longer-term follow-up. RESULTS: During this 11-year period, 121 patients were identified. Mean age was 45 years; 58% were female and 98% underwent post-operative radioactive iodine ablation. At a median follow-up of 31 months (range 12-140), there were no disease-specific deaths and disease-free survival (defined by stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) < 2.0??g/L, negative clinical and radiological examination) was 66%. Of the 50 patients with persistently elevated Tg measured 12 months post-operatively, 15 developed clinical lateral neck nodal recurrence. All have undergone re-operative surgery. Elevated stimulated Tg at 12 months post-operatively and a nodal ratio of >30% were significantly associated with an increased risk of lateral neck nodal recurrence. CONCLUSION: With total thyroidectomy, formal compartmental neck dissection and radioactive iodine treatment, disease-free survival can be achieved in the majority of patients with PTC and synchronous lateral neck nodal metastases. A persistently elevated Tg post-operatively and a high ratio of metastatic nodes identify patients at increased risk of locoregional recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.