The capacity of platelets to form a thrombus is mediated by integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). The cytoplasmic tail of alpha(IIb) contains a highly conserved motif, (989)KVGFFKR(995), which plays a critical role in regulating integrin activation and acts as a recognition site for various intracellular proteins, e.g. CIB1, PP1, ICln and RN181. Previously, we demonstrated that a cell-permeable integrin-derived activating (IDA) peptide, KVGFFKR, induces platelet activation, whereas an integrin-derived inhibitory (IDI) peptide, KVGAAKR, is antithrombotic. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying these opposite effects we investigate the affinity of known integrin alpha(IIb) binding proteins for the two immobilized peptides in dependence on the activation state of platelets by means of peptide-affinity chromatography, blotting techniques and protein:peptide docking studies. Our results provide a model for the inhibition of ICln interaction with the integrin in activated platelets by the IDI-peptide. Thus, ICln:IDI-peptide interaction profiles can have a pivotal purpose in the search for consensus pharmacophores specifically inhibiting ICln function in platelets potentially leading to the development of integrin-derived antithrombotic drugs.
A synthetic cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the highly conserved alpha-integrin signature motif, Palmityl-K(989)VGFFKR(995) (Pal-FF), induces integrin activation and aggregation in human platelets. Systematic replacement of the F(992)-F(993) with amino acids of greater or lesser hydrophobicity to create Pal-KVGxxKR peptides demonstrate that hydrophobic amino acids (isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan) are essential for agonist potency. In marked contrast, substitution with small and/or hydrophilic amino acids (glycine, alanine, serine) causes a switch in the biological activity resulting in inhibition of platelet aggregation, adhesion, ADP secretion, and thromboxane synthesis. These substituted, hydrophilic peptides are not true pharmacological antagonists, as they actively induce a phosphotyrosine signaling cascade in platelets. Singly substituted peptides (Pal-AF and Pal-FA) cause preferential retention of pro- or anti-thrombotic properties, respectively. Because the alpha-integrin signature motif is an established docking site for a number of diverse cytoplasmic proteins, we conclude that eliminating critical protein-protein interactions mediated through the hydrophobic amino acids, especially F(993), favors an anti-thrombotic pathway in platelets. Agents derived from the inhibitory peptides described in this study may represent a new therapeutic strategy for anti-platelet or anti-integrin drug development.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta (PTPRD) is a member of a large family of protein tyrosine phosphatases which negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation. Neuroblastoma is a major childhood cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system which is known to acquire deletions and alterations in the expression patterns of PTPRD, indicating a potential tumor suppressor function for this gene. The molecular mechanism, however, by which PTPRD renders a tumor suppressor effect in neuroblastoma is unknown.
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