Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4(-/-) mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ?430-460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. ?-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (?ARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor.
Vascular aging is closely associated with increased vascular stiffness. It has recently been demonstrated that decreased nitric oxide (NO)-induced S-nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to age-related vascular stiffness. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise restores NO signaling and attenuates vascular stiffness by decreasing TG2 activity and cross-linking in an aging rat model.
Central arterial wall stiffening, driven by a chronic inflammatory milieu, accompanies arterial diseases, the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in Western society. An increase in central arterial wall stiffening, measured as an increase in aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a major risk factor for clinical CV disease events. However, no specific therapies to reduce PWV are presently available. In rhesus monkeys, a 2 year diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) increases not only body weight and cholesterol, but also induces prominent central arterial wall stiffening and increases PWV and inflammation. The observed loss of endothelial cell integrity, lipid and macrophage infiltration, and calcification of the arterial wall were driven by genomic and proteomic signatures of oxidative stress and inflammation. Resveratrol prevented the HFS-induced arterial wall inflammation and the accompanying increase in PWV. Dietary resveratrol may hold promise as a therapy to ameliorate increases in PWV.
Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.
Nitric oxide (NO) can modulate arterial stiffness by regulating both functional and structural changes in the arterial wall. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) has been shown to contribute to increased central aortic stiffness by catalyzing the cross-linking of matrix proteins. NO S-nitrosylates and constrains TG2 to the cytosolic compartment and thereby holds its cross-linking function latent. In the present study, the role of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-derived NO in regulating TG2 function was studied using eNOS knockout mice. Matrix-associated TG2 and TG2 cross-linking function were higher, whereas TG2 S-nitrosylation was lower in the eNOS(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and blood pressure measured noninvasively were elevated in the eNOS(-/-) compared with WT mice. Intact aortas and decellularized aortic tissue scaffolds of eNOS(-/-) mice were significantly stiffer, as determined by tensile testing. The carotid arteries of the eNOS(-/-) mice were also stiffer, as determined by pressure-dimension analysis. Invasive methods to determine the PWV-mean arterial pressure relationship showed that PWV in eNOS(-/-) and WT diverge at higher mean arterial pressure. Thus eNOS-derived NO regulates TG2 localization and function and contributes to vascular stiffness.
Cigarette smoke increases the risk of several cardiovascular diseases and has synergistic detrimental effects when present with other risks that contribute to its pathogenesis. Oxidative injury to the endothelium via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) dysregulation is a common denominator of smoking-induced alterations in vascular function. However, the mechanisms underlying ROS and NO dysregulation due to smoking remain unclear. We tested if arginase (Arg) activation/upregulation contributes to this phenomenon by constraining nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity.
Red blood cell (RBC) deformation is critical for microvascular perfusion and oxygen delivery to tissues. Abnormalities in RBC deformability have been observed in aging, sickle cell disease, diabetes, and preeclampsia. Although nitric oxide (NO) prevents decreases in RBC deformability, the underlying mechanism is unknown.
Essential hypertension (HT) is associated with endothelial dysfunction augmented vasoconstriction (VC) which may be secondary to increased Rho/Rho-Kinase (ROCK)-dependent mechanisms. Our aim was to assess the in vivo magnitude of cutaneous VC to local cooling as a ROCK specific stimulus, and in vitro evaluate ROCK activity in the skin from HT humans. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm of 9 pre- to stage I hypertensive (MAP: 106±3 mm Hg) and 11 normotensive (NT; 86±1 mm Hg) men and women: Ringers (control), 3mM fasudil (ROCK inhibited), 5mM yohimbine+1mM proprananol (?- and ?-adrenoceptor inhibited; Y+P), Y+P+3mM fasudil (ROCK and adrenocepor inhibited). Skin blood flow was measured during local cooling (Tskl 24°C) and ROCK activity in the skin biopsy samples was determined with western blot. In vitro phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (pMYPT-1)/ROCK was increased in the HT skin samples (p=0.0018). Functionally, no difference in basal vasomotor tone (Tskl 34°C) was observed between the groups (HT: 0.36±0.07 vs. NT: 0.31±0.07 CVC), nor at the control site during local cooling. Pre- to stage 1 hypertensives show greater ROCK-mediated vasoconstriction at early (1-5 min; HT: -0.8±0.2 versus NT: -0.3±0.2 ?CVC baseline 1; P<0.0001) and late (36-40 min; HT: -0.9±0.1 versus NT: -0.5±0.2 ?CVC baseline 1; P<0.0001) phases of local cooling. These data suggest that the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling does not differ in normotensive and pre- to stage I essential hypertensive humans; however, ROCK activity is increased and functional vasoconstriction is increasingly dependent upon Rho/ROCK mechanisms with essential hypertension.
Arginase-II (Arg-II) reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and offsets basal myocardial contractility. Furthermore, decreased or absent myocardial NOS activity is associated with a depression in myocardial contractile reserve. We therefore hypothesized that upregulation of Arg-II might in part be responsible for depressed myocardial contractility associated with age. We studied arginase activity/expression, NOS expression, NO production in the presence and absence of the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-L: -cysteine (BEC) in old (22 months) and young (3 months) rat hearts and myocytes. The spatial confinement of Arg-II and NOS was determined with immuno-electron-miocrographic (IEM) and immuno-histochemical studies. We tested the effect of BEC on the force frequency response (FFR) in myocytes, as well as NOS abundance and activity. Arginase activity and Arg-II expression was increased in old hearts (2.27 ± 0.542 vs. 0.439 ± 0.058 nmol urea/mg protein, p = 0.02). This was associated with a decrease in NO production, which was restored with BEC (4.54 ± 0.582 vs. 12.88 ± 0.432 ?mol/mg, p < 0.01). IEM illustrates increased mitochondrial density in old myocytes (51.7 ± 1.8 vs. 69 ± 2.2 × 10(6)/cm(2), p < 0.01), potentially contributing to increased Arg-II abundance and activity. Immunohistochemistry revealed an organized pattern of mitochondria and Arg-II that appears disrupted in old myocytes. The FFR was significantly depressed in old myocytes (61.42 ± 16.04 vs. -5.15 ± 5.65%), while inhibition of Arg-II restored the FFR (-5.15 ± 5.65 vs. 70.98 ± 6.10%). NOS-2 is upregulated sixfold in old hearts contributing to increased production of reactive oxygen species which is attenuated with NOS-2 inhibition by 1400 W (4,735 ± 427 vs. 4,014 ± 314 RFU/min/mg protein, p = 0.005). Arg-II upregulation in aging rat hearts contributes to age-related decreased contractile function.
Essential hypertension is a proinflammatory, proconstrictor disease coinciding with endothelial dysfunction and inward vessel remodeling. Using the skin circulation, our aim was to determine whether inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upregulation attenuates NO-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in hypertensive humans. We hypothesized that, with hypertension, localized iNOS inhibition would restore vasodilation in response to NO-dependent stimuli, and iNOS expression would be increased and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein would be decreased. For, in vivo protocols, 4 intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in 9 hypertensive and 10 normotensive men and women (systolic blood pressure: 146±4 versus 113±2 mm Hg; P<0.001). Microdialysis fibers served as control, iNOS inhibited (1400 W), neuronal NO synthase inhibited (N(?)-propyl-l-arginine), and nonselective NOS inhibited (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester). Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated (percentage of sodium nitroprusside) during standardized local heating (42°C) and acetylcholine dose-response protocols (0.01, 0.10, 1.00, 5.00, 10.00, 50.00, 100.00 mmol/L). The NO-dependent local heating response was attenuated at control (95±2% versus 76±2% cutaneous vascular conductance; P<0.05) and neuronal NO synthase-inhibited sites (94±4% versus 77±3% cutaneous vascular conductance; P<0.01) in hypertensives. iNOS inhibition augmented the NO-dependent local heating response (93±2% versus 89±10% cutaneous vascular conductance). Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was attenuated in control sites at doses ?0.1 mmol/L of acetylcholine in hypertensives and was restored with iNOS inhibition (0.1 mmol/L, P<0.05; 1, 5, and 10 mmol/L, P<0.001; 50 and 100 mmol/L, P<0.01). In vitro iNOS expression was increased (P=0.006) and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein was decreased in skin from hypertensive humans (P=0.04). These data suggest that iNOS is upregulated in essential hypertensive humans and contributes to reduced NO-dependent cutaneous vasodilation.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous second messenger which acts as a potent vasodilator, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and pro-angiogenic agent in the vasculature. Recent studies revealed that the effects of NO on blood vessels are mediated in part by its ability to regulate protein trafficking machinery and vesicle-based exocytosis in vascular cells. Specifically, NO-dependent S-nitrosylation of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase that enables membrane fusion, was shown to inhibit exocytosis of vesicular secretory compartments such as endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, platelet alpha granules and cytolytic granules from activated lymphocytes. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG or TG2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized and secreted by various cell types in the vasculature, which is involved in multiple vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and age-dependent aortic stiffening. Our recent findings indicate that tTG is delivered to the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (ECM) via a non-classical ER/Golgi-independent secretion pathway, which depends on the recycling endosomes and the NSF function. Here we report that NO attenuates the unconventional secretion of tTG in human aortic endothelial cells. NO-dependent downregulation of extracellular tTG levels via inhibition of its secretion might be a part of general physiological mechanism which limits externalization of adhesive, pro-inflammatory and thrombogenic proteins in the vasculature.
The multifunctional enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) contributes to the development and progression of several cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular rather than intracellular TG2 is enzymatically active, however, the mechanism by which it is exported out of the cell remains unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to constrain TG2 externalization in endothelial and fibroblast cells. Here, we examined the role of both exogenous and endogenous (endothelial cell-derived) NO in regulating TG2 localization in vascular cells and tissue. NO synthase inhibition in endothelial cells (ECs) using N-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) led to a time-dependent decrease in S-nitrosation and increase in externalization of TG2. Laminar shear stress led to decreased extracellular TG2 in ECs. S-nitrosoglutathione treatment led to decreased activity and externalization of TG2 in human aortic smooth muscle and fibroblast (IMR90) cells. Co-culture of these cells with ECs resulted in increased S-nitrosation and decreased externalization and activity of TG2, which was reversed by L-NAME. Aged Fischer 344 rats had higher tissue scaffold-associated TG2 compared to young. NO regulates intracellular versus extracellular TG2 localization in vascular cells and tissue, likely via S-nitrosation. This in part, explains increased TG2 externalization and activity in aging aorta.
Arginase constrains endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by competing for the common substrate, L -Arginine. We have recently shown that inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) S-nitrosates and activates arginase 1 (Arg1) leading to age-associated vascular dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that a direct interaction of Arg1 with NOS2 is necessary for its S-nitrosation. The specific domain of NOS2 that mediates this interaction is identified. Disruption of this interaction in human aortic endothelial cells prevents Arg1 S-nitrosation and activation. Thus, disruption of NOS2-Arg1 interaction may represent a therapeutic strategy to attenuate age related vascular endothelial dysfunction.
Elevated low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are associated with vascular dysfunction evident in the cutaneous microvasculature. We hypothesized that uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) through upregulated arginase contributes to cutaneous microvascular dysfunction in hyperocholesterolaemic (HC) humans and that a statin intervention would decrease arginase activity. Five microdialysis fibres were placed in the skin of nine normocholesterolaemic (NC: LDL level 95±4 mg dl?¹) and nine hypercholesterolaemic (HC: LDL: 177±6 mg dl?¹) men and women before and after 3 months of systemic atrovastatin. Sites served as control, NOS inhibited, arginase inhibited, L-arginine supplemented and arginase inhibited plus L-arginine supplemented. Skin blood flow was measured while local skin heating (42°C) induced NO-dependent vasodilatation. L-NAME was infused after the established plateau in all sites to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. Data were normalized to maximum cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC(max)). Skin samples were obtained to measure total arginase activity and arginase I and arginase II protein. Vasodilatation was reduced in hyperocholesterolaemic subjects (HC: 76±2 vs. NC: 94±3%CVC(max), P < 0.001) as was NO-dependent vasodilatation (HC: 43±5 vs. NC: 62±4%CVC(max), P < 0.001). The plateau and NO-dependent vasodilatation were augmented in HC with arginase inhibition (92±2, 67±2%CVC(max), P < 0.001), L-arginine (93±2, 71±5%CVC(max), P < 0.001) and combined treatments (94±4, 65±5%CVC(max), P < 0.001) but not in NC. After statin intervention (LDL: 98±5 mg dl?¹) there was no longer a difference between control sites (88±4, 61±5%CVC(max)) and localized microdialysis treatment sites (all P > 0.05). Arginase activity and protein were increased in HC skin (P < 0.05 vs. NC) and activity decreased with atrovastatin treatment (P < 0.05). Reduced NOS3 substrate availability through upregulated arginase contributes to cutaneous microvascular dysfunction in hyperocholesterolaemic humans, which is corrected with atorvastatin therapy.
Although an age-related decrease in NO bioavailability contributes to vascular stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that NO constrains the activity of the matrix crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) via S-nitrosylation in young vessels, a process that is reversed in aging.
Radiation exposure is associated with the development of various cardiovascular diseases. Although irradiation is known to cause elevated oxidant stress and chronic inflammation, both of which are detrimental to vascular function, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that radiation causes endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular stiffness by xanthine oxidase (XO) activation. In this study, we investigated whether dietary inhibition of XO protects against radiation-induced vascular injury. We exposed 4-mo-old rats to a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy gamma radiation. These rats received normal drinking water or water containing 1 mM oxypurinol, an XO inhibitor. We measured XO activity and superoxide production in rat aorta and demonstrated that both were significantly elevated 2 wk after radiation exposure. However, oxypurinol treatment in irradiated rats prevented aortic XO activation and superoxide elevation. We next investigated endothelial function through fluorescent measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular tension dose responses. Radiation reduced endothelium-dependent NO production in rat aorta. Similarly, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the aorta of irradiated rats was significantly attenuated compared with the control group. Dietary XO inhibition maintained NO production at control levels and prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, pulse wave velocity, a measure of vascular stiffness, increased by 1 day postirradiation and remained elevated 2 wk after irradiation, despite unchanged blood pressures. In oxypurinol-treated rats, pulse wave velocities remained unchanged from baseline throughout the experiment, signifying preserved vascular health. These findings demonstrate that XO inhibition can offer protection from radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications.
There is increasing evidence that upregulation of arginase contributes to impaired endothelial function in aging. In this study, we demonstrate that arginase upregulation leads to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and that in vivo chronic inhibition of arginase restores nitroso-redox balance, improves endothelial function, and increases vascular compliance in old rats. Arginase activity in old rats was significantly increased compared with that shown in young rats. Old rats had significantly lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher superoxide (O2(-)) production than young. Acute inhibition of both NOS, with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and arginase, with 2S-amino- 6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), significantly reduced O2(-) production in old rats but not in young. In addition, the ratio of eNOS dimer to monomer in old rats was significantly decreased compared with that shown in young rats. These results suggest that eNOS was uncoupled in old rats. Although the expression of arginase 1 and eNOS was similar in young and old rats, inducible NOS (iNOS) was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 was significantly elevated in old rats. These findings support our previously published finding that iNOS nitrosylates and activates arginase 1 (Santhanam et al., Circ Res 101: 692-702, 2007). Chronic arginase inhibition in old rats preserved eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio and significantly reduced O2(-) production and enhanced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation to ACh. In addition, ABH significantly reduced vascular stiffness in old rats. These data indicate that iNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 and the increase in arginase activity lead to eNOS uncoupling, contributing to the nitroso-redox imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular stiffness observed in vascular aging. We suggest that arginase is a viable target for therapy in age-dependent vascular stiffness.
Extracorporeal circulation provides critical life support in the face of cardiopulmonary or renal failure, but it also introduces a host of unique morbidities characterized by edema formation, cardiac insufficiency, autonomic dysfunction, and altered vasomotor function. We tested the hypothesis that cyclohexanone (CHX), a solvent used in production of extracorporeal circuits and intravenous (IV) bags, leaches into the contained fluids and can replicate these clinical morbidities. Crystalloid fluid samples from circuits and IV bags were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to provide a range of clinical CHX exposure levels, revealing CHX contamination of sampled fluids (9.63-3,694 microg/l). In vivo rat studies were conducted (n = 49) to investigate the effects of a bolus IV infusion of CHX vs. saline alone on cardiovascular function, baroreflex responsiveness, and edema formation. Cardiovascular function was evaluated by cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, vascular resistance, arterial pressure, and ventricular contractility. Baroreflex function was assessed by mean femoral arterial pressure responses to bilateral carotid occlusion. Edema formation was assessed by the ratio of wet to dry organ weights for lungs, liver, kidneys, and skin. CHX infusion led to systemic hypotension; pulmonary hypertension; depressed contractility, heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output; and elevated vascular resistance (P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure responsiveness to carotid occlusion was dampened after CHX infusion (from +17.25 +/- 1.8 to +5.61 +/- 3.2 mmHg; P < 0.05). CHX infusion led to significantly higher wet-to-dry weight ratios vs. saline only (3.8 +/- 0.06 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). CHX can reproduce clinical cardiovascular, neurological, and edema morbidities associated with extracorporeal circulatory treatment.
Although ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is increasingly being used to evaluate and manipulate potential donor lungs before lung transplantation (LTx), data on the biochemistry of lungs during EVLP are limited. In this study, we examined the physiology and biochemistry of human lungs on an EVLP circuit.
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common complication of lung transplantation (LTx). Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a novel agent previously shown to slow metabolism and scavenge reactive oxygen species, potentially mitigating IRI. We hypothesized that pretreatment with inhaled H(2)S would improve graft function in an ex vivo model of LTx.
Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation but little is known about the middle aged, an age cohort used for comparison with clinical populations. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the primary isoform mediating NO production during local heating, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation would be reduced in middle-aged skin. Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) and during acetylcholine dose-response (ACh-DR: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0 mmol/l) protocols. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 24 men and women; age cohorts were 12 middle-aged (53 ± 1 yr) and 12 young (23 ± 1 yr). Sites served as control, nonselective NOS inhibited [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)], inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibited (1400W), and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibited (N(?)-propyl-l-arginine). After full expression of the local heating response, l-NAME was perfused at all sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured and normalized to maximum (%CVC(max): Nitropress). l-NAME reduced %CVCmax at baseline, all phases of the local heating response, and at all ACh concentrations compared with all other sites. iNOS inhibition reduced the initial peak (53 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2%CVC(max); P < 0.001); however, there were no other differences between control, nNOS-, and iNOS-inhibited sites during the phases of local heating or ACh-DR. When age cohorts were compared, NO-dependent vasodilation during local heating (52 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 4%CVC(max); P = 0.013) and ACh perfusion (50 mmol/l: 83 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 2%CVC(max); 100 mmol/l: 83 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 3%CVC(max); both P = 0.03) were reduced in middle-aged skin. There were no differences in NOS isoform expression obtained from skin biopsy samples between groups (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that eNOS mediates the production of NO during local heating and that cutaneous vasodilation is attenuated in middle-aged skin.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common complication after lung transplantation. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a novel agent that has been previously shown to scavenge ROS and slow metabolism. We evaluated the effect of infused H(2)S on the presence of ROS after reperfusion in an ex vivo model of lung transplantation.
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