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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Co-intercalation of Acid Red 337 and an UV Absorbent into Layered Double Hydroxides: Enhancement of Photostability.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Organic-inorganic hybrid pigments with enhanced thermo- and photostability have been prepared by co-intercalating C.I. Acid Red 337 (AR337) and an UV absorbent (BP-4) into the interlayer of ZnAl layered double hydroxides through a co-precipitation method. The obtained compounds were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TG-DTG-DTA, UV-vis and CIE 1976 L*a*b* color scales. The results show the successful co-intercalation of AR337 and BP-4 into the interlayer region of LDHs and reveal the presence of host-guest interactions between LDHs host layers and guest anions of AR337 and BP-4 as well as guest-guest interactions between AR337 and BP-4. The intercalation can improve the thermostability of AR337 due to the protection of LDHs layers. Moreover, the co-intercalation of AR337 and BP-4 not only markedly enhances the photostability of AR337 but also has significant influence on the color property of the hybrid pigment.
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[Role of SPHK1 Regulates Multi-drug Resistance of Small Cell Lung Cancer?and Its Clinical Significance].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Approximately 15% of all histological types consist of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment method. Though the current first-line standard chemotherapy regimen for SCLC is active in most SCLC cases, however the disease recurs shortly after the first successful treatment with multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Our previously study showed that SPHK1 was associated with MDR in SCLC. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) showed in small cell lung multi-drug resistance.
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Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Weekly Paclitaxel and Cisplatin Followed by Radical Hysterectomy in Stages IB2 and IIA2 Cervical Cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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To define the optimal dose of paclitaxel combining cisplatin, as weekly neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for early-stage bulky squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
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[Research Advances on Anti-ANGPT2 Antibody in Acute Myeloid Leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Angiopoietin2( ANGPT2 ) plays an important role in tumor angiopoiesis. ANGPT2 antagonises ANGPT1 resulting in an effect on the stability of blood vessels, which promotes tumor growth, invasion, proliferation as well as relating to tumor vascular density. A lot of researches published papers about anti-ANGPT2 for the treatment of tumor, and have made some progresses. In this review, the role of ANGPT2 in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), including its effects on proliferation of leukemia cells, bone marrow angiopoiesis, tumor invasion and metastasis are briefly summarised in order to provide the basis for targeted ANGPT2 in treatment of AML.
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Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: Evidence from preschool children who stutter.
Clin Linguist Phon
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M?=?4:9; range?=?3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.
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Comparison of the concentrations of metal elements and isotopes of lead found in rice and rice bran.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Very few studies have investigated the difference in the distribution of metal elements between rice and rice bran samples. In this study, the concentrations of 27 metal elements (Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in 56 polished rice and their corresponding bran samples were determined. A significant difference in concentrations of all elements except Ag and Cd was found between rice and bran (P < 0.05), with bran/rice ratios of 1.21 to 36.3. High concentrations of metal elements, especially that of the heavy metal Cr, in bran samples present a potential safety issue for bran products, such as food and feed containing bran. Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios also were determined. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in bran were generally higher than those in rice (P < 0.0001), and rice and bran samples were distinctly different from each other, indicating that Pb isotope composition is an effective for discriminating between bran and rice samples.
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Immobilization of ultrafine bimetallic Ni-Pt nanoparticles inside the pores of metal-organic frameworks as efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of alkaline solution of hydrazine.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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We report a facile liquid impregnation approach for immobilization of ultrafine bimetallic Ni-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) inside the pores of MIL-101. The methods of powder X-ray diffraction, N2 physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy were employed to characterize the NiPt@MIL-101 catalysts and further indicated the as-synthesized Ni-Pt NPs were confined in the pores of MIL-101. These as-synthesized bimetallic NiPt@MIL-101 NPs exhibit exceedingly high catalytic activity, selectivity, and durability toward hydrogen generation from alkaline solution of hydrazine.
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Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators (WGMRs) have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nano-objects. The ultimate sensitivity of WGMRs is determined by the strength of the light-matter interaction quantified by quality factor/mode volume, Q/V, and the resolution is determined by Q. To date, to improve sensitivity and precision of detection either WGMRs have been doped with rare-earth ions to compensate losses and increase Q or plasmonic resonances have been exploited for their superior field confinement and lower V. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, enhanced detection of single-nanoparticle-induced mode splitting in a silica WGMR via Raman gain-assisted loss compensation and WGM Raman microlaser. In particular, the use of the Raman microlaser provides a dopant-free, self-referenced, and self-heterodyned scheme with a detection limit ultimately determined by the thermorefractive noise. Notably, we detected and counted individual nanoparticles with polarizabilities down to 3.82 × 10(-6) ?m(3) by monitoring a heterodyne beatnote signal. This level of sensitivity is achieved without exploiting plasmonic effects, external references, or active stabilization and frequency locking. Single nanoparticles are detected one at a time; however, their characterization by size or polarizability requires ensemble measurements and statistical averaging. This dopant-free scheme retains the inherited biocompatibility of silica and could find widespread use for sensing in biological media. The Raman laser and operation band of the sensor can be tailored for the specific sensing environment and the properties of the targeted materials by changing the pump laser wavelength. This scheme also opens the possibility of using intrinsic Raman or parametric gain for loss compensation in other systems where dissipation hinders progress and limits applications.
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Evaluation of respiratory impedance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by an impulse oscillation system.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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An impulse oscillometry system (IOS) assesses pulmonary resistance and reactance. The present study investigated which IOS measurement is correlated with airflow obstruction, airway conductance and lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 180 patients with COPD were selected and 95 agreed to follow?up 1 year after the initial tests. IOS measurements [R5, R20, X5 and resonant frequency (Fres)], body plethysmography [forced end?expiratory flow (FEF)75, total lung capacity, residual volume (RV) and total inspiratory resistance (Rtot)] and spirometry [forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)] were performed. Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests were used to determine the correlation between the IOS and other measurements. R5, X5 and Fres were all significantly associated (P<0.05) with FEV1, FEF75, RV and Rtot. However, R20 was not correlated with these measurements except from FEF75 and Rtot (r values were all<0.25). The strongest associations were observed with FEV1 and the reactance measurements X5 (r=0.635), Fres (r=?0.721) and R5 (r=?0.496); FEF75 with X5 (r=0.505), Fres (r=?0.629) and R5 (r=?0.468); RV with X5 (r=?0.485), Fres (r=0.570) and R5 (r=0.326); and Rtot with X5 (r=?0.691), Fres (r=0.632) and R5 (r=0.570). There was a significant increase in FEV1 and X5 after one year as compared with the RV. The other measurements did not change over the year. The changes in X5, Fres and R5 were significantly correlated with the changes in FEV1 and the correlation coefficients were 0.355, ?0.364 and ?0.381, respectively. Similarly, the changes in X5, Fres and R5 were significantly correlated with the changes in RV and the correlation coefficients were ?0.264, 0.287 and 0.318, respectively. In the COPD patients, the IOS reactance measurements were more closely correlated with other pulmonary function measurements rather than with resistance measurements. The IOS reactance measurements, particularly X5, appear to indicate changes in pulmonary compliance caused by airflow obstruction.
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Facile method for preparing surface-mounted cucurbit[8]uril-based rotaxanes.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Surface-immobilized rotaxanes are of practical interest for myriad applications including molecular rotors and analytical sensing. Herein, we present a facile method for the preparation of cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8])-based rotaxanes on gold (Au) surfaces threaded onto a viologen (MV(2+)) axle. The surface-bound CB[8] rotaxanes were characterized by contact angle measurements and optical microscopy. Direct imaging of the rotaxanes was accomplished by attaching either azobenzene-functionalized silica (Si-azo) colloids or fluorescein-labeled dopamine that were bound to the Au surface through a supramolecular heteroternary (1:1:1) complex with CB[8]. The surface density of CB[8] rotaxanes was examined based on their detection of dopamine. The calculated surface density is 4.8 × 10(13) molecules·cm(-2), which is only slightly lower than the theoretical value of 5.0 × 10(13) molecules·cm(-2). Surface-functionalized rotaxanes can be reversibly switched using external stimuli to bind electron-rich second guests for CB[8], including both small molecules such as dopamine and appropriately-functionalized colloidal particles. Such controlled reversibility gives rise to potential applications including selective sensing or reusable templates for preparing well-defined colloidal arrays. The formation of the surface-bound rotaxane structure is critical for successfully anchoring CB[8] host molecules onto Au substrates, yielding an interlocked architecture and preventing the dissociation of binary host-guest complex MV(2+)?CB[8]. The MV(2+)?CB[8] rotaxane structure thus effectively maintains the material density on the Au surface and dramatically enhances the stability of the functional surface.
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Association of roasting meat intake with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh Chinese via affecting promoter methylation of p16 gene.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence is high in Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. Roasting food has been reported to be related with the risk of various cancers and is very popular in the area, and may be related with the risk of ESCC. The promoter methylation inactivation of p16 gene can increase the risk of ESCC. Thus, we want to know whether long-term roasting food is related with the risk of ESCC by effecting the promoter methylation of p16 gene.
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An AAA-DDD Triply Hydrogen-Bonded Complex Easily Accessible for Supramolecular Polymers.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7) ?M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials.
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Adaptations to a subterranean environment and longevity revealed by the analysis of mole rat genomes.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis) and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber). Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.
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Antimicrobial glycoalkaloids from the tubers of Stephania succifera.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Three new glycoalkaloids, N-formyl-asimilobine-2-O-?-D-glucoside (1), (-)-1-O-?-D-glucoside-8-oxotetrahydropalmatine (2), and 1-N-monomethylcarbamate-argentinine-3-O-?-D-glucoside (3) were isolated from tubers of Stephania succifera. The structures were established based on spectroscopic analysis, and the antimicrobial activities of the three glycoalkaloids are reported.
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Tooth loss inhibits neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Tooth loss has been shown to affect learning and memory in mice and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The dentate gyrus is strongly associated with cognitive function. This study hypothesized that tooth loss affects neurons in the dentate gyrus. Adult male mice were randomly assigned to either the tooth loss group or normal control group. In the tooth loss group, the left maxillary and mandibular molars were extracted. Normal control mice did not receive any intervention. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the density and absorbance of doublecortin- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells were lower in the tooth loss group than in the normal control group. These data suggest that tooth loss may inhibit neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice.
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PT-symmetric phonon laser.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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By exploiting recent developments associated with coupled microcavities, we introduce the concept of the PT-symmetric phonon laser with balanced gain and loss. This is accomplished by introducing gain to one of the microcavities such that it balances the passive loss of the other. In the vicinity of the gain-loss balance, a strong nonlinear relation emerges between the intracavity-photon intensity and the input power. This then leads to a giant enhancement of both optical pressure and mechanical gain, resulting in a highly efficient phonon-lasing action. These results provide a promising approach for manipulating optomechanical systems through PT-symmetric concepts. Potential applications range from enhancing mechanical cooling to designing phonon-laser amplifiers.
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Estimation and approximation approaches for biosimilar index based on reproducibility probability.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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In recent years, quantitative evaluation for biosimilarity has been taken seriously due to the development of biosimilar products. The concept for assessment of biological products is very different from that of small-molecule drug products because of the variability with respect to the manufacturing process and environmental factors of the biological products. In this article, we propose an estimate method for a biosimilar index and the related lower bound based on the concept of reproducibility probability by assessing power. In addition, some approximations are proposed and compared in regard to simplicity and accuracy.
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[Clinical effect of endotracheal lavage with porcine pulmonary surfactant in term neonates with severe meconium aspiration syndrome].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To evaluate the clinical effect of endotracheal lavage with porcine pulmonary surfactant (PS) in term neonates with severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS).
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Butylidenephthalide blocks potassium channels and enhances basal tension in isolated guinea-pig trachea.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Butylidenephthalide (Bdph, 30~300??M), a constituent of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., significantly enhanced tension in isolated guinea-pig trachea. In this study, we investigate the mechanism(s) of Bdph-induced contraction in the tissue. Isolated trachea was bathed in 5?mL of Krebs solution containing indomethacin (3??M), and its tension changes were isometrically recorded. Cromakalim (3??M), an ATP-dependent K+ channel opener, significantly antagonized the Bdph-induced enhancement of baseline tension. Bdph (300??M) also significantly antagonized cromakalim-induced relaxation. Bdph (300??M) did not significantly influence the antagonistic effects of glibenclamide (GBC, 1??M) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 8?mM) against the cromakalim-induced relaxation. However, Bdph (300??M) and 4-aminopiridine (4-AP, 5?mM), a blocker of K v 1 family of K+ channels, in combination significantly rightward shifted the log concentration-relaxation curve of cromakalim. The antagonistic effect of the combination almost equals the sum of the individual effects of Bdph and 4-AP, suggesting that the antagonistic mechanism of Bdph may be similar to that of 4-AP. All calcium channel blockers influenced neither the baseline tension nor antagonistic effect of Bdph against cromakalim. In conclusion, Bdph may be similar to 4-AP, a blocker of K v 1 family of K+ channels, to enhance the baseline tension of guinea-pig trachea.
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Efficient host-guest energy transfer in polycationic cyclophane-perylene diimide complexes in water.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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We report the self-assembly of a series of highly charged supramolecular complexes in aqueous media composed of cyclobis(4,4'-(1,4-phenylene)bispyridine-p-phenylene)tetrakis(chloride) (ExBox) and three dicationic perylene diimides (PDIs). Efficient energy transfer (ET) is observed between the host and guests. Additionally, we show that our hexacationic complexes are capable of further complexation with neutral cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), producing a 3-polypseudorotaxane via the self-assembly of orthogonal recognition moieties. ExBox serves as the central ring, complexing to the PDI core, while two CB[7]s behave as supramolecular stoppers, binding to the two outer quaternary ammonium motifs. The formation of the 3-polypseudorotaxane results in far superior photophysical properties of the central PDI unit relative to the binary complexes at stoichiometric ratios. Lastly, we also demonstrate the ability of our binary complexes to act as a highly selective chemosensing ensemble for the neurotransmitter melatonin.
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Association of IL-8-251A>T polymorphisms with oral cancer risk: evidences from a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The findings of associations between interleukin-8 (IL-8) polymorphisms and risk of oral cancer are controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis on the basis of data from all published studies to provide evidence of the current understanding of the genetic association with oral cancer. Eligible studies were identified by means of an electronic search of PubMed, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, EBSCO, and CBM databases for studies published up to March 2013. In accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of six eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. In the overall analysis, we did not observe any significant associations between the IL-8-251A>T polymorphism and oral cancer risk under any of the genetic models (all P?>?0.05). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, Caucasian individuals with genotype AA had a higher risk of oral cancer under the dominant model (OR?=?1.35, 95 % CI 1.09-1.67, P?=?0.006). This meta-analysis indicated that the IL-8-251A>T polymorphism was not associated with the susceptibility of oral cancer, while individuals in the Caucasian population with genotype AA had a higher risk of oral cancer under the dominant model.
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Common polymorphism in the MMP-13 gene may contribute to the risk of human cancers: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Cancer was viewed to be driven by accumulating genetic abnormalities that generally include chromosomal abnormalities, mutations in tumor-suppressor genes, and oncogenes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically summarize the possible associations between MMP-13 rs2252070 A>G variant and cancer risks. We systematically reviewed studies focusing on MMP-13 polymorphisms with human cancer susceptibility that were published before April 30, 2014. Relevant articles were identified through research of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, CBM, and CNKI databases. All analyses were calculated using the Version 12.0 STATA software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated. Eleven independent case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis, which involved 3,465 patients with cancers and 4,073 healthy controls. The results identified a positive association between rs2252070 A>G polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer under five genetic models (all P?G polymorphism with increased risk of cancers among Asians and Caucasians in majority of the groups. Our findings suggest significant association for MMP-13 rs2252070 A>G to increased susceptibility to human cancer, especially in the progression of lung carcinoma.
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Zone-size nonuniformity of (18)F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC.
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[Correlations between 6-mercaptopurine treatment-related adverse reactions in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and polymorphisms of thiopurine methyltransferase gene].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To explore 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) treatment-related adverse reactions in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to assess the association between the polymorphisms of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) gene and these 6-MP related toxicities.
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Supramolecular colloidosomes: fabrication, characterisation and triggered release of cargo.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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We report a one-step method of assembling supramolecular colloidosomes at the interface of microfluidic droplets. The self-assembly process utilises a versatile CB[8] host-guest system to reversibly crosslink polystyrene nanoparticles via a polyacrylamide linker. These micrometre-sized hollow structures can be loaded with water-soluble cargo during formation, which can then undergo triggered release.
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Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent.
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Treatment failure in endometrial carcinoma.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Our aim was to investigate the outcomes and prognostic factors after treatment failure of endometrial cancer.
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What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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There has been an increasing interest in all-optical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting. Despite the differences in their underlying physics, both electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting are quantified by a transparency window in the absorption or transmission spectrum, which often leads to a confusion about its origin. While the transparency window in electromagnetically induced transparency is a result of Fano interference among different transition pathways, in Autler-Townes splitting it is the result of strong field-driven interactions leading to the splitting of energy levels. Being able to tell objectively whether an observed transparency window is because of electromagnetically induced transparency or Autler-Townes splitting is crucial for applications and for clarifying the physics involved. Here we demonstrate the pathways leading to electromagnetically induced transparency, Fano resonances and Autler-Townes splitting in coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators. Moreover, we report the application of the Akaike Information Criterion discerning between all-optical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting and clarifying the transition between them.
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Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Silica microresonators with an inverted-wedge shape were fabricated using conventional semiconductor fabrication methods. The measured quality factors of the resonators were greater than 10(6) in 1550 nm band. Controllable coupling from undercoupling to the overcoupling regime through the critical coupling point was demonstrated by horizontally moving a fiber taper while in touch with the top surface of the resonator. The thin outer ring of the resonator provided a support for the fiber taper leading to robust stable coupling.
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The ability of volumetric capnography to distinguish between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and normal subjects.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The aim of our study was to evaluate volumetric capnography (VCap) in the differentiation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and normal subjects.
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A new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivative in Chinese agarwood 'Qi-Nan' from Aquilaria sinensis.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Phytochemical analysis of the high quality Chinese agarwood 'Qi-Nan' originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Glig led to the isolation of a new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivative, qinanones G (1), and four known 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (2-5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and MS analyses. The NMR data of chromones 1-3 were first reported, and chromones 2 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase.
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The microRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for survival in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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We performed this meta-analysis to summarize all the results from available studies, aiming delineating the prognostic role of miRNA in esophageal cancer.
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Increased expression of TIGIT on CD4+ T cells ameliorates immune-mediated bone marrow failure of aplastic anemia.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Aplastic anemia (AA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cell activation is suspected to play an important role. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor, which exhibits inhibitory functions on the immune response. However, its role in AA has not been clearly determined. In the current study, we showed that the frequency of TIGIT-positive CD4(+) T cells was reduced in the vast majority of AA patients (85%, 17/20). In TIGIT-silenced human CD4(+) T cells, stimulation of agonistic anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibody significantly facilitated cell proliferation, increased production of IL-2 and IFN-?, and inhibited production of IL-10. However, in TIGIT-overexpressed human CD4(+) T cells, cell proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-?, and TNF-? were significantly hindered; in contrast, the secretion of IL-10 was improved. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that T-bet expression in human CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased by TIGIT overexpression, but only slightly altered by TIGIT knockdown. In mouse models, lentivirus-mediated TIGIT-overexpressed CD4(+) T cell transfer significantly rescued the decreased red blood cell count, attenuated the increase in serum INF-? and TNF-? levels, and lengthened the median survival time. The mRNA levels of CD34, stem cell factor (SCF), and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in bone marrow mononuclear cells were also up-regulated. In conclusion, increased expression of TIGIT could inhibit the function of CD4(+) T cells in vitro and ameliorate immune-mediated bone marrow failure of AA in vivo providing a new potential strategy for the treatment of AA.
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Increased 14-3-3? expression in the multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line HL-60/VCR as compared to the parental line mediates cell growth and apoptosis in part through modification of gene expression.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) recurrence is largely a result of multidrug resistance (MDR). We aimed to examine the role of 14-3-3? in AML chemosensitivity using HL-60 and vincristine-resistant HL-60/VCR cells.
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Fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: a long-term cohort study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Growing evidence suggests that fertility-preserving treatment is feasible for young women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial carcinoma. However, published data on their long-term outcomes and prognostic factors remain scanty. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of young women receiving fertility-preserving treatment.
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Multigeneration analysis reveals the inheritance, specificity, and patterns of CRISPR/Cas-induced gene modifications in Arabidopsis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted gene editing in many organisms, including plants. However, all of the reported studies in plants focused on either transient systems or the first generation after the CRISPR/Cas system was stably transformed into plants. In this study we examined several plant generations with seven genes at 12 different target sites to determine the patterns, efficiency, specificity, and heritability of CRISPR/Cas-induced gene mutations or corrections in Arabidopsis. The proportion of plants bearing any mutations (chimeric, heterozygous, biallelic, or homozygous) was 71.2% at T1, 58.3% at T2, and 79.4% at T3 generations. CRISPR/Cas-induced mutations were predominantly 1 bp insertion and short deletions. Gene modifications detected in T1 plants occurred mostly in somatic cells, and consequently there were no T1 plants that were homozygous for a gene modification event. In contrast, ?22% of T2 plants were found to be homozygous for a modified gene. All homozygotes were stable to the next generation, without any new modifications at the target sites. There was no indication of any off-target mutations by examining the target sites and sequences highly homologous to the target sites and by in-depth whole-genome sequencing. Together our results show that the CRISPR/Cas system is a useful tool for generating versatile and heritable modifications specifically at target genes in plants.
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The CRISPR/Cas9 system produces specific and homozygous targeted gene editing in rice in one generation.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been demonstrated to efficiently induce targeted gene editing in a variety of organisms including plants. Recent work showed that CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene mutations in Arabidopsis were mostly somatic mutations in the early generation, although some mutations could be stably inherited in later generations. However, it remains unclear whether this system will work similarly in crops such as rice. In this study, we tested in two rice subspecies 11 target genes for their amenability to CRISPR/Cas9-induced editing and determined the patterns, specificity and heritability of the gene modifications. Analysis of the genotypes and frequency of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0) showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in rice, with target genes edited in nearly half of the transformed embryogenic cells before their first cell division. Homozygotes of edited target genes were readily found in T0 plants. The gene mutations were passed to the next generation (T1) following classic Mendelian law, without any detectable new mutation or reversion. Even with extensive searches including whole genome resequencing, we could not find any evidence of large-scale off-targeting in rice for any of the many targets tested in this study. By specifically sequencing the putative off-target sites of a large number of T0 plants, low-frequency mutations were found in only one off-target site where the sequence had 1-bp difference from the intended target. Overall, the data in this study point to the CRISPR/Cas9 system being a powerful tool in crop genome engineering.
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Inactivation of miR-34a by aberrant CpG methylation in Kazakh patients with esophageal carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with dismal prognosis and high incidence and mortality in Kazakh population. MiR-34a, a direct p53 target gene, possesses tumor-suppressive properties as they mediate apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence. The reduced expression of miR-34a by methylation in various cancers has been reported.
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TGF-?1 precursor and CD8 are potential prognostic and predictive markers in operated breast cancer.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and CD8-positive T cells are two important immune factors that function at opposite directions. The purpose of this study was to verify the relationship between the two factors and their associations with long-term effects of adjuvant chemotherapy or endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Expression of TGF-?1 precursor and CD8 was immunohistochemically detected on surgically-obtained tumor samples of 130 (stage I-III) invasive breast carcinomas from Chinese subjects, who were followed up for a mean time of 112 months. Interstitial CD8-positive cells and TGF-?1 precursor-positive cells adjacent to tumor nests were counted. Infiltration of CD8-positive lymphocytes into tumor nests and TGF-?1 precursor expression in tumor cells were observed and survival analysis was performed. Our results showed that density of interstitial CD8-positive lymphocytes was an independent adverse prognostic factor for distant disease-free survival (DDFS) (HR=8.416, 95% CI=1.636-43.292, P=0.011) in hormone receptor-positive patients who were on adjuvant endocrine therapy. For breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, those without infiltration of CD8-positive cells into tumor nests had a shorter overall survival (OS) than their counterparts with CD8-positive cell infiltration into tumor nests (Log-Rank, P=0.003). But OS of patients without infiltration of CD8-positive cells into tumor nests was significantly prolonged by adjuvant chemotherapy (Log-Rank, P=0.013) and paralleled that of patients with CD8-positive cell infiltration. Although OS was shorter in the tumor cell TGF-?1 precursor (t-TGF-?1-pre)-positive patients than in the negative patients in patients without receiving chemotherapy (P=0.053), OS of t-TGF-?1-pre-positive patients was significantly prolonged by adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.035) and was longer than that of t-TGF-?1-pre-negative patients. Analysis showed that t-TGF-?1-pre was an independent positive prognostic factor for DDFS (HR=0.392 95% CI=0.157-0.978, P=0.045) in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. This study suggested that density of interstitial CD8-positive lymphocytes was of prognostic value in hormone receptor-positive patients who received adjuvant endocrine therapy. Our study verified that adverse immunologic signatures consisting of absence of CD8-positive cells in tumor nests or expression of TGF-?1 precursor in tumor cells in breast cancer were associated with worse prognosis and significantly improved long-term survival with adjuvant chemotherapy, respectively.
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Production and purification of a novel xanthan lyase from a xanthan-degrading Microbacterium sp. strain XT11.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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A xanthan lyase was produced and purified from the culture supernatant of an excellent xanthan-modifying strain Microbacterium sp. XT11. Xanthan lyase was induced by xanthan but was inhibited by its structural monomer glucose. Its production by strain XT11 is much higher than that by all other reported strains. The purified xanthan lyase has a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a specific activity of 28.2?U/mg that was much higher than that of both Paenibacillus and Bacillus lyases. It was specific on the pyruvated mannosyl residue in the intact xanthan molecule, but about 50% lyase activity remained when xanthan was partially depyruvated. Xanthan lyase was optimally active at pH 6.0-6.5 and 40°C and alkali-tolerant at a high pH value of 11.0. The metal ions including K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Li(+) strongly stimulated xanthan lyase activity but ions Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were its inhibitor. Xanthan lyase should be a novel enzyme different from the other xanthan lyases ever reported.
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Photoresponsive hybrid raspberry-like colloids based on cucurbit[8]uril host-guest interactions.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Hybrid raspberry-like colloids (HRCs) were prepared by employing cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) as a supramolecular linker to assemble functional polymeric nanoparticles onto a silica core. The formed HRCs are photoresponsive and can be reversibly disassembled upon light irradiation. This facile supramolecular approach provides a platform for the synthesis of colloids with sophisticated structures and properties.
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Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) take advantage of strong light confinement and long photon lifetime for applications in sensing, optomechanics, microlasers and quantum optics. However, their rotational symmetry and low radiation loss impede energy exchange between WGMs and the surrounding. As a result, free-space coupling of light into and from WGMRs is very challenging. In previous schemes, resonators are intentionally deformed to break circular symmetry to enable free-space coupling of carefully aligned focused light, which comes with bulky size and alignment issues that hinder the realization of compact WGMR applications. Here, we report a new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface, and demonstrate whispering gallery microlaser by free-space optical pumping of an Ytterbium doped silica microtoroid via the scatterers. This new scheme will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible route to integrate them into solar powered green photonics.
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The locust genome provides insight into swarm formation and long-distance flight.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Locusts are one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests and represent a useful model system in entomology. Here we present a draft 6.5?Gb genome sequence of Locusta migratoria, which is the largest animal genome sequenced so far. Our findings indicate that the large genome size of L. migratoria is likely to be because of transposable element proliferation combined with slow rates of loss for these elements. Methylome and transcriptome analyses reveal complex regulatory mechanisms involved in microtubule dynamic-mediated synapse plasticity during phase change. We find significant expansion of gene families associated with energy consumption and detoxification, consistent with long-distance flight capacity and phytophagy. We report hundreds of potential insecticide target genes, including cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors and lethal genes. The L. migratoria genome sequence offers new insights into the biology and sustainable management of this pest species, and will promote its wide use as a model system.
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Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability.
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Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles are cervical cancer protective factors among Uighur and Han people in Xinjiang, China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only some high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-infected women progress to cervical cancer, host immunogenetic factors human leukocyte antigen (HLA) may account for viral antigens presenting individually or together in the progression to cervical cancer. This study examined the association between the development of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602, HR-HPV infection among Chinese Uighur and Han populations. Blood samples, cervical swabs and biopsies were obtained from 287 patients with ICC (192 Uighurs and 95 Hans) and 312 healthy controls (218 Uighurs and 94 Hans). HPV DNA was detected by PCR and HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles were performed using PCR-SSP method. HPV16 infection rates was significantly higher among Uighur and Han with ICC as compared to healthy controls (OR = 58.317; 95% CI: 39.663-85.744; OR = 33.778; 95% CI: 12.581-90.691; P < 0.05 for all). HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 0.305; 95% CI: 0.115-0.813; P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype frequencies (OR = 0.274; 95% CI: 0.086-0.874; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in Han ICC. The HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency significantly decreased among Uighur women with ICC (OR = 0.482; 95% CI: 0.325-0.716; P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for DQB1*0602 with HPV16-positive ICC (OR = 0.550; 95% CI: 0.362-0.837; P < 0.05). This study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles may influence the immune response to HPV16 infection and decrease the risk of ICC among Uighurs and Hans in Xinjiang, China.
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Significance of elevated ERK expression and its positive correlation with EGFR in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are activated by the MAPK pathway. ERKs are downstream effectors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinases family. Studies on the activation of the EGFR-ERK pathway in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been reported. Using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays, we investigated the protein expression of EGFR and ERK in 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and 48 adjacent normal esophageal tissues (NETs). EGFR and ERK1 expression was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas ERK2 expression was localized in the nucleus. Both were more highly expression in the ESCC tissues than in the NETs, and the difference was considered significant (P=0.003, 0.002, and 0.005, respectively). ERK1 and EGFR expression was positively correlated with lymph nodes metastasis (P=0.011 and 0.013, respectively). ERK1 staining was also significantly associated with tumor-node-metastases stage of ESCC (P=0.044). ERK2 staining was significantly associated with Histological grade (P=0.012). Furthermore, ERK1 and EGFR expression in the ESCC tissues were positively correlated (r=0.413, P<0.001); EGFR was more highly expressed in the ESCC tissues with high ERK1 expression than in the ESCC tissues with low ERK1 expression (4.95±0.57 vs. 3.21±0.35, P=0.01). This study is thus far the first to demonstrate the correlation between EGFR overexpression and ERK overexpression in Kazakh patients with ESCC. This correlation suggests that the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway participates in ESCC progression and can thus be used as a prognostic marker.
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Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China.
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[Chemical constituents from stems of Aquilaria sinensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To study the constituents from the stems of Aquilaria sinensis.
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[Clinical effect of combination therapy with high-frequency oscillation ventilation, pulmonary surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To investigate the clinical effect of combination therapy with high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV), pulmonary surfactant (PS) and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF).
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Arabidopsis EDM2 promotes IBM1 distal polyadenylation and regulates genome DNA methylation patterns.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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DNA methylation is important for the silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements in many higher eukaryotes. However, plant and mammalian genomes have evolved to contain repetitive elements near or inside their genes. How these genes are kept from being silenced by DNA methylation is not well understood. A forward genetics screen led to the identification of the putative chromatin regulator Enhanced Downy Mildew 2 (EDM2) as a cellular antisilencing factor and regulator of genome DNA methylation patterns. EDM2 contains a composite Plant Homeo Domain that recognizes both active and repressive histone methylation marks at the intronic repeat elements in genes such as the Histone 3 lysine 9 demethylase gene Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1) and is necessary for maintaining the expression of these genes by promoting mRNA distal polyadenylation. Because of its role in maintaining IBM1 expression, EDM2 is required for preventing CHG methylation in the bodies of thousands of genes. Our results thus increase the understanding of antisilencing, genome methylation patterns, and regulation of alternative RNA processing by intronic heterochromatin.
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Atorvastatin Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Suppressing iNOS Expression and the CTGF (CCN2)/ERK Signaling Pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disorder with high mortality rate. To date, despite the fact that extensive research trials are ongoing, pulmonary fibrosis continues to have a poor response to available medical therapy. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known for its broad pharmacological activities, remains a remedy against multiple diseases. The present study investigated the antifibrotic potential of atorvastatin against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that atorvastatin administration significantly ameliorated the bleomycin mediated histological alterations and blocked collagen deposition with parallel reduction in the hydroxyproline level. Atorvastatin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lung indices. Atorvastatin also markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissues and, thus, prevented nitric oxide (NO) release in response to bleomycin challenge. Furthermore, atorvastatin exhibited target down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF (CCN2)) and phosphorylation extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) expression. Taken together, atorvastatin significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, via the inhibition of iNOS expression and the CTGF (CCN2)/ERK signaling pathway. The present study provides evidence that atorvastatin may be a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of lung fibrosis.
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High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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With extremely low material absorption and exceptional surface smoothness, silica-based optical resonators can achieve extremely high cavity quality (Q) factors. However, the intrinsic material limitations of silica (e.g., lack of second order nonlinearity) may limit the potential applications of silica-based high Q resonators. Here we report some results in utilizing layer-by-layer self-assembly to functionalize silica microspheres with nonlinear and plasmonic nanomaterials while maintaining Q factors as high as 10(7). We compare experimentally measured Q factors with theoretical estimates, and find good agreement.
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Bcl-2 expression predicts sensitivity to chemotherapy in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Numerous studies have yielded inconclusive results regarding the relationship between anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and the sensitivity to chemotherapy in the patients with breast cancer. The purpose of the current study was therefore to elaborate their relationship.Methods, findings: A total of 23 previously published eligible studies involving 2,467 cases were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Negative Bcl-2 expression was associated with good chemotherapy response in breast cancer patients (total objective response [OR]: risk ratio [RR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.32, p = 0.026; total complete response [CR]: RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.24-2.24, p = 0.001; pathological CR: RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.38-2.69, p < 0.001). In further stratified analyses, this association remained for sub-groups of response in neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting, especially pathological CR. Besides, negative Bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with good OR and pathological CR in anthracycline-based chemotherapy subgroup. Furthermore, there were significant links between negative Bcl-2 expression and taxane-based chemotherapy with pathological CR, but not OR.
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Selection and dynamic metabolic response of rat biomarkers by metabonomics and multivariate statistical analysis combined with GC-MS.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Depression is a common complex psychiatric disorder but its pathophysiological mechanism is not yet fully understood. Metabonomics by GC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis were used to select potential biomarkers associated with CUMS (chronic unpredictable mild stress) depression. The dynamic metabolic changes in rat serum were investigated to find potential disease biomarkers and to investigate the pathology of depression induced by the CUMS depression model. The changes in behavior and serum metabolic profiles were investigated during a three-week CUMS exposure. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21, and the serum metabolic profiling was carried out using GC-MS, followed by multivariate analysis. The potential biomarkers were screened from metabolites by principal component analysis and correlation analysis. The peak area of potential biomarkers was used to identify changes in depression in rats and describe their dynamics. Exposure to CUMS for three weeks caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in weight gain, sucrose consumption, ambulation number and rearing numbers. Six potential biomarkers in serum, including glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), fructose, citric acid, glucose and hexadecanoic acid, were subjected to screening by metabonomics and multivariate statistical analysis. It was found that fructose, glucose and Gly were increased in the model group, while hexadecanoic acid, Glu and citric acid were reduced in the model group. According to the results of principal component analysis and correlation analysis, the correlation coefficient between the behavior scores and potential biomarkers in serum were all more than 0.9. This result suggests that the progression of depression may be associated with perturbation of glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. Gly, Glu, fructose, citric acid, glucose and hexadecanoic acid appear to be suitable quantitative diagnostic biomarkers for depression. The representative and unique nature of these biomarkers needs to be verified by pharmacological experiments, including molecular pharmacology investigations of enzymes or genes.
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[Clinical application of the penetrating needling technique from neiguan (PC 6) to waiguan (TE 5) by Professor LIU Kong-teng].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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The clinical experience of Professor LIU Kong-tengs needling techniques and methods of the penetrating needling from Neiguan (PC 6) to Waiguan (TE 5) in the treatment of various diseases is introduced in this paper. The acupoints characteristics, penetrating needling techniques and methods and the clinical indications are summarized. Examples of Elbow flaccid paralysis, headache, insomnia, neck contracture, vomiting, hiccups, heart disease, the acute abdominal pain, acute lumbar sprain, acute ankle joint sprain and periarthritis of shoulder are given to explain techniques and methods of the penetrating acupuncture.
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Elevated expression patterns and tight correlation of the PLCE1 and NF-?B signaling in Kazakh patients with esophageal carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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This study investigated the expression of the phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B)-related proteins in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tissue microarrays of 90 ethnic Kazakh patients with ESCC and exhibiting clinical characteristics were analyzed for protein expression of PLCE1, IKK?, IKB?, p50, and p65 by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between histoscores of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins were determined using Spearmans rank correlation tests. Expression of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with normal esophageal tissues (P = 9.48 × 10(-7), 1.24 × 10(-5), 0.004, 0.003, and 2.83 × 10(-5), respectively). Upregulation of PLCE1 was significantly correlated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages (P = 0.018) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003). Overexpression of IKK? and IKB? was associated with ESCC stages I/II (P = 3.36 × 10(-4) and 0.022, respectively). Increased expression of p50 was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.048). Elevated expression of p65 protein was significantly correlated with poor and moderately differentiated ESCC and depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.026 and 0.010, respectively). Significant positive correlations were observed between the expression of PLCE1 and NF-?B-related proteins, especially IKK? (r = 0.246 and P = 0.025) and p50 (r = 0.244 and P = 0.024). These results suggest, for the first time, that upregulation of PLCE1 is correlated with increased expression of NF-?B-related proteins in Kazakh patients with ESCC, suggesting that interaction between PLCE1 with the NF-?B signal pathway may be responsible for the carcinogenesis of ESCC, such as ESCC-related inflammation.
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[Clinical paired study of comparing docetaxel plus capecitabine versus docetaxel plus epirubicin as first-line treatment in women with HER-2 negative advanced breast cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To assess the efficacy of docetaxel plus capecitabine versus docetaxel plus epirubicin as first-line treatment in women with HER-2 negative advanced breast cancer.
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A Pre-mRNA-splicing factor is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently associated with the silencing of genes and transposable elements (TEs). In Arabidopsis, the establishment of DNA methylation is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here, we report the identification and characterization of RDM16, a new factor in the RdDM pathway. Mutation of RDM16 reduced the DNA methylation levels and partially released the silencing of a reporter gene as well as some endogenous genomic loci in the DNA demethylase ros1-1 mutant background. The rdm16 mutant had morphological defects and was hypersensitive to salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA). Map-based cloning and complementation test led to the identification of RDM16, which encodes a pre-mRNA-splicing factor 3, a component of the U4/U6 snRNP. RNA-seq analysis showed that 308 intron retention events occurred in rdm16, confirming that RDM16 is involved in pre-mRNA splicing in planta. RNA-seq and mRNA expression analysis also revealed that the RDM16 mutation did not affect the pre-mRNA splicing of known RdDM genes, suggesting that RDM16 might be directly involved in RdDM. Small RNA expression analysis on loci showing RDM16-dependent DNA methylation suggested that unlike the previously reported putative splicing factor mutants, rdm16 did not affect small RNA levels; instead, the rdm16 mutation caused a decrease in the levels of Pol V transcripts. ChIP assays revealed that RDM16 was enriched at some Pol V target loci. Our results suggest that RDM16 regulates DNA methylation through influencing Pol V transcript levels. Finally, our genome-wide DNA methylation analysis indicated that RDM16 regulates the overall methylation of TEs and gene-surrounding regions, and preferentially targets Pol IV-dependent DNA methylation loci and the ROS1 target loci. Our work thus contributes to the understanding of RdDM and its interactions with active DNA demethylation.
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[Research progress in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltrans-ferase].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is a cytoplasmic enzyme which is widely distributed in the body. It not only involves in the purine salvage pathway, but also relates to the metabolism of purine analogues drugs. It is a critical transferase regulating the pharmacological effects and toxicity of purine analogues drugs. The mutations of the gene for HPRT, which influence its activity, may cause metabolic diseases with different clinical symptoms, and influence the metabolism of purine analogues. The HPRT gene, also a housekeeping gene, can serve diagnostic markers for many disorders. This paper reviews the recent progresses on HPRT researches in promoting the individual treatment of analogues drugs and the development of new drugs and improving the diagnosis and therapy of inherited metabolic disease caused by HPRT mutations.
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Application of multiplex SNaPshot assay in measurement of PLAC4 RNA-SNP allelic ratio for noninvasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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For the samples in which the fetus was heterozygous for the placenta-specific 4 (PLAC4) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), our research is to develop a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective assay for the noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21 (T21).
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Two new C-methyl flavanones from the rhizomes and frond bases of Matteuccia struthiopteris.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Two new C-methyl flavanones, (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyl-4-methoxydihydroflavone-7-O-(6?-O-acetyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (1) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyldihydroflavone-7-O-(6?-O-acetyl)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), together with five known compounds, demethoxymatteucinol-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), matteucinol-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4-methoxydihydroflavone (5), methoxymatteucin (6), and thunberginol C (7), were first isolated from the EtOH extract of the rhizomes and frond bases of Matteuccia struthiopteris. The structures were established by spectral analyses, mainly HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC).
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Heterozygote of PLCE1 rs2274223 increases susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection in patients with esophageal carcinoma among the Kazakh populations.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous carcinoma remains undetermined. However, three genome-wide association studies of esophageal cancer have identified a shared susceptibility locus at 10q23 (rs2274223: A5780G) in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1). The current study aims to present a comprehensive and novel spectrum about the HPV genotype distribution of esophageal carcinoma in Kazakhs and assess its association with PLCE1 polymorphisms. The HPV genotypes in 183 patients with esophageal cancer and 89 controls selected from the Kazakh population were evaluated using the HPV gene chip. The PLCE1 rs2274223 variant was genotyped in esophageal carcinoma patients by MALDI-ToF Mass Spectrometry. The presence of seven HPV genotypes in esophageal carcinoma tissues-including HPV 16, 18, 35, 52, 6, 11, 43-was significantly higher at 31.7% than those in controls at 9.0% (P?
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[Association of single nucleotide polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with susceptibility to acute leukemia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To assess whether polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Chinese Han children.
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Graphene-supported Ag-based core-shell nanoparticles for hydrogen generation in hydrolysis of ammonia borane and methylamine borane.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Well-dispersed magnetically recyclable core-shell Ag@M (M = Co, Ni, Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on graphene have been synthesized via a facile in situ one-step procedure, using methylamine borane (MeAB) as a reducing agent under ambient condition. Their catalytic activity toward hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) were studied. Although the Ag@Fe/graphene NPs are almost inactive, the as-prepared Ag@Co/graphene NPs are the most reactive catalysts, followed by Ag@Ni/graphene NPs. Compared with AB and NaBH4, the as-synthesized Ag@Co/graphene catalysts which reduced by MeAB exert the highest catalytic activity. Additionally, the Ag@Co NPs supported on graphene exhibit higher catalytic activity than the catalysts with other conventional supports, such as the SiO2, carbon black, and ?-Al2O3. The as-synthesized Ag@Co/graphene NPs exert satisfied catalytic activity, with the turnover frequency (TOF) value of 102.4 (mol H2 min(-1) (mol Ag)(-1)), and the activation energy Ea value of 20.03 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the as-synthesized Ag@Co/graphene NPs show good recyclability and magnetically reusability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB, which make the practical reusing application of the catalysts more convenient. Moreover, this simple synthetic method indicates that MeAB could be used as not only a potential hydrogen storage material but also an efficient reducing agent. It can be easily extended to facile preparation of other graphene supported metal NPs.
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Divergent immunomodulatory effects of extracts and phenolic compounds from the fern Osmunda japonica Thunb.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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To study possible immunobiological potential of Osmunda japonica Thunb.
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Detection of circulating tumour cells in gastric and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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This systematic review was conducted to summarize the use of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection as a prognostic indicator in gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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[Efficacy comparison between standard and reduced doses of bortezomib combined with adriamycin and dexamethasone in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To compare the efficacy and safety of standard or reduced doses of bortezomib combined with adriamycin and dexamethasone (PAD) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
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Characterization and determination of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by GC-MS.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Agarwood is the fragrant resinous heartwood obtained from certain trees in the genus Aquilaria belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae. 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromones and characteristic sesquiterpenes are the main classes of aromatic compounds isolated from agarwood. Although there are many sesquiterpenes, relatively few 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones have been determined in agarwood by GC-MS. After analysis of the MS spectra of eighteen 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives isolated from agarwood and identified by NMR spectroscopy, together with the reported MS data and characteristic of structures of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, the MS characterization, fragmentation patterns and characteristic fragment peaks for the compounds were deduced and a table summarizing MS characterization of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood is presented. All the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones previously reported in agarwood are substituted by methoxy or/and hydroxy groups, except for one compound. Due to the fact they all possess the same basic skeleton (molecular weight: 250) and similar substituent groups (methoxy or hydroxy groups), a formula (30m + 16n = MW - 250) is provided to calculate the number of methoxy (m) or hydroxy (n) groups according to molecular ion peak or molecular weight (MW). We deduced that the characteristic fragmentation behaviors of the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones are the cleavages of the CH?-CH? bond between chromone moiety and phenyl moiety. Thus, characteristic fragment ions, such as m/z 91 [C?H?], 107 [C?H?+OH], 121 [C?H?+OCH?], 137 [C?H5+OH+OCH?] are formed by different substituted benzyl moieties, while characteristic fragment ions such as m/z 160 [C??H?O?], 176 [C??H?O?+OH], 190 [C??H?O?+OCH?], 220 [C??H?O?+OCH?×2] are formed by different substituted chromone moieties. Furthermore, rules regarding to the relationship between the positions of hydroxy or methoxy groups and the relative abundances of benzyl and chromone fragment ions have been deduced. Elucidation of how the positions of hydroxy or methoxy groups affect the relative abundances of benzyl and chromone fragment peaks is also provided. Fifteen unidentified compounds of an artificial agarwood sample analyzed by GC-MS, were preliminary determined as 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones by analysis of their MS characterization and by comparison of their MS spectra with those of 18 standard compounds or 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones reported in literature according to the above-mentioned methods and rules. This report will be helpful for the analysis and structural elucidation of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in agarwood by GC-MS, and provides fast and reliable characterization of the quality of agarwood.
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