JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transmission of Tuberculosis in a South African Community With a High Prevalence of HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?In settings of high tuberculosis transmission, little is known of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis disease and of the impact of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs on tuberculosis transmission dynamics.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of a nurse-managed service for stable HIV-positive patients in a large South African public sector antiretroviral therapy programme.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Models of care utilizing task shifting and decentralization are needed to support growing ART programmes. We compared patient outcomes between a doctor-managed clinic and a nurse-managed down-referral site in Cape Town, South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of antiretroviral therapy over a 10-year period of expansion: a multicohort analysis of African and Asian HIV programs.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the evolution of program outcomes associated with rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. We describe temporal trends and assess associations with mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) in HIV cohorts from 8 countries.
Related JoVE Video
Mortality among adults transferred and lost to follow-up from antiretroviral therapy programmes in South Africa: a multicenter cohort study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about outcomes after transfer out (TFO) and loss to follow-up (LTF) and how differential outcomes might bias mortality estimates, as analyses generally censor or exclude TFOs/LTF. Using data linked to the National Population Register, we explored mortality among TFO and LTF patients compared with patients who were retained and investigated how linkage impacted on mortality estimates.
Related JoVE Video
The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is renewed interest in stillbirth prevention for lower-middle income countries. Early initiation of and properly timed antenatal care (ANC) is thought to reduce the risk of many adverse birth outcomes. To this end we examined if timing of the first ANC visit influences the risk of stillbirth.
Related JoVE Video
In-utero exposure to maternal HIV infection alters T-cell immune responses to vaccination in HIV-uninfected infants.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. To evaluate whether immune dysfunction contributes to this vulnerability of HEU infants, we conducted a longitudinal, observational cohort study to assess T-cell immune responses to infant vaccines (Mycobacterium bovis BCG and acellular pertussis) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). In total, 46 HEU and 46 HIV-unexposed infants were recruited from Khayelitsha, Cape Town.
Related JoVE Video
Mobile phone messages to provide support to women during the home phase of medical abortion in South Africa: a randomised controlled trial.
Contraception
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Home use of misoprostol for medical abortion is more convenient for many women than in-clinic use but requires management of abortion symptoms at home without provider backup. This study evaluated whether automated text messages to women undergoing medical abortion can reduce anxiety and emotional discomfort, and whether the messages can better prepare women for symptoms they experience.
Related JoVE Video
Factors affecting tuberculosis strain success over 10 years in a high TB- and HIV-burdened community.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain success over time in high burdened communities are unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Intimate partner violence: associations with low infant birthweight in a South African birth cohort.
Metab Brain Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Violence against women is a global public health problem. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including delivery of a low birthweight (LBW) infant. However, there is a paucity of data from low-middle income countries (LMIC). We examined the association between antenatal IPV and subsequent LBW in a South African birth cohort. This study reports data from the Drakenstein Child Lung Health Study (DCLHS), a multidisciplinary birth cohort investigation of the influence of a number of antecedent risk factors on maternal and infant health outcomes over time. Pregnant women seeking antenatal care were recruited at two different primary care clinics in a low income, semi-rural area outside Cape Town, South Africa. Antenatal trauma exposure was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and an IPV assessment tool specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Potential confounding variables including maternal sociodemographics, pregnancy intention, partner support, biomedical and mental illness, substance use and psychosocial risk were also assessed. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the association between IPV during pregnancy and delivery of an infant with LBW and/or low weight-for-age z (WAZ) scores. The final study sample comprised 263 mother-infant dyads. In multiple regression analyses, the model run was significant [r2 ?=?0.14 (adjusted r2 ?=?0.11, F(8, 212) = 4.16, p?=?0.0001]. Exposure to physical IPV occurring during the past year was found to be significantly associated with LBW [t?=?-2.04, p?=?0.0429] when controlling for study site (clinic), maternal height, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, substance use and childhood trauma. A significant association with decreased WAZ scores was not demonstrated. Exposure of pregnant women to IPV may impact newborn health. Further research is needed in this field to assess the relevant underlying mechanisms, to inform public health policies and to develop appropriate trauma IPV interventions for LMIC settings.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early studies in Cape Town identified independent HIV-1 epidemics, with distinct viral subtypes, among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the heterosexual population. However, few recent HIV-1 subtype data are available for MSM in South Africa. We examined HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in Cape Town.
Related JoVE Video
Retention in care under universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the levels and determinants of loss to follow-up (LTF) under universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.
Related JoVE Video
The validity of the Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptom Screener (SAMISS) in people living with HIV/AIDS in primary HIV care in Cape Town, South Africa.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given the high prevalence of HIV in South Africa and co-morbid mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDs (PLWHA) we sought to validate a brief screening tool in primary HIV care. Methods: 366 PLWHA were recruited prior to combination anti-retroviral treatment (CART) initiation from two primary health HIV clinics. A mental health nurse administered a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and a lay counsellor administered the Substance and Mental Illness Symptom Screener (SAMISS). Results: Using the MINI, 17 % of participants were identified with either depression, anxiety disorders or adjustment disorder and 18 % with substance or alcohol abuse/dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the SAMISS was 94 % (95 % CI: 88-98 %) and 58 % (95 % CI: 52-65 %) respectively, with the alcohol component (sensitivity: 94 %; specificity: 85 %) performing better than the mental illness component of the SAMISS (sensitivity: 97 %; specificity: 60 %). The specificity of the tool improved when the cut-off for the mental illness component was increased. Conclusion: The SAMISS may provide a useful first tier screening tool for common mental disorders in primary care for PLWHA.
Related JoVE Video
Disengagement of HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women from antiretroviral therapy services: a cohort study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent international guidelines call for expanded access to triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women during pregnancy and postpartum. However, high levels of non-adherence and/or disengagement from care may attenuate the benefits of ART for HIV transmission and maternal health. We examined the frequency and predictors of disengagement from care among women initiating ART during pregnancy in Cape Town, South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Defining hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborn infants: benchmarking in a South African population.
J Perinat Med
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few population-based studies of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in sub-Saharan Africa, and the published criteria that are used to define and grade HIE are too variable for meaningful comparisons between studies and populations. Our objectives were (1) to investigate how the incidence of HIE in our region varies with different criteria for intrapartum hypoxia and (2) to determine how encephalopathy severity varies with different grading systems.
Related JoVE Video
Acceptability and challenges of rapid ART initiation among pregnant women in a pilot programme, Cape Town, South Africa.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a critical intervention in the prevention-of-mother-to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. In South Africa, many HIV-infected pregnant women commence ART late in pregnancy, and as a result, the duration of ART prior to delivery is often insufficient to prevent vertical transmission. To address this, we designed an intervention for the rapid initiation of ART in pregnancy (RAP), where patients ART preparation occurred during rather than before treatment commencement. Here we report on the acceptability and the challenges of the RAP programme. We conducted 7 key informant and 27 semi-structured interviews with RAP participants. Participants were purposefully selected based on ART-eligibility and stage in the pregnancy to post-partum continuum. Interviews were conducted in participants home language by trained fieldworkers, with key informant interviews conducted by the study investigators. The data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Rapid initiation in pregnancy was acceptable to the majority of programme participants and protection of the womans unborn child was the primary motivation for starting treatment. The key barrier was the limited time to accept the dual challenges of being diagnosed HIV-positive and eligible for life-long ART. Truncated time also limited the opportunity for disclosure to others. Despite these and other barriers, most women found the benefits of rapid ART commencement outweighed the challenges, with 91% of women initiated onto ART starting the same day treatment eligibility was determined. Many participants and key informants identified the importance of counseling and the need to make an informed, independent choice on the timing of ART initiation, based on individual circumstances. Acceptance of ART-eligibility improved with time on the programme, however, as womens principal reason for initiating ART was protection of the unborn child, monitoring and supporting adherence during the post-partum period will be critical.
Related JoVE Video
The evaluation of a telephonic wellness coaching intervention for weight reduction and wellness improvement in a community-based cohort of persons with serious mental illness.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity and metabolic disturbances frequently occur in individuals with psychiatric disorders. This study evaluates a telephonically delivered lifestyle coaching intervention aimed at weight reduction and wellness improvement in psychiatric outpatients. A cohort of 761 participants was prospectively followed up for a period of 12 months. Lifestyle coaching was administered telephonically on a weekly basis for the first 3 months and monthly thereafter. During the study period, there was a significant reduction in weight and waist circumference as well as a significant increase in general health in the completer group. A total of 46% of the participants lost 5% or more of their baseline weight. Significant predictors of attrition at baseline were the presence of metabolic syndrome, younger age, chronic illness, and the diagnosis of a mood disorder. Dropout was significantly less in those participants who received support from a nominated caregiver. Telephonic lifestyle coaching is feasible in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity of influences on infant feeding strategies in women living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: a mixed methods study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore influences on infant feeding intentions and practices in women living with HIV in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Brachytherapy and endoresection for choroidal melanoma: a cohort study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report and compare the outcomes of brachytherapy and endoresection in the conservative treatment of medium sized choroidal melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
Low prevalence of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected pregnant women: implications for guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging international guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection across sub-Saharan Africa call for the initiation of a triple-drug antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir, a potentially nephrotoxic agent, in all HIV-infected pregnant women at the first antenatal clinic visit. While there are significant benefits to the rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy, there are few data on the prevalence of pre-existing renal disease in HIV-infected pregnant women and in turn, the potential risks of this approach are not well understood.
Related JoVE Video
Can we achieve an AIDS-free generation? Perspectives on the global campaign to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Efforts to prevent the mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection have encountered remarkable successes and considerable challenges around the globe. The reductions in vertical HIV transmission observed in Europe and North America have helped raise the possibility of the virtual elimination of new pediatric HIV infections and in turn an "AIDS-free generation". Yet in many resource-limited settings, preventable new pediatric infections continue to occur daily. Here, we consider what will be required to reach an end to the global pediatric HIV epidemic, and what we can hope for in the context of resurgent international interest. The science of PMTCT has advanced dramatically since the first evidence for the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for PMTCT in 1994. The timing and causes of vertical transmission are now well understood, and this knowledge has led directly to highly efficacious PMTCT interventions based on the use of combination ARV regimens. The application of these interventions around the world has been uneven, however. Several African countries report good access to and uptake of PMTCT services and corresponding low rates of early mother-to-child transmission. However, limited population coverage of PMTCT programs with continued use of suboptimal ARV regimens still hamper prevention efforts in many other countries. Looking forward, reaching ambitious international targets to reduce pediatric HIV infections will require a combination of increased access to efficacious ARV regimens and strengthened health systems for maternal and child health, supported by continued strong political will and international attention.
Related JoVE Video
Safety, feasibility and efficacy of a rapid ART initiation in pregnancy pilot programme in Cape Town, South Africa.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy is a crucial intervention in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. It is recognised that mother-to-child transmission is reduced with each week on ART. However, in most South African settings, ART initiation is delayed owing to slow determination of treatment eligibility and separation of HIV and antenatal care services.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of point-of-care versus laboratory-based CD4 cell enumeration in HIV-positive pregnant women.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in eligible pregnant women is a key intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. However, in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa where ART-eligibility is determined by CD4 cell counts, limited access to laboratories presents a significant barrier to rapid ART initiation. Point-of-care (POC) CD4 cell count testing has been suggested as one approach to overcome this challenge, but there are few data on the agreement between POC CD4 cell enumeration and standard laboratory-based testing.
Related JoVE Video
Early clinical predictors of a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at 48 hours in cooled neonates.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a need to identify infants with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy who have a poor outcome despite therapeutic hypothermia. A severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at 48 h predicts death or disability. Our aim was to determine whether clinical assessment at age 3-5 h predicts a severely abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at 48 h or death in cooled infants.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of definitions of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in antiretroviral therapy program evaluation: variation in the definition can have an appreciable impact on estimated proportions of LTFU.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the impact of different definitions of loss to follow-up (LTFU) on estimates of program outcomes in cohort studies of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Related JoVE Video
Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-associated tuberculosis is a common coinfection in Sub-Saharan Africa, which causes high morbidity and mortality. A sub-set of HIV-associated tuberculosis patients require prolonged hospital admission, during which antiretroviral therapy initiation may be required. The aim of this study was to document the causes of clinical deterioration of hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis starting antiretroviral therapy in order to inform healthcare practice in low- to middle-income countries.
Related JoVE Video
Linkage of HIV-infected infants from diagnosis to antiretroviral therapy services across the Western Cape, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is an important service to reduce paediatric morbidity and mortality related to HIV/AIDS. Although South Africa has a national EID programme based on PCR testing, there are no population-wide data on the linkage of infants testing HIV PCR-positive to HIV care and treatment services.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing transfers-out from an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa: patient characteristics and rates of virological non-suppression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the proportion, characteristics and outcomes of patients who transfer-out from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in a South African township.
Related JoVE Video
Early clinical signs in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy predict an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram at age 6 hours.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An early clinical score predicting an abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) or moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may allow rapid triage of infants for therapeutic hypothermia. We aimed to determine if early clinical examination could predict either an abnormal aEEG at age 6 hours or moderate-severe HIE presenting within 72 hours of birth.
Related JoVE Video
A systematic review of the association between pulmonary tuberculosis and the development of chronic airflow obstruction in adults.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health concern, accounting for 3 million deaths annually, 90% of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as a contributory factor in the aetiology of COPD is under debate, with most epidemiologic evidence suggesting a positive association.
Related JoVE Video
Integration of antiretroviral therapy services into antenatal care increases treatment initiation during pregnancy: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy is critical to promote maternal health and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). The separation of services for antenatal care (ANC) and ART may hinder antenatal ART initiation. We evaluated ART initiation during pregnancy under different service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Immune activation in the female genital tract during HIV infection predicts mucosal CD4 depletion and HIV shedding.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasma viral load predicts genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding in HIV-infected women. We investigated whether local mucosal T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD38, CCR5, and Ki67) contributed to HIV shedding in the genital tracts of HIV-infected women. We showed that cervical cytobrush-derived T cells expressed higher frequencies of T-cell activation markers (CD38+ and HLA-DR+) than blood-derived T cells. Expression was significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women. We found that the frequency of activated proliferating cervical T cells (Ki67+; Ki67+CCR5+) broadly predicted HIV shedding in the genital tract in HIV-infected women, independently of plasma viral loads. Furthermore, activated cervical T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+ and HLA-DR+CCR5+) and local HIV shedding were independently associated with CD4 depletion in the genital tract. These data suggest that the presence of high frequencies of activated T cells in the female genital mucosa during HIV infection facilitates both local HIV shedding and CD4 T-cell depletion.
Related JoVE Video
Standard measures are inadequate to monitor pediatric adherence in a resource-limited setting.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to compare the use and cost of objective and subjective measures of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral treatment in a primary care facility in South Africa. In a 1-month longitudinal study of 53 caregiver-child dyads, pharmacy refill (PR), measurement of returned syrups (RS), caregiver self-report (3DR) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were compared to Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Adherence was 100% for both VAS and 3DR; by PR and RS 100% and 103%, respectively. MEMS showed that 92% of prescribed doses were administered, but only 66% of these within the correct 12-hourly interval. None of the four measures correlated significantly with MEMS. MEMS data suggest that timing of doses is often more deviant from prescribed than expected and should be better addressed when monitoring adherence. Of all, MEMS was by far the most expensive measure. Alternative, cheaper electronic devices need to be more accessible in resource-limited settings.
Related JoVE Video
Force of tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high HIV and TB prevalence community: a cross-sectional observation study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) in high TB and HIV prevalent settings is required in order to develop effective intervention strategies for TB control. However, there are little data assessing incidence of TB infection in adolescents in these settings.
Related JoVE Video
Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, laboratory diagnosis of HIV in infants is not readily available. We aimed to develop a clinical algorithm for HIV presumptive diagnosis in infants < 10 weeks old using screening data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral therapy (CHER) study in South Africa.HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected exposed infants < 10 weeks of age were identified through Vertical Transmission Prevention programs. Clinical and laboratory data were systematically recorded, groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Fishers exact tests. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were compiled using combinations of clinical findings.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of caregivers depression and alcohol use on child antiretroviral adherence in South Africa.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pediatric antiretroviral adherence is difficult to assess, and subjective measures are affected by reporting bias, which in turn may depend on psychosocial factors such as alcohol use and depression. We enrolled 56 child-caregiver dyads from Cape Town, South Africa and followed their adherence over 1 month via various methods. The Alcohol Use Disorder Inventory Tool and Beck Depression Inventory 1 were used to assess these factors and their affect on pediatric adherence. The median age of the children was 4 years, and median time on antiretrovirals was 20 months. Increased time on ART was associated with poorer adherence via 3-day recall (3DR; p=0.03). Ethanol use was inversely associated with adherence by both subjective measures, 3DR and visual analogue scale (VAS) (both p<0.01), and with Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) adherence as a continuous variable. In a multivariate analysis predicting MEMS adherence greater than 95%, including variables that were associated with adherence in univariate analyses, having a mother as a caregiver and shorter time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were significantly associated with adherence (odds ratio [OR] 19.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-327 and 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-0.99). Pediatric adherence is affected by caregiver alcohol use, but caregiver relationship to the child is most important. This small study suggests that interventions should aim to keep mothers healthy and alive, as well as alcohol-free.
Related JoVE Video
Men and antiretroviral therapy in Africa: our blind spot.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related policies remain blind to mens treatment needs. Global and national programmes need to address this blindness urgently, to ensure equitable access to ART in Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Sexual health, HIV risk, and retention in an adolescent HIV-prevention trial preparatory cohort.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although adolescents are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, they have not been, included in HIV vaccine trials.
Related JoVE Video
Antiretroviral therapy and TB notification rates in a high HIV prevalence South African community.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been proposed as an intervention for reducing tuberculosis (TB) burdens in areas with high HIV prevalence. However, little data is available on the impact of ART on population-level TB.
Related JoVE Video
Validity of the International HIV Dementia Scale in South Africa.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent, especially in regions like South Africa where HIV prevalence is high but access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is limited. The incidence of HIV dementia (HAD) has been halved with the use of ART, but the prevalence remains high. Appropriate brief screening tools to screen for HAD are needed in order to facilitate treatment initiation. The validity of the International HIV Dementia Scale has not been established in a region where infection with HIV clade C is predominant. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was administered together with a detailed neuropsychological test battery to 96 HIV-positive individuals who had not received ART and who were attending primary care HIV clinics. The validity of the IHDS was established using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. HIV-positive individuals displayed greater impairment when compared to HIV-negative controls on the IHDS and a range of neuropsychological tests. Neuropsychological tests discriminated well across HAND categories for HIV-positive individuals. In ROC analysis, the IHDS showed an area under the curve of 0.64, with a sensitivity of 45% and specificity of 79% at a cutoff score of 10. Individuals with HAD, who screened negative on the IHDS, performed poorly on some tests of executive function. These data suggest that the IHDS may have limitations as a tool to screen for HAD in South Africans infected with HIV. Variable performance in neuropsychological testing may account for false negative screens. The inclusion of brief tests of executive function in a screening battery should be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying modifiable factors that increase womens vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.
Related JoVE Video
Association between apolipoprotein E4 genotype and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia in younger adults starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
J. Neurovirol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is not known whether the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allelic variant is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) in a South African population, where HIV clade C is predominant. ApoE genotyping was performed on 144 participants in a larger study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). There was a lower frequency of the ε2 and ε3 alleles in the HIV-positive group, compared to a group of 300 community-based newborn infants. There were no differences in ApoE genotype across different categories of HAND. The ε4 allelic variant was less common in individuals with HAD than in those without HAD. These findings suggest that the ε4 allelic variant in HIV-positive individuals is not associated with the development of HAD in Southern Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal changes in programme outcomes among adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy across South Africa, 2002-2007.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the temporal impact of the rapid scale-up of large antiretroviral therapy (ART) services on programme outcomes. We describe patient outcomes [mortality, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and retention] over time in a network of South African ART cohorts.
Related JoVE Video
Prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a collaborative analysis of scale-up programmes.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prognostic models have been developed for patients infected with HIV-1 who start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries, but not for patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed two prognostic models to estimate the probability of death in patients starting ART in sub-Saharan Africa.
Related JoVE Video
CD4+ cell count testing more effective than HIV disease clinical staging in identifying pregnant and postpartum women eligible for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligible HIV-infected (HIV+) pregnant women and rapidly initiating treatment preserves maternal health and prevents mother-to-child transmission. However, there have been few investigations of the performance of ART eligibility criteria in pregnant and postpartum women in resource-limited settings.
Related JoVE Video
Antiretroviral program associated with reduction in untreated prevalent tuberculosis in a South African township.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2005, we reported high prevalence of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a South African community. Prevalent untreated TB is the main source of transmission. In settings with large burdens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may contribute to TB control.
Related JoVE Video
Screening for serious mental illness in the general population with the K6 screening scale: results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Data are reported on the background and performance of the K6 screening scale for serious mental illness (SMI) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. The K6 is a six-item scale developed to provide a brief valid screen for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV) SMI based on the criteria in the US ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Although methodological studies have documented good K6 validity in a number of countries, optimal scoring rules have never been proposed. Such rules are presented here based on analysis of K6 data in nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys in 14 countries (combined N = 41,770 respondents). Twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV SMI was assessed with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nested logistic regression analysis was used to generate estimates of the predicted probability of SMI for each respondent from K6 scores, taking into consideration the possibility of variable concordance as a function of respondent age, gender, education, and country. Concordance, assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was generally substantial (median 0.83; range 0.76-0.89; inter-quartile range 0.81-0.85). Based on this result, optimal scaling rules are presented for use by investigators working with the K6 scale in the countries studied.
Related JoVE Video
Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation among pregnant women and the optimum model of service delivery for integrating HAART services into antenatal care.
Related JoVE Video
The expression of MUC mucin in cholangiocarcinoma.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a highly malignant epithelial cancer of the biliary tract, the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Malignant transformation of glandular epithelial cells is associated with the altered expression of mucin. We investigated the type of mucins expressed in CC. Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed CC were included in this study. The expression of mucin was studied by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to MUC1, MUC1 core, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6. There was extensive (>50%) expression of mucin, mainly MUC1 in 11/25 and MUC5AC in 12/26 cases. In the case of MUC3, 6/26 cases expressed mucin extensively, whilst only 1/26 had MUC2, MUC4, and MUC6 expression. Well-differentiated tumors significantly expressed MUC3 extensively compared to poor or moderately differentiated tumors (p=0.003). Fifteen of 25 cases had metastatic disease. MUC1 was extensively expressed in 9/15 cases with metastatic disease. In contrast, MUC1 expression was present in 2/10 cases where metastases were absent. Hilar lesions were less likely to express MUC1, but this was not statistically significant. Fifteen of 25 cases had metastatic disease. Extensive MUC3 expression was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumors, whilst there was an approaching significance between the extensive expression of MUC1 and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of antiretroviral therapy on incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in sub-Saharan Africa there is growing recognition of the importance of fertility and childbearing among HIV-infected women. However there are few data on whether ART initiation influences pregnancy rates.
Related JoVE Video
Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative scores for two commonly used neuropsychological tests that generate four test scores -- namely the Trail-Making Test (Parts A and B) and the Digit Span Test [Forward (DSF) and Backward (DSB)]. To assess memory and recall, we used the memory item of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS).
Related JoVE Video
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a community-based antiretroviral clinic in South Africa.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the uptake of ART among pregnant women referred to an ART service and the associated rates and risk factors for vertical HIV transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Disability and treatment of psychiatric and physical disorders in South Africa.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to compare disability rates associated with physical disorders versus psychiatric disorders and to establish treatment rates of both classes of disorder in the South African population. In a nationally representative survey of 4351 adults, treatment and prevalence rates of a range of physical and psychiatric disorders, and their associated morbidity during the previous 12 months were investigated. Physical illnesses were reported in 55.2% of the sample, 60.4% of whom received treatment for their disorder. Approximately 10% of the samples show a mental illness with 6.1% having received treatment for their disorder. The prevalence of any mental illness reported was higher than that reported individually for asthma, cancer, diabetes, and peptic ulcer. Mental disorders were consistently reported to be more disabling than physical disorders and the degree of disability increased as the number of comorbid disorders increased. Depression, in particular, was rated consistently higher across all domains than all physical disorders. Despite high rates of mental disorders and associated disability in South Africa, they are less likely to be treated than physical disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking estimates from around the world: data from the first 17 participating countries in the World Mental Health Survey Consortium.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To contribute new multinational findings on basic descriptive features of smoking and cessation, based upon standardised community surveys of adults residing in seven low-income and middle-income countries and 10 higher-income countries from all regions of the world.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of HIV treatment scale-up on womens reproductive health care and reproductive rights in Southern Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The HIV epidemic has changed the face of womens reproductive health across southern Africa. In some circles, there have been calls for restrictions on womens reproductive rights, focusing particularly on the spread of HIV between sexual partners and from mother to child. However, during the past decade, public health attention and resources for the clinical care of HIV-infected individuals living in Africa have led to advances in womens reproductive health services. As many programs have recognized that effective HIV care and treatment services must link to other areas of primary care, key reproductive health services such as those providing contraception and barrier methods are commonly integrated into antiretroviral therapy services. In much of the region, this programmatic focus has helped increase attention on the ground to womens reproductive rights. However, in many settings, policies explicitly supporting the reproductive rights of HIV-infected women have lagged. Important gaps remain both in policy development and in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions promoting womens reproductive health and rights at the service delivery level.
Related JoVE Video
CD4(+) T cell count decreases by ethnicity among untreated patients with HIV infection in South Africa and Switzerland.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estimates of the decrease in CD4(+) cell counts in untreated patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are important for patient care and public health. We analyzed CD4(+) cell count decreases in the Cape Town AIDS Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
Related JoVE Video
DSM-IV-defined common mental disorders: association with HIV testing, HIV-related fears, perceived risk and preventive behaviours among South African adults.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few reports from South Africa on how common mental disorders may be associated with HIV-related perceptions and behaviours.
Related JoVE Video
Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa: association with psychiatric disorders.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A nationally representative study of psychiatric disorders in South Africa provided an opportunity to study the association between perpetration of human rights violations (HRVs) during apartheid and psychiatric disorder. Prior work has suggested an association between perpetration and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but this remains controversial.
Related JoVE Video
Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders: the South African Stress and Health study.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the demographic correlates of perceived discrimination and explore the association between perceived discrimination and psychiatric disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Life stress and mental disorders in the South African stress and health study.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychopathology, the contribution from distal and proximal events and the specificity of their association with common mental disorders require further exploration. We examined the association of recent life events and past adversities to mood, anxiety, substance use and impulse control disorders in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
The epidemiology of major depression in South Africa: results from the South African stress and health study.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mental disorders are a major contributor to the burden of disease in all regions of the world. There are limited data on the epidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of substance use in South Africa: results from the South African Stress and Health study.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are limited data on substance use in South Africa. We describe patterns of substance use based on recent, nationally representative data.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence on secondary school completion.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few data from South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries on how mental disorders in childhood and adolescence may influence different aspects of socio-economic position, including educational attainment. We examined the association between early-onset disorders and subsequent educational achievement in a nationally representative sample of 4 351 South African adults. After adjusting for participant demographic characteristics and traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder and substance-related disorders were each associated with increased odds of failing to complete secondary education (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 2.3, 1.0-5.1; 1.7, 1.2-2.5, and 1.7, 1.2-2.5, respectively). These data point to the role that early-life mental disorders may play in educational achievement and subsequent socio-economic position over the life course.
Related JoVE Video
Mental health service use among South Africans for mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Europe and North America have low rates of mental health service use despite high rates of mental disorder. Little is known about mental health service use among South Africans.
Related JoVE Video
Traditional healers in the treatment of common mental disorders in South Africa.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few population-level insights into the use of traditional healers and other forms of alternative care for the treatment of common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the extent to which alternative practitioners are consulted, and predictors of traditional healer visits. A national survey was conducted with 3651 adult South Africans between 2002 and 2004, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to generate DSM-IV diagnoses for common mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. A minority of participants with a lifetime DSM-IV diagnosis obtained treatment from Western (29%) or alternative (20%) practitioners. Traditional healers were consulted by 9% of the respondents and 11% consulted a religious or spiritual advisor. Use of traditional healers in the full sample was predicted by older age, black race, unemployment, lower education, and having an anxiety or a substance use disorder. Alternative practitioners, including traditional healers and religious advisors, appear to play a notable role in the delivery of mental health care in South Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the short-term and long-term risks of tuberculosis (TB) associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Related JoVE Video
The impact of gender and income on survival and retention in a South African antiretroviral therapy programme.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in Africa, there are few data on whether outcomes differ for women and men and what factors may drive such variation. We investigated the association of gender and income with survival and retention in a South African ART programme.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life and the impact of drug toxicities in a South African community-based antiretroviral programme.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-related quality of life has been widely researched in the developed world, but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa, where the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals live. This study examined health-related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals initiating HAART in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored the impact of HAART-related drug toxicities on quality of life.
Related JoVE Video
Fertility intentions and reproductive health care needs of people living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for integrating reproductive health and HIV care services.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tailoring sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of people living with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is a growing concern but there are few insights into these issues where HIV is most prevalent. This cross-sectional study investigated the fertility intentions and associated health care needs of 459 women and men, not sampled as intimate partners of each other, living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa. An almost equal proportion of women (55%) and men (43%) living with HIV, reported not intending to have children as were open to the possibility of having children (45 and 57%, respectively). Overall, greater intentions to have children were associated with being male, having fewer children, living in an informal settlement and use of antiretroviral therapy. There were important gender differences in the determinants of future childbearing intentions, with being on HAART strongly associated with womens fertility intentions. Gender differences were also apparent in participants key reasons for wanting children. A minority of participants had discussed their reproductive intentions and related issues with HIV health care providers. There is an urgent need for intervention models to integrate HIV care with sexual and reproduction health counseling and services that account for the diverse reproductive needs of these populations.
Related JoVE Video
Intermittent explosive disorder in South Africa: prevalence, correlates and the role of traumatic exposures.
Psychopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The epidemiology of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is not well characterized in developing country settings. In South Africa, given the high rates of violence and trauma, there is particular interest in traumatic exposures as potential risk factors for IED.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.