Drip irrigation is broadly extended in order to save water in the arid cotton production region of China. Biochar is thought to be a useful soil amendment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, a field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) under different irrigation methods (drip irrigation (D) and furrow irrigation (F)) and fertilization regimes (conventional fertilization (C) and conventional fertilization + biochar (B)) during the cotton growth season. The accumulated N2O emissions were significantly lower with FB, DC, and DB than with FC by 28.8%, 36.1%, and 37.6%, while accumulated CH4 uptake was 264.5%, 226.7%, and 154.2% higher with DC, DB, and FC than that with FB, respectively. Irrigation methods showed a significant effect on total global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP (P < 0.01). DC and DB showed higher cotton yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and lower yield-scaled GWP, as compared with FC and FB. This suggests that in northwestern China mulched-drip irrigation should be a better approach to increase cotton yield with depressed GHG. In addition, biochar addition increased CH4 emissions while it decreased N2O emissions.
Pb, Zn and Cu were determined in 35 Preserved Egg (PE) samples, 25 Salted Egg (SE) samples and 40 Egg Preserved in Rice Wine (EPRW) samples collected from Jiangxi province by ICP-MS. The corresponding health risk for consumers was assessed by the target hazard quotients (THQ) and hazard index (HI). Average Pb, Zn and Cu content in all samples was 0.125 mg/kg, 10.939 mg/kg and 2.094 mg/kg, respectively. Average Pb content in PE was significantly higher than in SE and EPRW. THQ and HI values were less than 1, indicating that intake of heavy metals from PE, SE and EPRW will not pose a significant hazard risk to humans. However, more attention should be paid to control the ingestion by PE, which is the main source of Pb, Zn and Cu for consumers among these three egg products.
Ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln1 or Ubqln), a ubiquitin-like protein, mediates degradation of misfolded proteins and has been implicated in a number of pathological and physiological conditions. To better understand its function in vivo, we recently generated transgenic (Tg) mice that globally overexpress mouse Ubqln in a variety of tissues and ubqln conditional knock-out mice. The Tg mice were viable and did not show any developmental or behavioral abnormalities compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. When subjected to oxidative stress or ischemia/reperfusion, however, ubqln Tg mice but not the WT littermates showed increased tolerance to these insults. Following ischemic stroke, ubqln Tg mice recovered motor function more rapidly than did the WT mice. In contrast, KO of ubqln exacerbated neuronal damage after stroke. In addition, KO of ubqln also caused accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. When ubqln KO mice were crossed with a ubiquitin-proteasome system function reporter mouse, the accumulation of a proteasome surrogate substrate was observed. These results suggest that Ubqln protects mice from oxidative stress and ischemic stroke-caused neuronal injury through facilitating removal of damaged proteins. Thus, enhanced removal of unwanted proteins is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating stroke-caused neuronal injury.
The present study evaluated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of progranulin in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. To investigate progranulin (PGRN) and the alterations in its expression following hypoxia, the HT22 cells were treated with various concentrations of sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4; 1-20 mM) for a fixed time (6 h) or with a fixed concentration (5 mM) for different lengths of time (2-0 h). The expression of PGRN in the HT22 cells following hypoxia was analyzed by an immunocytochemistry assay and western blot analysis. The data revealed that the HT22 cells were capable of expressing PGRN. Double labeling results revealed that PGRN was able to co-localize with the neuronal markers, ?III-tubulin and doublecortin. Western blot analyses indicated that hypoxia was able to decrease the PGRN levels in a concentration-dependent manner at 6 h, although there was a marginal increase within a shorter period. The results of this study revealed that hypoxic injury is capable of significantly affecting the expression of PGRN, thereby it may provide novel insights with regard to the role of PGRN in ischemic brain injury.
Tuberculosis caused 20% of all human deaths in the Western world between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries and remains a cause of high mortality in developing countries. In analogy to other crowd diseases, the origin of human tuberculosis has been associated with the Neolithic Demographic Transition, but recent studies point to a much earlier origin. We analyzed the whole genomes of 259 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains and used this data set to characterize global diversity and to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this pathogen. Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC emerged about 70,000 years ago, accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded as a consequence of increases in human population density during the Neolithic period. This long coevolutionary history is consistent with MTBC displaying characteristics indicative of adaptation to both low and high host densities.
Progranulin (PGRN) is a neurotrophic factor that regulates neurite outgrowth and enhances neuronal survival. The association between PGRN and neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation may aid in elucidating the underlying pathogenesis and potential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the association between PGRN and NSCs and their lineages, primary NSCs were prepared from the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague Dawley pups (age, 1 day) and cultured in the neural stem cell medium. After 7 days in culture, NSCs aggregated into neurospheres and were maintained in the differential medium for 7 days following three passages. In addition, PGRN expression in neurospheres and differentiated cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The PGRN expression and localization was also investigated in the brain tissues of neonatal rats (age, 1 and 7 days) by double immunofluorescence staining. The data indicated that PGRN was highly expressed in NSCs and their differentiated cell lineages in vitro. The results also demonstrated that PGRN was predominantly expressed in neurons and microglia in vivo, and marginally in NSCs, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The present study suggested that PGRN may be involved in the regulation of NSC differentiation.
Chinas government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the projects sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSPs impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas.
This paper presents the results of the study undertaken at the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China to analyze impacts of flooding on water quality. It was shown that irregular rainfall was the cause of flash floods that affected many ecosystems and eroded soils. Simulation results and the existence of relationships between flood volume and flood peak allowed potential model application that included flood peak estimation. The analysis of water pollution through sample sediment was helped by spectroscopy techniques and it was found that the flood was the main cause of many chemical elements in water. The floods affected the quality of water in the Tarim River where it was slightly basic with pH = 8.1 before flooding and acidic with pH = 6.9 after flooding.
Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.
The efficient synthesis of some 22-alkynyl-13,24(23)-cyclo-18,21-dinorchol-22-en-20(23)-ones was investigated. 22-Iodocyclo-18,21-dinorcholenones were prepared from cyclo-18,21-dinorcholenones using I(2)/DMAP/pyridine system firstly. The cross coupling reaction of 22-iodocyclo-18,21-dinorcholenones and 1-alkynes was carried out efficiently catalyzed by tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium/cuprous iodide in the presence of base diisopropylethylamine. This strategy offered a very straightforward and efficient method for access to conjugated alkynyl cyclo-18,21-dinorcholenones from the cyclo-18,21-dinorcholenones and 1-alkynes in excellent overall yields. Evaluation of the synthesized compounds for cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa, MKN-28 and MCF-7 cell lines showed that the 22-alkynylcyclodinorchoenones possessing hydroxylethyl and hydroxylmethyl mono-substituted side chain at the end of alkynyl group have significantly inhibition activity.
Stroke caused by brain ischemia is the third leading cause of adult disability. Active prevention and early treatment of stroke targeting the causes and risk factors may decrease its incidence, mortality and subsequent disability. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a Chinese medicine formula, was found to have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that can prevent brain damage. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms of the preventive effects of Pien Tze Huang on brain damage caused by chronic ischemia and hypertensive stroke in rats.
A novel and practical procedure was developed for the preparation of D-ring unsaturated 17-alkynyl steroids by Pd(PPh(3))(4)/AgOAc-catalyzed coupling of steroidal 17-triflates and alkynes. Firstly treatment of the steroid-17-ones with PhN(Tf)(2) and KHMDS in dried THF at -78 degrees C for 2h gives the corresponding steroidal 17-triflates products in high yields (97-98%), following the coupling of steroidal 17-triflates and various 1-alkynes by Pd(PPh(3))(4)/AgOAc-catalyzed in the presence of DIPEA for 24h to yield the desired D-ring unsaturated 17-alkynyl steroids (86-97%). Moreover, it was found that the coupling reaction catalyzed by Pd[(C(6)H(5))(3)P](4)/AgOAc system is selective for aryl triflates or vinyl triflates. By optimizing the reaction conditions, the sole C17-coupling products from steroidal bistriflates were obtained in satisfactory yields. Since D-ring unsaturated 17-alkynyl steroids with conjugated double and triplet bond can be subsequently converted into pentacyclic steroids and 17-oxosteroid derivatives at the side chain of D-ring, this general method provides a highly efficient route to these biologically important compounds.
Effects of LH on photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence. O2 evolution and the photosystem II (PSII) activity were clearly inhibited by LH. Exposure to LH increased the proportion of PSIIbeta and this weakened the connectivity between PSII units and hindered excitation energy-transfer between PSII units. LH decreased the density of the active photosynthetic reaction centers, inhibited electron transport, and increased the dissipated energy flux per reaction center. The inhibitory effect of LH on Q(A)(-) reoxidation process could be divided into several stages. LH first inhibited the electron transfer from Q(A)(-) to Q(B) by weakening the connectivity between Q(A)(-) and Q(B), and PQ binding began taking part in Q(A)(-) reoxidation. At the second stage, the connectivity between Q(A)(-) and PQ pool was broken and inhibition on PQ binding occurred. At this stage, some Q(A)(-) began to be oxidized by S2(Q(A)Q(B))(-). Finally, when the connectivity between Q(A)(-) and Q(B) and PQ was completely broken, all Q(A)(-) was oxidized through charge recombination.
Astrocytes react to various neurodegenerative insults rapidly and undergo changes known as gliosis or astrogliosis. In Alzheimers disease (AD), a wall of reactive astrocytes surrounds senile plaques of ?-amyloid (A?) and might play an important role in clearing of A?. AD is neuropathologically characterized by the co-existence of two pathological structures, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of A? and Tau protein respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlie astrogliosis and increased expressions of GFAP and other astrogliosis markers are poorly understood. Since AD is age related, the aim of this study is to compare the gliosis of aging prone astrocytes cultured from senescence-accelerated mice and astrocytes from normal mice in response to A? and Tau treatment. Our results demonstrated that the aging prone astrocytes have showed larger degree of gliosis than normal astrocytes. Since reactive astrocytes had less ability to support co-cultured neurons as compared with control astrocytes. Therefore, it is likely that aging prone astrocytes might contribute to cell loss or dysfunction associated with insults in AD. In other words, aging prone astrocytes might have decreased ability than normal astrocytes to protect or prevent neuronal dysfunction in AD pathology. In addition, further AD related studies should use aging prone astrocytes instead of normal astrocytes.
Pien Tze Huang is a popular Chinese medicine for liver diseases. In the investigations of possible effects of Pien Tze Huang on the central nervous system, we first studied the in vitro anti-cancer activity of Pien Tze Huang on neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) as compared with normal fibroblasts (NIH-3T3). Results showed that Pien Tze Huang significantly decreased (p < .05) cell survival of SH-SY5Y as compared to NIH-3T3. Furthermore, the decreases in cell survival of SH-SY5Y were significantly and linearly dose-dependent (p < .05) from 400 to 1,000 microg/ml. This supports further in vivo and animal studies for anti-cancer effect, neuroprotection, and their mechanisms.
This study was designed to determine whether focal cerebral ischemia alters the expression of the immunoproteasomal (i-proteasomal) subunits. Transient cerebral ischemia significantly increased the expression of the i-proteasomal subunits, 20S ?1i (LMP2) and ?5i (LMP7) in the parietal cortex and hippocampus. This alteration was associated with a remarkable increase in ubiquitinated proteins. It is likely that the postischemic induction of the i-proteasome plays an important role in coping with the damaged proteins and thus may have an important effect on neuronal survival and death.
MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method is one of the most widely used methods to analyze cell proliferation and viability. It is taken up through endocytosis and is reduced by mitochondrial enzymes as well as endosomal/lysosomal compartments, then is transported to cell surfaces to form needle-like MTT formazans; however the effect of MTT itself still remains elusive. Our objective was to investigate the direct effects of MTT on in vitro SH-SY5Y cells. Results showed that the endocytosis of MTT did not cause obvious lesion and induce cell death, but the metabolism and exocytosis of MTT could dramatically damage cells. Our results also indicated that MTT could activate apoptosis related factors such as caspase-8, caspase-3 or accelerate the leakage of cell contents after the appearance of MTT formazan crystals. The present data suggest MTT method should be carefully chosen; otherwise the cell viability would be underestimated and incomparable.
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic with neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia or hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent years emerging evidence has demonstrated that metallothionein-3 (MT-3), a growth inhibitory factor that exists mainly in the central nervous system, exhibited neuroprotective effect in vivo. Here, we used a model of hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) injury to examine the hippocampal neuroprotective effect of propofol, and explored the role of MT-3 in this action. H/R resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death in hippocampal neuron culture, as indicated by MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, respectively. Pretreatment of propofol at different concentrations (50, 150, and 250 ?mol/L) reversed H/R-induced neurotoxicity and increased MT-3 mRNA and protein expressions. Moreover, propofol failed to exert neuroprotective effect when MT-3 was silenced by the transfection with the specific siRNA, suggesting that MT-3 was the crucial mediator for propofols neuroprotective effect against H/R. In conclusion, our findings showed that propofol is neuroprotective in H/R model on hippocampal neuron cells and that it may act by up-regulation of MT-3.
Twelve single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in rice, which contain quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tiller number detected previously, were used to study dynamic expression of the QTLs in this study. These SSSLs and their recipient, Hua-Jing-Xian 74 (HJX74), were used to produce 78 crossing combinations first, and then these combinations and their parents were grown in two planting seasons with three cropping densities. Tiller number was measured at seven developmental stages. QTL effects including main effects (additive, dominance and epistasis), QTL × season and QTL × density interaction effects were analyzed at each measured stage. The additive, dominant and epistatic effects of the 12 QTLs as well as their interaction effects with the seasons and with the densities all display dynamic changes with the development. Eight QTLs are detected with significant additive effects and/or additive × season and/or additive × density interaction effects at least at one developmental stage, and all QTLs have significant dominant and epistatic effects and/or interaction effects involved in. For most of the QTLs dominant effects are much bigger than additive effects, showing overdominance. Each QTL interacts at least with eight other QTLs. Additive and dominant effects of these QTLs are mostly positive while epistatic effects are negative and minor. Most of the QTLs show significant interactions with planting seasons and cropping densities, but the additive effects of QTLs Tn3-1 and Tn3-2, the dominant effects of QTL Tn7 and Tn8, and the epistatic effects of 14 pairs of QTLs are stable across seasons and the dominant effect of QTL Tn3-3 and the epistatic effects of QTL pairs Tn2-1/Tn6-2, Tn2-1/Tn9 and Tn3-3/Tn6-3 are nearly consistent across cropping densities. This paper is the first report of dynamics on dominances and epistasis of QTLs for tiller number in rice and provides abundant information, which is useful to improve rice tiller number via heterosis and/or QTL pyramiding.
Field studies were carried out in Urumqi River Basin in Northwest China. The study focused on experimentation on a plant algae method that was tested by taking various water chemistries into consideration. The results from a greenhouse experiment evaluated for four doses of P (0, 100, 200, and 300 ?mol/L) using two ferns (30 and 60 day old) on 15 L of contaminated groundwater per plant revealed that the biomass of 30-day old ferns gained was higher than 60-day fern. As solution-P increased from 0 to 450 ?mol/L, Phosphorus concentration in the fronds increased from 1.9 to 3.9 mg/kg and 1.95 to 4.0 mg/kg for 30-d and 60-d ferns respectively. This study showed that the plant algae method may be a good solution to maximize arsenic uptake in the short term under normal climatic conditions.
3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound extracted from Chinese celery and is used as an anti-hypertensive herbal medicine for treating stroke patients. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effects and mechanisms of this compound through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Culture experiments were performed by adding hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to SH-SY5Y cells. From the MTT assay result, enhanced cell survival was observed with DL-NBP treatment, regardless of whether they are added before, simultaneously with or after the addition of H(2)O(2). For the in vivo experiment, Spontaneously Hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto control rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, which were induced by bilateral transection of the common carotid arteries, were given DL-NBP. Their performances in the place navigation test and spatial probe test in the Morris Water Maze have significantly improved compared with the DL-NBP untreated animals, indicating an improvement in spatial learning and memory in the ischemic-animals. In addition, in the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane assay, angiogenesis was more vigorous under the effects of DL-NBP, together with increased expression of growth factors, VEGF, VEGF-receptor and bFGF. All these suggested that one of the mechanisms of DL-NBP might be ameliorating vascular dementia and promoting angiogenesis.
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