Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD.
Cognitive impairment is a quintessential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD mouse models. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist rosiglitazone improves hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in some AD patients and ameliorates deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model for AD amyloidosis. Tg2576 cognitive enhancement occurs through the induction of a gene and protein expression profile reflecting convergence of the PPAR? signaling axis and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, a critical mediator of memory consolidation. We therefore tested whether PPAR? and ERK associated in protein complexes that subserve cognitive enhancement through PPAR? agonism. Coimmunoprecipitation of hippocampal extracts revealed that PPAR? and activated, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) associated in Tg2576 in vivo, and that PPAR? agonism facilitated recruitment of PPAR? to pERK during memory consolidation. Furthermore, the amount of PPAR? recruited to pERK correlated with the cognitive reserve in humans with AD and in Tg2576. Our findings implicate a previously unidentified PPAR?-pERK complex that provides a molecular mechanism for the convergence of these pathways during cognitive enhancement, thereby offering new targets for therapeutic development in AD.
Hippocampal network hyperexcitability is considered an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) memory impairment. Some AD mouse models exhibit similar network phenotypes. In this study we focused on dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell spontaneous and evoked properties in 9-month-old Tg2576 mice that model AD amyloidosis and cognitive deficits. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that Tg2576 DG granule cells exhibited spontaneous EPSCs that were higher in frequency but not amplitude compared with wild-type mice, suggesting hyperactivity of DG granule cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Further support of a presynaptic mechanism was revealed by increased I-O relationships and probability of release in Tg2576 DG granule cells. Since we and others have shown that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) axis improves hippocampal cognition in mouse models for AD as well as benefitting memory performance in some humans with early AD, we investigated how PPAR? agonism affected synaptic activity in Tg2576 DG. We found that PPAR? agonism normalized the I-O relationship of evoked EPSCs, frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, and probability of release that, in turn, correlated with selective expression of DG proteins essential for presynaptic SNARE function that are altered in patients with AD. These findings provide evidence that DG principal cells may contribute to early AD hippocampal network hyperexcitability via a presynaptic mechanism, and that hippocampal cognitive enhancement via PPAR? activation occurs through regulation of presynaptic vesicular proteins critical for proper glutamatergic neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission, and short-term plasticity.
Chronic hepatic disease damages the liver, and the resulting wound-healing process leads to liver fibrosis and the subsequent development of cirrhosis. The leading cause of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and of the patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis, 2% to 5% develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a survival rate of 7%. HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the poor survival rate is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, which makes successful intervention difficult, if not impossible. The lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and the urgent need for early-stage diagnosis prompted us to discover new candidate biomarkers for HCV and HCC. We used aptamer-based fractionation technology to reduce serum complexity, differentially labeled samples (six HCV and six HCC) with fluorescent dyes, and resolved proteins in pairwise two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. DeCyder software was used to identify differentially expressed proteins and spots picked, and MALDI-MS/MS was used to determine that ApoA1 was down-regulated by 22% (p < 0.004) in HCC relative to HCV. Differential expression quantified via two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was confirmed by means of (18)O/(16)O stable isotope differential labeling with LC-MS/MS zoom scans. Technically independent confirmation was demonstrated by triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays with three peptides specific to human ApoA1 (DLATVYVDVLK, WQEEMELYR, and VSFLSALEEYTK) using (18)O/(16)O-labeled samples and further verified with AQUA peptides as internal standards for quantification. In 50 patient samples (24 HCV and 26 HCC), all three SRM assays yielded highly similar differential expression of ApoA1 in HCC and HCV patients. These results validated the SRM assays, which were independently confirmed by Western blotting. Thus, ApoA1 is a candidate member of an SRM biomarker panel for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of HCC. Future multiplexing of SRM assays for other candidate biomarkers is envisioned to develop a biomarker panel for subsequent verification and validation studies.
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) improves functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previously we demonstrated that human NSCs (hNSCs) via releasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), preserved cognitive function in rats following parasagittal fluid percussion. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that NSC grafts significantly reduce TBI-induced axonal injury in the fimbria and other brain regions by blocking abnormal accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). A preliminary mass spectrometry proteomics study revealed the opposite effects of TBI and NSCs on many of the cytoskeletal proteins in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, including ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), the main stress fiber component. Further, Western blot and immunostaining studies confirmed that TBI significantly increased the expression of ?-SMA in hippocampal neurons, whereas NSC grafts counteracted the effect of TBI. In an in vitro model, rapid stretch injury significantly shortened lengths of axons and dendrites, increased the expression of both APP and ?-SMA, and induced actin aggregation, effects offset by GDNF treatment. These GDNF protective effects were reversed by a GDNF-neutralizing antibody or a specific calcineurin inhibitor, and were mimicked by a specific Rho inhibitor. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that hNSC grafts and treatment with GDNF acutely reduce traumatic axonal injury and promote neurite outgrowth. Possible mechanisms underlying GDNF-mediated neurite protection include balancing the activity of calcineurin, whereas GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth may result from the reduction of the abnormal ?-SMA expression and actin aggregation via blocking Rho signals. Our study also suggests the necessity of further exploring the roles of ?-SMA in the central nervous system (CNS), which may lead to a new avenue to facilitate recovery after TBI and other injuries.
Diabetes mellitus is a challenging autoimmune disease. Biomedical researchers are currently exploring efficient and effective ways to solve this challenge. The potential of stem cell therapies for treating diabetes represents one of the major focuses of current research on diabetes treatment. Here, we have attempted to differentiate adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal cells (UCB-MSC), Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) and amniotic epithelial stem cells (AE-SC) into insulin-producing cells. The serum-free protocol developed in this study resulted in the differentiation of cells into definitive endoderm, pancreatic foregut, pancreatic endoderm and, finally, pancreatic endocrine cells, which expressed the marker genes SOX17, PDX1, NGN3, NKX6.1, INS, GCG, and PPY, respectively. Detection of the expression of the gap junction-related gene connexin-36 (CX36) using RT-PCR provided conclusive evidence for insulin-producing cell differentiation. In addition to this RT-PCR result, insulin and C-peptide protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Glucose stimulation test results showed that significantly greater amounts of C-peptide and insulin were released from differentiated cells than from undifferentiated cells. In conclusion, the methods investigated in this study can be considered an effective and efficient means of obtaining insulin-producing cells from adult stem cells within a week.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial variables, biomarker hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and immune modulatory cytokine mediators among diabetic patients in marital or committed long-term relationships.
We describe a method for ratio estimations in (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution isotopically resolved data. The method is implemented in a software package specifically designed for use in experiments making use of zoom-scan mode data acquisition. Zoom-scan mode data allow commonly used ion trap mass spectrometers to attain isotopic resolution, which makes them amenable to use in labeling schemes such as (18)O-water labeling, but algorithms and software developed for high resolution instruments may not be appropriate for the lower resolution data acquired in zoom-scan mode. The use of power spectrum analysis is proposed as a general approach that may be uniquely suited to these data types. The software implementation uses a power spectrum to remove high-frequency noise and band-filter contributions from coeluting species of differing charge states. From the elemental composition of a peptide sequence, we generate theoretical isotope envelopes of heavy-light peptide pairs in five different ratios; these theoretical envelopes are correlated with the filtered experimental zoom scans. To automate peptide quantification in high-throughput experiments, we have implemented our approach in a computer program, MassXplorer. We demonstrate the application of MassXplorer to two model mixtures of known proteins and to a complex mixture of mouse kidney cortical extract. Comparison with another algorithm for ratio estimations demonstrates the increased precision and automation of MassXplorer.
Converging lines of evidence associate gluco-regulatory abnormalities and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma function with increased risk for Alzheimers disease (AD). In this study, we used the Tg2576 AD mouse model to test the hypothesis that cognitive improvement following 1 month of PPAR gamma agonism with rosiglitazone (RTZ) correlates with peripheral gluco-regulatory status. We assessed cognition and peripheral gluco-regulatory status of Tg2576 mice following 1 month treatment with RTZ initiated prior to, coincident with, or after, the onset of peripheral gluco-regulatory abnormalities (4, 8, and 12 months of age, respectively). Whereas 5 months old (MO) and 13 MO Tg2576 did not gain cognitive improvement after 1 month treatment with RTZ, 9 MO Tg2576 mice exhibited reversal of associative learning and memory deficits. Peripheral gluco-regulatory abnormalities were improved in 9 and 13 MO Tg2576 with RTZ treatment; RTZ treatment had no effect on the normal glucose status of 5 MO Tg2576 mice. These findings suggest that RTZ-mediated cognitive improvement does not correlate with peripheral gluco-regulatory abnormalities per se, but reflects the age-dependent mechanistic differences that underlie cognitive decline in this mouse model.
IGF regulates steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through expression of the cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) (CYP11A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in this biosynthetic process. We showed previously that the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) acts as a repressor, whereas Sp1 is an activator, of P450 gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate IGF-stimulated ERK signaling regulating P450scc gene expression in the immortalized porcine granulosa cell line JC-410. We used a reporter gene under control of the IGF response element from the P450scc promoter. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation with U0126 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenylmercapto)butadiene] blocked IGF-I induction of IGF response element reporter gene activity. Western blotting revealed that IGF-I treatment resulted in phosphorylation of ERK that was specifically inhibited by U0126. ERK activation led to phosphorylation of T739 (an ERK site) on Sp1 that was diminished by U0126 or overexpression of PSF. Coimmunoprecipitation and Western blotting of nuclear extracts showed that phosphorylated ERK (pERK) bound PSF under basal conditions. IGF-I caused dissociation of pERK from PSF. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PSF and Sp1 constitutively occupy the P450scc promoter independent of IGF-I treatment. These events provide a potential molecular mechanism for release of PSF repression of P450scc expression by dissociation of pERK and subsequent pERK-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 to drive transcriptional induction of the P450scc gene in the absence of altered binding of PSF or Sp1 to the promoter. Understanding IGF-I regulation of these critical ovarian signaling pathways is the first step to delineating ovarian hyperstimulation syndromes such as polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Numerous metabolic pathways have been implicated in diabetes-induced renal injury, yet few studies have utilized unbiased systems biology approaches for mapping the interconnectivity of diabetes-dysregulated proteins that are involved. We utilized a global, quantitative, differential proteomic approach to identify a novel retinoic acid hub in renal cortical protein networks dysregulated by type 2 diabetes.
Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is associated with long-term complications in diabetes mellitus. In this study, we tested whether RAGE activation in the diabetic myocardium is implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction.
We previously reported that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) improved hippocampus-dependent cognition in the Alzheimers disease (AD) mouse model, Tg2576. RSG had no effect on wild-type littermate cognitive performance. Since extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK) is required for many forms of learning and memory that are affected in AD, and since both PPAR? and ERK MAPK are key mediators of insulin signaling, the current study tested the hypothesis that RSG-mediated cognitive improvement induces a hippocampal PPAR? pattern of gene and protein expression that converges with the ERK MAPK signaling axis in Tg2576 AD mice. In the hippocampal PPAR? transcriptome, we found significant overlap between peroxisome proliferator response element-containing PPAR? target genes and ERK-regulated, cAMP response element-containing target genes. Within the Tg2576 dentate gyrus proteome, RSG induced proteins with structural, energy, biosynthesis and plasticity functions. Several of these proteins are known to be important for cognitive function and are also regulated by ERK MAPK. In addition, we found the RSG-mediated augmentation of PPAR? and ERK2 activity during Tg2576 cognitive enhancement was reversed when hippocampal PPAR? was pharmacologically antagonized, revealing a coordinate relationship between PPAR? transcriptional competency and phosphorylated ERK that is reciprocally affected in response to chronic activation, compared with acute inhibition, of PPAR?. We conclude that the hippocampal transcriptome and proteome induced by cognitive enhancement with RSG harnesses a dysregulated ERK MAPK signal transduction pathway to overcome AD-like cognitive deficits in Tg2576 mice. Thus, PPAR? represents a signaling system that is not crucial for normal cognition yet can intercede to restore neural networks compromised by AD.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex and common problem resulting in the loss of cognitive function. In order to build a comprehensive knowledge base of the proteins that underlie these cognitive deficits, we employed unbiased quantitative mass spectrometry, proteomics, and bioinformatics to identify and quantify dysregulated proteins in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus in the fluid percussion model of TBI in rats. Using stable isotope 18O-water differential labeling and multidimensional tandem liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS with high stringency statistical analyses and filtering, we identified and quantified 1002 common proteins, with 124 increased and 76 decreased. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) bioinformatics tool identified that TBI had profound effects on downregulating global energy metabolism, including glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as cellular structure and function. Widespread upregulation of actin-related cytoskeletal dynamics was also found. IPA indicated a common integrative signaling node, calcineurin B1 (CANB1, CaNB?, or PPP3R1), which was downregulated by TBI. Western blotting confirmed that the calcineurin regulatory subunit, CANB1, and its catalytic binding partner PP2BA, were decreased without changes in other calcineurin subunits. CANB1 plays a critical role in downregulated networks of calcium signaling and homeostasis through calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase II to highly interconnected structural networks dominated by tubulins. This large-scale knowledge base lays the foundation for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for cognitive rescue in TBI.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.