Exenatide has been demonstrated to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, with no effect on heart rate corrected QT (QTc ) at therapeutic concentrations. This randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic exenatide concentrations on QTc .
Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, available in an immediate-release (IR), twice-daily formulation, which improves glycaemic control through enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppression of inappropriately elevated postprandial glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying and reduction of food intake. The objectives of these studies were to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an extended-release (ER) exenatide formulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
It is important for patients that treatments for diabetes not increase cardiovascular (CV) risk. The objective of this analysis was to examine retrospectively the CV safety of exenatide BID, a GLP-1 receptor agonist approved for treating hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled with diet and exercise. Individual participant data was pooled to assess the relative risk (RR) of CV events with exenatide BID versus a pooled comparator (PC) group treated with either placebo or insulin from 12 controlled, randomized, clinical trials ranging from 12-52 weeks. Mean baseline values for HbA1c (8.33-8.38%), BMI (31.3-31.5 kg/m2), and duration of diabetes (8 y) were similar between groups. Trials included patients with histories of microvascular and/or macrovascular disease. Customized primary major adverse CV events (MACE) included stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiac mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and revascularization procedures. The Primary MACE RR (0.7; 95% CI 0.38, 1.31), calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method (stratified by study), suggested that exenatide use (vs. PC) did not increase CV risk; this result was consistent across multiple analytic methods. Because the trials were not designed to assess CV outcomes, events were identified retrospectively from a list of preferred terms by physicians blinded to treatment. Other limitations included the low number of CV events, the short duration of trials (?1 y), and a single active comparator (insulin). The results of these analyses are consistent with those of a recent retrospective analysis of a large insurance database that found that patients treated with exenatide twice daily were less likely to have a CV event than were patients treated with other glucose-lowering therapies.Keywords: GLP-1 receptor agonist, diabetes, cardiovascular safety.
In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks.
Preclinical evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy for obesity using combinations of agents targeted at distinct regulatory pathways may produce robust additive or synergistic effects on weight loss. This randomized placebo-controlled trial examined the safety and efficacy of the amylin analogue pramlintide alone or in combination with either phentermine or sibutramine. All patients also received lifestyle intervention. Following a 1-week placebo lead-in, 244 obese or overweight, nondiabetic subjects (88% female; 41 +/- 11 years; BMI 37.7 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2); weight 103 +/- 19 kg; mean +/- s.d.) received placebo subcutaneously (sc) t.i.d., pramlintide sc (120 microg t.i.d.), pramlintide sc (120 microg t.i.d.) + oral sibutramine (10 mg q.a.m.), or pramlintide sc (120 microg t.i.d.) + oral phentermine (37.5 mg q.a.m.) for 24 weeks. Treatment was single-blind for subjects receiving subcutaneous medication only and open-label for subjects in the combination arms. Weight loss achieved at week 24 with either combination treatment was greater than with pramlintide alone or placebo (P < 0.001; 11.1 +/- 1.1% with pramlintide + sibutramine, 11.3 +/- 0.9% with pramlintide + phentermine, -3.7 +/- 0.7% with pramlintide; -2.2 +/- 0.7% with placebo; mean +/- s.e.). Elevations from baseline in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure were demonstrated with both pramlintide + sibutramine (3.1 +/- 1.2 beats/min, P < 0.05; 2.7 +/- 0.9 mm Hg, P < 0.01) and pramlintide + phentermine (4.5 +/- 1.3 beats/min, P < 0.01; 3.5 +/- 1.2 mm Hg, P < 0.001) using 24-h ambulatory monitoring. However, the majority of subjects receiving these treatments remained within normal blood pressure ranges. These results support the potential of pramlintide-containing combination treatments for obesity.
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