JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cyclin E1 is a strong prognostic marker for death from lymph node negative breast cancer. A population-based case-control study.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. A large proportion of women with lymph node negative breast cancer treated with systemic adjuvant treatment do not benefit from such therapy since the patient is already cured by local treatment. Several studies have suggested that proliferation markers are strong prognostic factors in early breast cancer. Cyclins are probably the most specific markers of cell proliferation. Previously high expression of cyclin E has been associated with breast cancer recurrence. Materials and methods. In this study we investigate the prognostic value of cyclin E1 in node negative breast cancer patients. In a population-based cohort 186 women who died from breast cancer were defined as cases and 186 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Inclusion criteria were tumour size ? 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no adjuvant chemotherapy. The study was designed to detect an odds ratio of 2.5 with a power of 90% and significance level of 0.05. Cyclin E1 was determined with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarray (TMA). Results. High expression of cyclin E1 was significantly associated with breast cancer death, in both uni- and multivariate analyses with odds ratios (OR) 2.3 [univariate, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.6] and 2.1 (multivariate, 95% CI 1.2-3.5). Discussion. Cyclin E1 is a strong prognostic factor for breast cancer death in a population-based and node negative patient cohort and can identify high-risk patients in this group.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ: 20 Years Follow-Up in the Randomized SweDCIS Trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four randomized studies show that adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) lowers the risk of subsequent ipsilateral breast events (IBEs) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by approximately 50% after 10 to 15 years. We present 20 years of follow-up data for the SweDCIS trial.
Related JoVE Video
Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5?-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
An investigation into the relationship between Statins and Cancer using population-based data.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Results to date for the association between use of statins and prostate cancer (PCa) death in observational studies are inconsistent. We investigated the application of causal inference methods, which aim to address observational data as if they were from a randomised clinical trial (RCT).
Related JoVE Video
Prostate cancer incidence, clinical stage and survival in relation to obesity: A prospective cohort study in Denmark.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is no clear link between obesity and prostate cancer incidence but an association has been reported between obesity and fatal prostate cancer. We report on two prospective cohort analyses on (i) the incidence of prostate cancer in relation to obesity in a cohort of men with no previous cancer, and on (ii) the stage distribution and prostate cancer specific mortality in relation to obesity among men with prostate cancer. The "Diet, Cancer and Health" prospective cohort study was established in Denmark in 1993-1997 and accrued 26,944 men aged 50-64 years. Data were extracted on height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat percentage. Information on cancer incidence and deaths were obtained by record linkage with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish Death Register. The incidence rate of prostate cancer was similar or slightly lower in obese men compared with nonobese men, but obese men tended to be diagnosed with more advanced prostate cancer. The proportion of Stage 3-4 cancers was 37% in the lowest BMI quartile and 48% in the highest (p?=?0.006). Obese men with prostate cancer had higher prostate cancer specific mortality. The hazard ratio comparing the highest and the lowest quartiles of BMI was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.05; p-value for trend: 0.002). The association was attenuated but not eliminated by statistical adjustment for stage, and the data are suggestive of a stage-independent causal pathway where prostate cancer in obese men has higher fatality, even in early-stage disease.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity and cancer: the role of vitamin D.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is estimated that 20% of all cancer cases are caused by obesity. Vitamin D is thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying this association. This review aims to summarise the evidence for the mediating effect of vitamin D on the link between obesity and cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Drug prescription for erectile dysfunction before and after diagnosis of localized prostate cancer.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with prostate cancer, little is known about the use of ED drugs. Also, the possible influence of socioeconomic factors on ED drug use has not been studied previously.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of androgen deprivation therapies among men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer: a population-based study.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer will eventually be treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT is associated with adverse effects and its timing is controversial. Data on patterns of use are scarce. We describe patterns of ADT use, defined as castration (medical and surgical) or antiandrogen monotherapy initiated after primary treatment, in a population-based cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in early prostate cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain.
Related JoVE Video
The biology and natural history of prostate cancer: a short introduction.
Recent Results Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This chapter aims to serve as a quick glance outlining an overall picture of mainstream thoughts, and to serve as a point of departure for more thorough discussions. The introduction of PSA testing has immensely complicated research in prostate cancer epidemiology and biology and added new clinical and biological domains. As for many cancers, age and ethnic origin are the strongest known risk factors. While migrant studies imply that environment and/or personal life style is important, epidemiological studies have failed to establish any strong leads. Despite the known androgen dependence of prostate cancer, there is little to support that circulating levels of androgens, estrogens or 5-alpha-reductase are associated with risk of developing the disease. However, a consistent finding is a positive association with levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Prostate cancer is one of the cancers most strongly related to inherited susceptibility, even when taking into account that family history of prostate cancer triggers PSA testing among relatives. A number of somatic genetic alterations (amplifications, deletions, point mutations, translocations) are associated with prostate cancer risk. Findings for alterations in FASN, HPN, AMACR and MYC have been fairly consistent. Recent research shows that the notion of "hormone-independent prostate cancer" has to be revised: most prostate cancers remain dependent on androgen receptor signalling also after progression despite traditional androgen deprivation therapy. Traditional markers of stage and type of disease still play a major role for prognostication and treatment decisions. Prostate cancer is one of the few cancers where patients have been recommended watchful waiting or active surveillance. This provides opportunities for studies of natural history of the disease. The understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and natural history has progressed slowly. However, the current situation is positively challenging and opens up possibilities for fruitful research.
Related JoVE Video
Reducing the noise in signal detection of adverse drug reactions by standardizing the background: a pilot study on analyses of proportional reporting ratios-by-therapeutic area.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disproportionality screening analysis is acknowledged as a tool for performing signal detection in databases of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), e.g., in the European Union (EU) Drug Authority setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of decreasing false-positive signals of disproportionate reporting (SDR) by calculating the proportional reporting ratio (PRR)-by-therapeutic area (TA), while still maintaining the ability to detect relevant SDRs.
Related JoVE Video
Sector resection with or without postoperative radiotherapy for stage I breast cancer: 20-year results of a randomized trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate how radiotherapy (XRT) adds to tumor control using a standardized surgical technique with meticulous control of surgical margins in a randomized trial with 20 years of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
The future of randomised controlled trials in urology.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomised controlled trials in urology are challenging yet essential for generating high-quality, practice-changing evidence. Future trials should focus on high-priority questions, be conducted by multidisciplinary investigative teams with patient and public stakeholder involvement, and be grounded in successful feasibility studies.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13 years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.
Related JoVE Video
The Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS): a randomized study comparing two different follow-up schedules for active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of prediction models for decision-making: beyond calibration and discrimination.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lars Holmberg and Andrew Vickers discuss the importance of ensuring prediction models lead to better decision making in light of new research into breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risk by Ruth Pfeiffer and colleagues. Please see later in the article for the Editors Summary.
Related JoVE Video
Causes of death in men with prostate cancer: an analysis of 50,000 men from the Thames Cancer Registry.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate causes of death in a UK cohort of patients with prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Use of 5?-reductase inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms and risk of prostate cancer in Swedish men: nationwide, population based case-control study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the association between 5?-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Serum calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Observational studies have indicated that high calcium intake may prevent colorectal cancer, but as for randomized trials the results are inconclusive. Meanwhile, limited data on the link between serum calcium and cancer risk is available. We investigated the relation between serum calcium and risk of different gastrointestinal cancers in a prospective study.
Related JoVE Video
Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The guideline purpose is to provide the urologist with a framework for the early detection of prostate cancer in asymptomatic average risk men.
Related JoVE Video
Iron metabolism and risk of cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pre-clinical studies have shown that iron can be carcinogenic, but few population-based studies investigated the association between markers of the iron metabolism and risk of cancer while taking into account inflammation. We assessed the link between serum iron (SI), total-iron binding capacity (TIBC), and risk of cancer by levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large population-based study (n = 220,642).
Related JoVE Video
Recent childbirth is an adverse prognostic factor in breast cancer and melanoma, but not in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between gestation, childbirth and cancer prognosis is unknown for most cancers (e.g. Hodgkin lymphoma), whereas a body of evidence exists for melanoma and breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term distress after radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in prostate cancer: a longitudinal study from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomized clinical trial.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies enumerating the dynamics of physical and emotional symptoms following prostate cancer (PCa) treatment are needed to guide therapeutic strategy. Yet, overcoming patient selection forces is a formidable challenge for observational studies comparing treatment groups.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated genomic analysis of triple-negative breast cancers reveals novel microRNAs associated with clinical and molecular phenotypes and sheds light on the pathways they control.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study focuses on the analysis of miRNAs expression data in a cohort of 181 well characterised breast cancer samples composed primarily of triple-negative (ER/PR/HER2-negative) tumours with associated genome-wide DNA and mRNA data, extensive patient follow-up and pathological information.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of basal-like triple-negative breast cancer defined by morphology, immunohistochemistry and transcriptional profiles.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Basal-like invasive breast cancer is an important clinical group because of its association with a triple-negative phenotype defined by the lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors 2, relative lack of therapeutic options and poor prognosis. However, depending on the method used to define these lesions, morphological assessment, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression, a different set of tumors is captured. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of using different methodological approaches to define basal-like lesions among triple-negative breast carcinomas with regard to their clinicopathological features and patient outcome. The cohort consisted of 142 invasive breast cancers with a triple-negative receptor status. First, each was reviewed histologically and those with morphological basal-like features were characterized as Path-Basal. Second, the Core Basal immunohistochemical lesions, defined as cytokeratin 5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor 1 positive, within the triple-negative breast cancers were identified, and third their classification based on gene expression profiling was retrieved and those in the molecular PAM50 basal-like subtype recorded. A total of 116 basal-like breast cancers were identified among the 142 triple-negative breast cancers by at least one of these three classifications (80%), but only 13 samples were defined as basal-like with all three methods. None of these 13 tumors were associated with lymphovascular invasion. The 34 morphological Path-Basal lesions were significantly associated with a lack of nodal metastases. Comparing the estimates of death in the three classifications, the highest risk of death was seen for the Core Basal group. In this study, we highlight that the definition of basal-like breast cancer based on different methodologies varies significantly and does not identify the same lesions. This incomplete overlap of cases emphasizes the need for consistent or new approaches to improve precise identification.
Related JoVE Video
Serum glucose and fructosamine in relation to risk of cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impaired glucose metabolism has been linked with increased cancer risk, but the association between serum glucose and cancer risk remains unclear. We used repeated measurements of glucose and fructosamine to get more insight into the association between the glucose metabolism and risk of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Serum lipid profiles and cancer risk in the context of obesity: four meta-analyses.
J Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective here was to summarize the evidence for, and quantify the link between, serum markers of lipid metabolism and risk of obesity-related cancers. PubMed and Embase were searched using predefined inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses on the association between serum levels of TG, TC, HDL, ApoA-I, and risk of 11 obesity-related cancers. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using random-effects analyses. 28 studies were included. Associations between abnormal lipid components and risk of obesity-related cancers when using clinical cutpoints (TC ? 6.50; TG ? 1.71; HDL ? 1.03; ApoA-I ? 1.05?mmol/L) were apparent in all models. RRs were 1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29) for TC, 1.20 (1.07-1.35) for TG, 1.15 (1.01-1.32) for HDL, and 1.42 (1.17-1.74) for ApoA-I. High levels of TC and TG, as well as low levels of HDL and ApoA-I, were consistently associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. The modest RRs suggest serum lipids to be associated with the risk of cancer, but indicate it is likely that other markers of the metabolism and/or lifestyle factors may also be involved. Future intervention studies involving lifestyle modification would provide insight into the potential biological role of lipid metabolism in tumorigenesis.
Related JoVE Video
The prognostic relevance of tumour-infiltrating plasma cells and immunoglobulin kappa C indicates an important role of the humoral immune response in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A prognostic impact of immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) expression has been described in cancer. We analysed the influence of B-cell and plasma cell markers, as well as IGKC expression, in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray. IGKC protein expression was independently associated with longer survival, with particular impact in the adenocarcinoma subgroup. Moreover, a correlation was seen with CD138+ cells, but not with CD20. CD138 expression revealed a comparable association with survival. In conclusion, IGKC expression in stroma-infiltrating plasma cells is a prognostic marker in NSCLC, supporting emerging treatment concepts that exploit the humoral immune response.
Related JoVE Video
Inorganic phosphate and the risk of cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both dietary and serum levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) have been linked to development of cancer in experimental studies. This is the first population-based study investigating the relation between serum Pi and risk of cancer in humans.
Related JoVE Video
Mortality following Hip Fracture in Men with Prostate Cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality and are a known adverse effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). It was our aim to evaluate how mortality after hip fracture is modified by PCa and ADT.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of coronary artery stenosis after radiation for breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study distribution of coronary artery stenosis among patients with breast cancer (BC) and to assess correlation between radiotherapy (RT) and location of stenosis.
Related JoVE Video
The number of women who would need to be screened regularly by mammography to prevent one death from breast cancer.
J Med Screen
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The number of women who would need to be screened regularly by mammography to prevent one death from breast cancer depends strongly on several factors, including the age at which regular screening starts, the period over which it continues, and the duration of follow-up after screening. Furthermore, more women would need to be INVITED for screening than would need to be SCREENED to prevent one death, since not all women invited attend for screening or are screened regularly. Failure to consider these important factors accounts for many of the major discrepancies between different published estimates. The randomised evidence indicates that, in high income countries, around one breast cancer death would be prevented in the long term for every 400 women aged 50-70 years regularly screened over a ten-year period.
Related JoVE Video
Gene copy number aberrations are associated with survival in histologic subgroups of non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is characterized by a multitude of genetic aberrations with unknown clinical impact. In this study, we aimed to identify gene copy number changes that correlate with clinical outcome in NSCLC. To maximize the chance to identify clinically relevant events, we applied a strategy involving two prognostically extreme patient groups.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple events of fractures and cardiovascular and thromboembolic disease following prostate cancer diagnosis: results from the population-based PCBaSe Sweden.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date, adverse events of prostate cancer (PCa) treatment have only been studied as a single event, and little is known about the risk of subsequent adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For men with localised prostate cancer, surgery provides a survival benefit compared with watchful waiting. Treatments are associated with morbidity. Results for functional outcome and quality of life are rarely reported beyond 10 years and are lacking from randomised settings. We report results for quality of life for men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) after a median follow-up of more than 12 years.
Related JoVE Video
Differences according to socioeconomic status in the management and mortality in men with high risk prostate cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Outcomes for many cancer forms are associated with socioeconomic status (SES).We investigated if SES was associated with management and mortality in men with high risk prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for metachronous contralateral breast cancer suggest two aetiological pathways.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although many studies show an increased risk of metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in women with a positive family history and young age at diagnosis of the initial breast cancer, the aetiological pathways are still enigmatic. In a cohort of 8478 primary breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2006, 558 cases of metachronous CBC were identified. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we analysed risk factors assessed at the time of the first primary tumour, including patient demographics, tumour characteristics and treatment among 4681 breast cancer patients for whom data on key variables were available. The analysis was performed separately in patients who developed CBC without and with prior recurrence(s). Risk of CBC without prior recurrent disease was increased by a positive family history [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.5)]; and decreased by endocrine treatment [RR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0)]. We found an increased risk of CBC with prior recurrent disease with younger age [RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.4-3.0)]; positive family history [RR 2.1 (95%CI 0.8-5.0)]; and extensive lymph node involvement [RR 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.6)]. Our results suggest that nodal status of the primary tumour may be as important a risk factor as family history or age, which indicates a high susceptibility to breast cancer or an impaired host defence mechanism. It may also imply that some CBCs are metastases from the first primary tumour, particularly in patients who present with recurrent disease before CBC.
Related JoVE Video
Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2008, we reported that radical prostatectomy, as compared with watchful waiting, reduces the rate of death from prostate cancer. After an additional 3 years of follow-up, we now report estimated 15-year results.
Related JoVE Video
Low levels of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL are associated with risk of prostate cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A detailed analysis of lipid profiles, using apolipoproteins, has not yet been conducted for prostate cancer (PCa). Since several etiological pathways have been proposed for PCa and lipids, we aimed to study this in a large Swedish cohort with 1,469 primary prostate cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal cancer survival in socioeconomic groups in England: variation is mainly in the short term after diagnosis.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine differences in cancer survival between socioeconomic groups in England, with particular attention to survival in the short term of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Prognosis of metachronous contralateral breast cancer: importance of stage, age and interval time between the two diagnoses.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies comparing the prognosis after contralateral breast cancer (CBC) with that after unilateral breast cancer (UBC) shows conflicting results. We assessed the risk of breast cancer-specific death for women with metachronous CBC compared to those with a UBC in 8,478 women with invasive primary breast cancer registered in the Guys and St. Thomas Breast Cancer Tissue and Data Bank. Risk factors associated with breast cancer-specific death for women with CBC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards modelling. Prognoses after UBC and CBC were compared, with survival time for women with CBC calculated: (i) from CBC, (ii) from the initial cancer with CBC as a time-dependent covariate. Women diagnosed with CBC within 5 years after the initial primary breast cancer had a worse prognosis than those with CBC after 5 years and those with UBC. Women with CBC who had positive lymph nodes at the initial breast cancer diagnosis were at an increased risk of dying from breast cancer compared to those without [HR 2.5 (95% CI 1.5-4.0)]. For all stages of the initial breast cancer, a worse prognosis was observed after CBC. CBC increased the hazard originating from the initial cancer at any follow-up time, but the highest hazards were associated with a short interval to CBC. Metachronous CBC adds to the risk of dying from breast cancer. The risk increases substantially when it occurs shortly after the initial cancer, indicating a CBC in some instances may be an indicator of active distant disease. The occurrence of CBC implies a new surveillance and therapeutic situation.
Related JoVE Video
The interplay between lipid profiles, glucose, BMI and risk of kidney cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With exception of cholesterol and total fat intake, associations between lipid biomarkers and kidney cancer have not often been researched. We aimed to assess possible links between lipid profiles and kidney cancer risk in a large prospective cohort study, while also taking into account glucose levels and BMI. A cohort based on 542,924 persons with baseline information on glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC) and creatinine was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk study. A subgroup of 85,621 also had baseline measurements of HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A-I and apoB. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between quartiles and dichotomized values of these lipid components and kidney cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 13 years, 958 persons developed kidney cancer. TGs were the only lipid component for which a statistically significant association was found with kidney cancer risk when using both quartiles and a clinical cutoff (hazard ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.99-1.60), 1.29 (1.01-1.66) and 1.66 (1.30-2.13) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile, compared to the 1st, with p-value for trend: <0.001). The association remained after exclusion of the 95% percentile of TG. Quartiles of glucose were also positively associated with kidney cancer risk, whereas quartiles of TC were negatively associated with kidney cancer risk. This detailed analysis of lipid components only showed a consistent relation between TG levels and kidney cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are required to assess links between lipid abnormalities and kidney cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of cancer in a cohort of 545,460 persons - the Swedish AMORIS study.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apart from using gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) as a predictor of diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease, some evidence suggests GGT as an indicator of cancer risk. We aimed to study the association between GGT and cancer in a large Swedish cohort with 37,809 primary cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Survival endpoints in colorectal cancer and the effect of second primary other cancer on disease free survival.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In cancer research the selection and definitions of survival endpoints are important and yet they are not used consistently. The aim of this study was to compare different survival endpoints in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and to understand the effect of second primary other cancer on disease-free survival (DFS) calculations.
Related JoVE Video
Quantifying differences in breast cancer survival between England and Norway.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Survival from breast cancer is lower in the UK than in some other European countries. We compared survival in England and Norway by age and time from diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Industrial-scale manufacturing of a possible oligonucleotide cargo CPP-based drug.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This chapter describes the manufacturing process to a certain level for a possible oligonucleotide cargo and a peptide API in a multi-kilogram scale from a manufactures point of view. In the concluding remarks, possible conjugation methods will be discussed from an industrial-scale perspective.
Related JoVE Video
A population-based comparison of the survival of patients with colorectal cancer in England, Norway and Sweden between 1996 and 2004.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine differences in the relative survival and excess death rates of patients with colorectal cancer in Norway, Sweden and England.
Related JoVE Video
Association between levels of C-reactive protein and leukocytes and cancer: three repeated measurements in the Swedish AMORIS study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes, as inflammatory markers, in the context of cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Ischemic heart disease and stroke before and during endocrine treatment for prostate cancer in PCBaSe Sweden.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In observational studies of men with prostate cancer, men on endocrine treatment (ET) have had an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. However, prostate cancer per se may increase risk of IHD and stroke and men on ET may have been at increased risk already prior to initiation of ET. We assessed the incidence of IHD and stroke in men with prostate cancer before and during different endocrine treatments. The hazard ratio (HR) of IHD and stroke in 39,051 men with prostate cancer vs. a matched control population without prostate cancer was assessed by use of Cox proportion hazard models. An increased risk was found among 30,883 men with prostate cancer who did not receive ET, with a HR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.18) for IHD and 1.10 (95%CI 1.00-1.21) for stroke. In 8,168 men who initiated ET during the observation period, the risk of IHD was significantly higher (p = 0.014), during ET (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.17-1.67) compared with before initiation of ET (HR of 0.98, 95% CI 0.72-1.33), whereas no such increase was found for stroke. Regardless of treatment, men with prostate cancer had a small increase in risk of IHD and stroke and initiation of ET was associated with a further increase in risk of IHD. Our data underline the importance of a proper indication for ET because many men with low-risk prostate cancer currently receive ET.
Related JoVE Video
Comorbidity, treatment and mortality: a population based cohort study of prostate cancer in PCBaSe Sweden.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined associations among comorbidity, treatment decisions and mortality in patients with prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of prostate cancer is not associated with levels of C-reactive protein and other commonly used markers of inflammation.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most population-based studies studied the association between inflammation and prostate cancer (PCa) by assessing C-reactive protein (CRP). As these findings have shown inconsistent results, we aimed to also study different markers that have been commonly taken as indications of inflammation. A cohort based on four groups of men (n = 34,891), according to age at cohort entry (45, 55, 65 and 75 years), with measurements of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, haptoglobin, albumin, hemoglobin and leukocytes were selected from the Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk database. A total of 17,937 men had measurements of non-high-sensitive CRP. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between inflammatory markers and PCa. A total of 49 of 12,063 men developed PCa in the age 45 group, whereas 207 of 9,940, 472 of 8,266 and 276 of 3,618 were diagnosed in the age 55, 65 and 75 groups, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 7.5 years (SD: 3.9). No markers showed an association with PCa risk, nor was there a trend by quartiles or an indication for different PCa risks by strata of hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia status. The studied markers were not found to be associated with PCa risk. These null findings might be due to methodological issues; however, it is unlikely that strong and long-lasting associations between inflammation and PCa risk were missed as this was a large database with long follow-up. This indicates need for international consensus on appropriate inflammatory markers in the context of cancer that may be practically applied in large studies.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of early death in female patients with breast cancer in the UK: a cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective To identify factors predicting early death in women with breast cancer. Design Cohort study. Setting 29 trusts across seven cancer networks in the North Thames area. Participants 15?037 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between January 1996 and December 2005. Methods Logistic regression analyses to determine predictors of early death and factors associated with lack of surgical treatment. Main exposures Age at diagnosis, mode of presentation, ethnicity, disease severity, comorbidities, treatment and period of diagnosis in relation to the Cancer Plan (the NHSs strategy in 2000 for investment in and reform of cancer services). Main outcome measures Death from any cause within 1 year of diagnosis, and receipt of surgical treatment. Results By 31 December 2006, 4765 women had died, 980 in the year after diagnosis. Older age and disease severity independently predicted early death. Women over 80 were more likely to die early than women under 50 (OR 8.05, 95% CI 5.96 to 10.88). Presence of distant metastases on diagnosis increased the odds of early death more than eightfold (OR 8.41, 95% CI 6.49 to 10.89). Two or more recorded comorbidities were associated with a nearly fourfold increase. There was a significant decrease in odds associated with surgery (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.35). Independently of disease severity and comorbidities, women over 70 were less likely than those under 50 to be treated surgically and this was even more pronounced in those aged over 80 (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.10). Other factors independently associated with a reduced likelihood of surgery included a non-screening presentation, non-white ethnicity and additional comorbidities. Conclusions These findings may partially explain the survival discrepancies between the UK and other European countries in female patients with breast cancer. The study identifies a group of women with a particularly poor prognosis for whom interventions aiming at early detection may be targeted.
Related JoVE Video
Sexually abused children. Characterization of these girls when adolscents.
Int J Adolesc Med Health
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study associations between sexual abuse of girls in childhood and variables affecting life in adolescence.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of prostate-specific antigen testing on familial prostate cancer risk estimates.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Family history is a strong risk factor for prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased diagnostic activity is related to the incidence of prostate cancer among brothers of men with prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: a community-based prospective cohort study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin D status is known to be important for bone health but may also affect the development of several chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, which are 2 major causes of death.
Related JoVE Video
The metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer under competing risks of death from other causes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and prostate cancer development have not been studied comprehensively; results have been divergent. Using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III (NCEP) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions of the MetS, we investigated such associations taking competing risks of death into consideration.
Related JoVE Video
Absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular disease in men with prostate cancer: results from the Population-Based PCBaSe Sweden.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a potential adverse effect of endocrine treatment (ET) for prostate cancer (PC). We investigated absolute and relative CVD risk in 76,600 patients with PC undergoing ET, curative treatment, or surveillance.
Related JoVE Video
Inguinal hernia after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: results from a randomized setting and a nonrandomized setting.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Observational data indicate that retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for prostate cancer (PCa) may induce inguinal hernia (IH) formation. Little is known about the influence of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) on IH risk.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes in localized prostate cancer: National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden follow-up study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatment for localized prostate cancer remains controversial. To our knowledge, there are no outcome studies from contemporary population-based cohorts that include data on stage, Gleason score, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
Related JoVE Video
National comparisons of lung cancer survival in England, Norway and Sweden 2001-2004: differences occur early in follow-up.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND Countries with a similar expenditure on healthcare within Europe exhibit differences in lung cancer survival. Survival in lung cancer was studied in 2001-2004 in England, Norway and Sweden. METHODS Nationwide cancer registries in England, Norway and Sweden were used to identify 250 828 patients with lung cancer from England, 18 386 from Norway and 24 886 from Sweden diagnosed between 1996 and 2004, after exclusion of patients registered through death certificate only or with missing, zero or negative survival times. 5-Year relative survival was calculated by application of the period approach. The excess mortality between the countries was compared using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS In all subcategories of age, sex and follow-up period, the 5-year survival was lower in England than in Norway and Sweden. The age-standardised survival estimates were 6.5%, 9.3% and 11.3% for men and 8.4%, 13.5% and 15.9% for women in the respective countries in 2001-2004. The difference in excess risk of dying between the countries was predominantly confined to the first year of follow-up. The relative excess risk ratio during the first 3 months of follow-up comparing England with Norway 2001-2004 varied between 1.23 and 1.46, depending on sex and age, and between 1.56 and 1.91 comparing England with Sweden. CONCLUSION Access to healthcare and population awareness are likely to be major reasons for the differences, but it cannot be excluded that diagnostic and therapeutic activity play a role. Future improvements in lung cancer management may be seen early in follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Social inequalities in non-small cell lung cancer management and survival: a population-based study in central Sweden.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine possible associations between socioeconomic status, management and survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Risk of thromboembolic diseases in men with prostate cancer: results from the population-based PCBaSe Sweden.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic diseases, but data on the association between prostate cancer and thromboembolic diseases are scarce. We investigated the risk of thromboembolic disease in men with prostate cancer who were receiving endocrine treatment, curative treatment, or surveillance.
Related JoVE Video
Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study: the interplay among triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a cohort including 5112 prostate cancer (pCa) patients, the authors investigated associations among triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and pCa while taking into account glucose.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclin B is an immunohistochemical proliferation marker which can predict for breast cancer death in low-risk node negative breast cancer.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with low-risk node negative breast cancer have an excellent prognosis with 5% breast cancer mortality at 10 years. However, prognostic factors are needed to identify poor prognostic patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. Proliferation has been identified as the most important component of gene expression profiles. Cyclin B is a proliferative marker easily assessed by immunohistochemistry. We wanted to examine cyclin B as a prognostic factor in low-risk breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Breast cancer survival in England, Norway and Sweden: a population-based comparison.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several international studies have found that survival from breast cancer is lower in the United Kingdom than in some other European countries. We have compared breast cancer survival between the national populations of England, Norway and Sweden, with a view to identifying subsets of patients with particularly good or adverse survival outcomes. We extracted cases of breast cancer in women diagnosed 1996-2004 from the national cancer registries of the 3 countries. The study comprised 303,657 English cases, 24,919 Norwegian cases and 57,512 cases from Sweden. Follow-up was in 2001-2004. The main outcome measures were 5-year cumulative relative survival and excess death rates, stratified by age and period of follow-up. In comparison with Norway and Sweden, the excess mortality in England was particularly pronounced in the first month and in the first year after diagnosis, and generally more marked in the oldest age groups. Compared with Norwegian patients, 81% of the excess deaths in the English patients occurred in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our findings emphasise the importance of awareness of symptoms and early detection as the main strategy to improve breast cancer survival in the United Kingdom.
Related JoVE Video
Immunoglobulin E and cancer: a meta-analysis and a large Swedish cohort study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We quantified associations between IgE and cancer in a meta-analysis and cohort study. Pubmed and Embase were searched to extract information using predefined inclusion criteria. In the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) database, 24,820 persons had IgE measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations between IgE and cancer. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed from which seven case-control studies were included for analysis. The pooled relative risk (random effects model) was 0.97 (95% CI 0.86-1.09). Cell types of tumor origin (mesenchymal tissue or cells of the nervous system, lymphatic or hematopoietic tissue, and epithelium) modified the effect. In the AMORIS cohort, 862 persons developed cancer. Hazard ratios comparing quartiles of IgE were similar to the findings in the meta-analysis (HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.72-1.06); 0.94 (0.78-1.14); 0.90 (0.74-1.10) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to the 1st quartile), but there was no pattern by tumor origin. Both studies showed a weak inverse association between IgE and cancer, but a pattern by cancer type was only seen in the meta-analysis. Our findings suggest the need for prospective studies studying IgE and cancer. Measurements of IgE should be combined with other information, e.g., bio-banked samples containing other key immunological discriminators.
Related JoVE Video
Season of diagnosis and prognosis in breast and prostate cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with breast or prostate cancer diagnosed during the summer season have been observed to have better survival. The extent to which this is due to biological and/or health care system related factors is unclear.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.