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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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Vitamin E Content and Estimated Need in German Infant and Follow-On Formulas With and Without Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC-PUFA) Enrichment.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Many formulas (FM) for infants are nowadays supplemented with LC-PUFA. Due to the susceptibility of LC-PUFA to peroxidation, a potential risk of oxidative stress must be considered. We analyzed the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids to calculate an estimated vitamin E need and the concentration of vitamin E as an important lipophilic antioxidant in LC-PUFA enriched (FM(+), n = 31) and not enriched (FM(-), n = 29) formulas as well as in breast milk (BM, n = 118). No differences were observed in the ratios of vitamin E content to estimated vitamin E need between FM(+) and FM(-). Ratios were consistently above the minimum value according to European law. FM showed similar or higher ratios than BM, except in a worst-case scenario where BM showed higher ratios than FM(+). Our results indicate adequate vitamin E content relative to unsaturated fatty acid content in present-day commercial formulas. Given that breast milk tends to contain higher ratios of vitamin E content to estimated vitamin E need than LC-PUFA enriched formulas (at least in a worst-case scenario), the potential effects of increasing vitamin E content in LC-PUFA enriched formulas should be explored.
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Dietary lipid intake only partially influences variance in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in adolescents: impact of other dietary factors.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study aimed to assess the correlation between food and fatty acid (FA) intake and the serum phospholipid (PL) FA status in European adolescents and explored the percentage of variation in serum PL FA that could be attributed to dietary habits. Participants included 528 adolescents recruited in the HELENA Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, self-administered, non-consecutive 24-h recalls. PL FA concentrations were measured in fasting venous serum samples. Reduced rank regressions were applied to examine the combined effect of food intakes. Results indicated that the variance in serum PL FA in adolescents, that could be explained by diet varied from 7.0% for MUFA to 14.2% for n-3FA. The variance in the long-chain n-3FA was mainly explained by fish intake but also by coffee and tea consumption. In conclusion this study indicated that dietary intake influences the serum PL FA status to a limited amount but that also other factors interfere. However, dietary intake is important as it is among those factors that could be modified. Furthermore, the results suggest that the overall dietary habits should be considered instead of only the consumption of single foods or nutrients, as the medium of the food or concomitant intake of foods and nutrients might interact and as such influence absorption or metabolism.
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Fish and rapeseed oil consumption in infants and mothers: dietary habits and determinants in a nationwide sample in Germany.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany.
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Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012.
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Frequencies and demographic determinants of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in a nationwide sample of mothers in Germany.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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German guidelines recommend breast milk as ideal for infants nutrition, supporting exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months. Moreover, in mothers with insufficient fish intake, DHA status may be improved by supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. However, little is known on current rates of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in Germany. The objective of this study was to analyse frequencies and demographic determinants of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in Germany.
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Time trends in dietary fat intake in a sample of German children and adolescents between 2000 and 2010: not quantity, but quality is the issue.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Dietary fat intake in childhood may influence the risk for developing chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to examine secular trends in the parameters of fat intake between 2000 and 2010 in a sample of German children and adolescents (n 808) participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Dietary data from 4380 3 d weighed dietary records were analysed using repeated-measures regression to determine time trends in fat quantity, i.e. the intake of total fat, and in fat quality, i.e. the ratios of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. In young children (2-3 years) and in adolescents (13-18 years), total fat intake remained stable over time, but decreased by 0·08 % of total energy (%E) per year in 4-12-year-old children. In 2010, median fat intake was at the upper end of the recommendations. SFA intake decreased slightly in 2-3- and 4-12-year-old children by 0·09 and 0·05 %E per year, respectively. MUFA and PUFA intakes remained stable in all the age groups except in adolescents. Here, PUFA intake decreased initially, but increased between 2005 and 2010. In 2010, only between 3 and 18 % of the respective age groups had an intake of SFA or PUFA within the recommendations. In conclusion, fat quantity and quality did not change substantially between 2000 and 2010. Fat quality, in particular, needs to be improved, since a large percentage of our sample did not meet the recommended intakes for SFA and PUFA.
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Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
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Consumption of dietary salt measured by urinary sodium excretion and its association with body weight status in healthy children and adolescents.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Highly processed foods such as convenience foods usually have a high salt content and therefore might indirectly act as adipogenic due to an increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB). We examined the association between dietary salt and body weight status.
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24 h-Sodium excretion and hydration status in children and adolescents--results of the DONALD Study.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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To describe actual data on intake, sources, age and time trends of urinary sodium excretion and to analyze the potential association between urinary sodium excretion and hydration status respective beverage consumption in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.
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Comparison of the effects of dietary protein, androstenediol and forearm muscle area on radial bone variables in healthy prepubertal children.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Adequate dietary habits are supposed to be one of the most important modifiable factors in osteoporosis prevention. However, the importance of specific nutrients is controversial. We examined relevant nutrients which are supposed to have an impact on bone parameters and compared their effect sizes with those of two known predictors of bone development: bone-related muscle mass and androgen levels. We analysed nutritional, hormonal and anthropometric data from 107 prepubertal children participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Diaphyseal bone mineral content (BMC), cortical area (CA), periosteal circumference, strength strain index and muscle area of the non-dominant forearm were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Data on long-term nutrient intakes (e.g. protein, Ca and vitamin D) were derived from 3 d weighed dietary records. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion rates of androgen metabolites including the sex steroid androstenediol were measured using GC-MS. Of all considered nutrients, only protein showed a trend for an association with BMC (? = +0·11; P = 0·073) and CA (? = +0·11; P = 0·056) in stepwise linear regression models. None of the other considered dietary variables was associated with bone parameters. The size of the bone anabolic effect of protein was partly comparable with that of androstenediol. Even though boys gained more bone mass in comparison with girls, the protein effect did not differ between sexes. Bone-related muscle area and sex steroids have the strongest effects on prepubertal diaphyseal bone. However, dietary protein may have a similar bone anabolic influence compared with androstenediol. In children without explicit nutrient deficits, protein seems to be the most important dietary component for diaphyseal bone status.
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Trends in dietary carbohydrate quality during puberty from 1988 to 2007: a cause for concern?
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The extent to which the quality of dietary carbohydrates (CHO) changes throughout puberty is not known. We analysed trends in the quantity and quality of CHO intake among German adolescents by separately examining trends during puberty (pubertal trends) and trends in CHO intake from 1988 to 2007 (secular trends). Linear mixed-effects regression analyses were performed in 216 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study who had provided weighed 3 d dietary records at the onset of the pubertal growth spurt (defined by age at take-off) and over the subsequent 4 years. Over the course of puberty, CHO quality changed little: added sugar intake from beverages increased in girls (0·25 (se 0·12) % energy (% E)/year, P = 0·04) and added sugar intake from sweets decreased in both sexes (boys: - 0·22 (se 0·11) % E/year, P = 0·049; girls: - 0·20 (se 0·10) % E/year, P = 0·04). For both sexes, significant upward secular trends were observed for CHO (% E), glycaemic load (g/MJ) and added sugar intakes from sources other than sweets and soft drinks (% E), while absolute fibre intake (g/d) decreased (P ? 0·04). Concomitant increases in total added sugar intake (% E) and decreases in fibre and whole-grain densities (g/MJ) (P = 0·001-0·02) were confined to boys only. The quality of dietary CHO consumed by healthy German adolescents shows notable secular declines, but does not change markedly during puberty. Public health initiatives should be tailored to improve the overall quality of CHO nutrition.
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Longitudinal associations between endogenous melatonin production and reported sleep duration from childhood to early adulthood.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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The study objective was to assess longitudinal associations between melatonin secretion and reported sleep duration from childhood to early adulthood.
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Diet quality in childhood is prospectively associated with the timing of puberty but not with body composition at puberty onset.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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We examined whether the diet quality of healthy children prior to the pubertal growth spurt was associated with age and body composition at puberty onset. Multivariate regression analyses were performed using data from 222 Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants (mean age +/- SD at baseline: 7.4 +/- 1.3 y) with 3-d weighed dietary records and anthropometric data at baseline, i.e. the visits 2 and 3 y before the onset of pubertal growth spurt [defined as age at take-off (ATO)]. Diet quality at baseline was determined using the nutrient density-based Nutritional Quality Index (NQI) and the food group and nutrient-based Revised Childrens Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Based on their distribution, 3 NQI or RC-DQI categories were created to indicate lower, moderate, and higher diet quality. Parameters describing body composition at ATO were age- and gender-specific Z-scores of BMI, fat mass/height(2), and fat-free mass/height(2). Children with lower diet quality indicated by lower NQI scores entered puberty approximately 0.4 y earlier than children with higher NQI scores {ATO in lower and higher NQI categories were [mean (95% CI)] 9.2 y (9.0-9.4), and 9.6 y (9.4-9.9), adjusted for sex, maternal overweight, baseline energy intake, and baseline BMI Z-score} (P-value = 0.02). A similar association of the RC-DQI with ATO was largely explained by baseline energy intakes. Our data suggest that diet quality was not independently associated with body composition at ATO. Children with lower diet quality according to a nutrient density-based index appear to enter puberty at an earlier age, independently of prepubertal body composition.
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Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship?
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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The high sugar content of regular soft drinks brought up discussions on their influence on energy balance and body weight especially in childhood and adolescence. This review examines the evidence for a causal relationship between soft drink consumption and excess weight gain in childhood and identifies potential underlying mechanisms.
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Immigrational background affects the effectiveness of a school-based overweight prevention program promoting water consumption.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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We tested whether a simple overweight prevention program promoting water consumption in elementary schools is equally effective in children with an immigrational background (MIG) and in those without (non-MIG). Thus, a secondary analysis of a controlled cluster trial, lasting one school year, was conducted. Thirty-two elementary schools located in low socioeconomic districts in two German cities were included. Of the 2,950 school children analyzed, 1,306 were MIG children. Water fountains were installed in the schools of the intervention group (IG) and teachers held lessons to promote water consumption. Control schools (control group (CG)) did not receive any intervention. Before and after intervention, body weight and height was measured. Overweight was defined by age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs that are linked to an adult BMI of 25 kg/m(2). Beverage consumption was assessed in questionnaires. Modification of intervention effects by immigrational background was tested by interaction terms. The immigrational background modified the intervention effect on prevalence and remission of overweight (interaction term: P = 0.03 and P = 0.02), but not on the incidence of overweight (P = 0.06). After intervention, the risk of being overweight was reduced in the IG compared to the CG among non-MIG (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.83), but not among MIG children (odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.63-1.65). After intervention, water consumption significantly increased in the IG equally among both, non-MIG and MIG, by ~1 glass/day. A simple school-based intervention promoting water consumption prevented overweight in non-MIG children, but failed in MIG children. Different beverage consumption, among other lifestyle factors, may account for this effect but scientific discussion remains open.
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A simple dietary intervention in the school setting decreased incidence of overweight in children.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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The study analyzed the effect of a combined environmental and educational intervention solely promoting water consumption on the incidence of overweight among school children.
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Relative validity of a self-completion 24 h recall questionnaire to assess beverage consumption among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Drinking habits in children are associated with diet quality, but validated assessment tools for large-scale studies in young children are lacking. Therefore, we validated a self-completion 24 h recall questionnaire (RQ) focusing on beverage consumption with a 24 h weighed record (WR).
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Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and its association with nutrient intakes and diet quality in German children and adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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In the present study the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with the intake of single nutrients and total diet quality in German children and adolescents was evaluated using a repeated-measures regression analysis model. We used dietary data from 7145 three-day weighed records of 1069 subjects aged 2-19 years participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Intake of macronutrients as percentage of total energy intake (%En), intake of micronutrients as percentage of German reference values (intake quality score) and nutritional quality index (NQI) as an indicator of diet quality were chosen as separate dependent variables. SSB consumption was positively associated with %En from carbohydrates (boys v. girls: +4.00 v. +4.09 En%/MJ from SSB) and added sugars (boys v. girls: +7.36 v. +9.52 En%/MJ from SSB) and negatively with %En from protein (boys v. girls: - 1.25 v. - 1.31 En%/MJ from SSB) and fat (boys: - 2.82 v. - 2.73 En%/MJ from SSB). With respect to micronutrients, SSB consumption was negatively associated with folate and Ca intake, for which mean intake levels were inadequate in girls. Absolute diet quality was negatively associated with SSB consumption, whereas the effect was larger for girls (boys v. girls: - 1.41 v. - 2.63 points of NQI/MJ from SSB). Overall, results show a diluting effect of SSB consumption on micronutrient intake and diet quality. This effect might be relevant especially in girls as the association with diet quality was larger and mean NQI levels were lower in comparison with boys.
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Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The study tested whether a combined environmental and educational intervention solely promoting water consumption was effective in preventing overweight among children in elementary school.
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Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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The authors prospectively examined whether change in dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fiber intake, or whole-grain intake during puberty is associated with concurrent change in percentage of body fat (%BF) or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height)(2). Linear mixed-effects regression analyses were performed in 215 participants from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study (Dortmund, Germany) who possessed weighed 3-day dietary records and anthropometric data at puberty onset (defined by age at takeoff) and over the subsequent 4 years (1988-2007). Neither changes in dietary GI, GL, fiber intake, nor whole-grain intake were associated with concurrent changes in %BF throughout puberty (change in %BF: -0.03 (standard error (SE), 0.11) per standard deviation (SD) increase in GI (P = 0.8); -0.01 (SE, 0.11) per SD increase in GL (P = 0.9); 0.02 (SE, 0.14) per SD increase in fiber intake (P = 0.9); and 0.09 (SE, 0.13) per SD increase in whole-grain intake (P = 0.5)). Similarly, no concurrent associations were observed between these dietary factors and BMI SD scores. Associations of dietary GI with %BF and BMI SD score differed between overweight and normal-weight adolescents (for concurrent association, P for interaction was 0.03 for %BF and 0.08 for BMI SD score). Dietary GI, GL, and fiber and whole-grain intakes in healthy, free-living adolescents do not appear to be relevant to the development of %BF or BMI during puberty.
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Dietary fatty acid intake, its food sources and determinants in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for ?-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat.
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Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load.
Bone
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Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass have been observed in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Whether urinary calcium excretion at the higher end of the normal physiologic range can influence bone health in healthy children independent of dietary intake is unknown. Urinary calcium was quantified in 603 24-h urine samples from 154 healthy children and adolescents who had ?3 urine collections and parallel 3-day weighed dietary records during the 4years preceding proximal forearm bone analyses by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was determined according to urine ionogram by subtracting measured quantitatively important mineral cations from nonbicarbonate anions. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly associated with volumetric (v)BMD (P=0.04), almost significantly with cortical bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.05), but not with cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=0.09), total CSA (P=0.3), or Strength-Strain Index (P=0.8) in the total population sample. Stratified analyses based on the median split of uPRAL showed that calcium excretion was negatively associated with vBMD (P=0.007), cortical BMC (P=0.001), and cortical CSA (P=0.004) in those children with higher uPRALs, but not in those with low uPRALs (P>0.3). In conclusion, long-term higher calciuria within the physiological range predicts reduced diaphyseal bone mass and bone density particularly in healthy children and adolescents with long-term unfavorable higher dietary acid load, i.e., with lower fruit and vegetable intake.
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