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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women: findings from a decade of screening in a los angeles county jail, 2002-2012.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Objectives. We describe and report findings from a screening program to identify sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among female inmates in Los Angeles County Jail. Methods. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening was offered to entering female inmates. Women were eligible if they were (1) aged 30 years or younger, or (2) pregnant or possibly pregnant, or (3) booked on prostitution or sex-related charges. Voluntary syphilis and HIV testing was offered to all women between 2006 and 2009. This analysis reports on data collected from 2002 through 2012. Results. A total of 76?207 women participated in the program. Chlamydia prevalence was 11.4% and gonorrhea was 3.1%. Early syphilis was identified in 1.4% (141 of 9733) and the overall prevalence of HIV was 1.1% (83 of 7448). Treatment levels for early syphilis and HIV were high (99% and 100%, respectively), but only 56% of chlamydia and 58% of gonorrhea cases were treated. Conclusions. Screening incarcerated women in Los Angeles County revealed a high prevalence of STIs and HIV. These inmates represent a unique opportunity for the identification of STIs and HIV, although strategies to improve chlamydia and gonorrhea treatment rates are needed.
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Solvent-controlled bifurcated cascade process for the selective preparation of dihydrocarbazoles or dihydropyridoindoles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A solvent-controlled cascade process has been identified for the dual purpose of the preparation of either dihydrocarbazoles or dihydropyridoindoles from identical N-aryl-?,?-unsaturated nitrones and electron-deficient allene starting materials. These reactions proceed smoothly under mild metal-free conditions affording a range of two types of skeletally distinct indole-based heterocycles in high yield and diastereoselectivity. These transformations demonstrate the use of a bifurcated cascade process that hinges on the ring-opening event of a benzazepine intermediate for the synthesis of skeletally diverse heterocyclic products and rapid access to biologically-significant, indole-based structures.
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Parathyroid hormone 1-84 alters circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels in hypoparathyroidism.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We previously reported on four patients treated with PTH(1-84) who recovered from postoperative hypoparathyroidism many years after onset. Because vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be necessary for the induction of PTH-mediated angiogenesis, we postulated a possible role for VEGF in the recovery of parathyroid function in these subjects.
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Synthesis of N-styrenyl amidines from ?,?-unsaturated nitrones and isocyanates through CO2 elimination and styrenyl migration.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A mild, metal-free, and modular route for the preparation of N-styrenyl amidines from N-aryl-?,?-unsaturated nitrones and isocyanates has been developed that accesses an initial oxadiazolidinone intermediate that can undergo CO(2) elimination and styrenyl migration. The use of a migration event to install N-styrenyl amidine substituents circumvents a limitation of traditional Pinner-type methods for amidine synthesis that require the use of amine nucleophiles. The modularity of the nitrone and isocyanate reagents provides access to a variety of differentially substituted N-styrenyl amidines. The scope and tolerance of the method are presented, and preliminary mechanistic data for the transformation are discussed.
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Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.
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PTH(1-84) is associated with improved quality of life in hypoparathyroidism through 5 years of therapy.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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In hypoparathyroidism, quality of life (QOL) is compromised as compared to normal subjects. We previously reported our results showing an association with recombinant human PTH(1-84) therapy in hypoparathyroidism and improvement in QOL measures for 1 year.
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Synthesis of 1,4-enamino ketones by [3,3]-rearrangements of dialkenylhydroxylamines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The synthesis of 1,4-enamino ketones has been achieved through the [3,3]-rearrangement of dialkenylhydroxylamines generated from the addition of N-alkenylnitrones to electron-deficient allenes. The mild conditions required for this reaction, and the simultaneous installation of a fluorenyl imine N-protecting group as a consequence of the rearrangement, avoid spontaneous cyclization of the 1,4-enamino ketones to form the corresponding pyrroles and allow for the isolation and controlled divergent functionalization of these reactive intermediates. The optimization, scope, and tolerance of the new method are discussed with demonstrations of the utility of the products for the synthesis of pyrroles, 1,4-diones, and furans.
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Improvements in Social and Adaptive Functioning Following Short-Duration PRT Program: A Clinical Replication.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of PRT for ten cognitively-able preschool-aged children with ASD in the context of a short-duration (4-month) treatment model. Most research on PRT used individual behavioral goals as outcome measures, but the current study utilized standardized assessments of broader-based social communication and adaptive skills. The children made substantial gains; however, magnitude and consistency of response across measures were variable. The results provide additional support for the efficacy of PRT as well as evidence for improvements in higher-order social communication and adaptive skill development within the context of a short-duration PRT model.
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Comparison of Infant Vitamin D Supplement Use Among Canadian-Born, Immigrant, and Refugee Mothers.
J Transcult Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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This study compares knowledge and practice of infant vitamin D supplementation among immigrant, refugee, and Canadian-born mothers.
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The effectiveness of computerized order entry at reducing preventable adverse drug events and medication errors in hospital settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act subsidizes implementation by hospitals of electronic health records with computerized provider order entry (CPOE), which may reduce patient injuries caused by medication errors (preventable adverse drug events, pADEs). Effects on pADEs have not been rigorously quantified, and effects on medication errors have been variable. The objectives of this analysis were to assess the effectiveness of CPOE at reducing pADEs in hospital-related settings, and examine reasons for heterogeneous effects on medication errors.
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Household food insecurity shows associations with food intake, social support utilization and dietary change among refugee adult caregivers resettled in the United States.
Ecol Food Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Forced migration puts families at risk of household food insecurity and economic hardship. We administered a questionnaire to examine household food insecurity in a sample of 49 recently legally resettled Sudanese refugees with at least one child under age 3 years. Of households polled, 37% had experienced household food insecurity and 12% reported child hunger within the previous month. Increasing severity of household food insecurity was associated with decreased consumption of high-cost, high-nutrient-density food items and increased consumption of some low-cost traditional Sudanese foods by adult caregivers of young children. Furthermore, household food insecurity was associated with decreased household and per capita food expenditure, indicators of more limited dietary change with migration, and indicators of increased social support.
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Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch.
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Antihypertensive drug prescribing and persistence among new elderly users: implications for persistence improvement interventions.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The objective of this study was to examine persistence rates and factors influencing persistence for new elderly users of antihypertensive drugs.
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Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in Oxfordshire, UK, 2007-12, with whole pathogen genome sequences: an observational study.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Patients born outside the UK have contributed to a 20% rise in the UK's tuberculosis incidence since 2000, but their effect on domestic transmission is not known. Here we use whole-genome sequencing to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis transmission in an unselected population over 6 years.
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Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK: a cross-sectional molecular and epidemiological study of clustering and contact tracing.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Between 2000 and 2012 the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases in the UK increased from 28 per year to 81 per year. We investigated the proportion of MDR tuberculosis cases arising from transmission in the UK and associated risk factors.
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Investigation of genetic variants, birthweight and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function suggests a genetic variant in the SERPINA6 gene is associated with corticosteroid binding globulin in the western Australia pregnancy cohort (Raine) study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates stress responses and HPA dysfunction has been associated with several chronic diseases. Low birthweight may be associated with HPA dysfunction in later life, yet human studies are inconclusive. The primary study aim was to identify genetic variants associated with HPA axis function. A secondary aim was to evaluate if these variants modify the association between birthweight and HPA axis function in adolescents.
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Incidence and risk factors for drug intolerance and association with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis: analysis of national case registers for England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2001-2010.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Anti-tuberculosis drug regimens are efficacious, but drug intolerance can be severe and may impact on treatment completion rates. The Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance (ETS) system is a case register of all new notifications of tuberculosis in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We conducted a cohort study to estimate the incidence of, and risk factors for, drug intolerance reported through ETS between 2001 and 2010 and to assess its relationship with treatment non-completion. Reports of drug intolerance were found for 868/67 547 (1.28%) patients in the cohort, and important risk factors were female sex, older age, later case report year and white ethnicity. Drug intolerance was associated with an approximate fivefold increased odds of treatment non-completion (p<0.001). These results highlight the need for better-tolerated drug regimens and close case management of patients at risk of drug intolerance to improve treatment completion rates and contribute to more effective disease control.
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Brain mechanisms of plasticity in response to treatments for core deficits in autism.
Prog. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors. Although the prevalence of ASD is estimated at 1 in 88, understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder is still emerging. Regions including the amygdala, superior temporal sulcus, orbitofrontal cortex, fusiform gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, and insula have been implicated in social processing. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both anatomical and functional differences in these areas of the brain in individuals with ASD when compared to controls; however, research on the neural basis for response to treatment in ASD is limited. Results of the three studies that have examined the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response are promising; following treatment, the brains of individuals with ASD seem to "normalize," responding more similarly to those of typically developing individuals. The research in this area is in its early stages, and thus a focused effort examining the neural basis of treatment response in ASD is crucial.
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Biomechanical consequences of epiphytism in intertidal macroalgae.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Epiphytic algae grow on other algae rather than hard substrata, perhaps circumventing competition for space in marine ecosystems. Aquatic epiphytes are widely thought to negatively affect host fitness; it is also possible that epiphytes benefit from associating with hosts. This study explored biomechanical costs and benefits of the epiphytic association between the intertidal brown algal epiphyte, Soranthera ulvoidea, and its red algal host, Odonthalia floccosa. Drag on epiphytized and unepiphytized hosts was measured in a recirculating water flume. A typical epiphyte load increased drag on hosts by approximately 50%, increasing dislodgment risk of epiphytized hosts compared to hosts without epiphytes. However, epiphytes were more likely to dislodge from hosts than hosts were to dislodge from the substratum, suggesting that drag added by epiphytes may not be mechanically harmful to hosts if epiphytes break first. Concomitantly, epiphytes experienced reduced flow when attached to hosts, perhaps allowing them to grow larger or live in more wave-exposed areas. Biomechanical interactions between algal epiphytes and hosts are complex and not necessarily negative, which may partially explain the evolution and persistence of epiphytic relationships.
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Ipilimumab immune-related adverse reactions: a case report.
S D Med
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Ipilimumab is an immunomodulating agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as of March 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The medication works by inhibiting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, which typically works to down-regulate the T-cell response and protects self-antigens from recognition by the immune system. Since the T-cells are no longer down-regulated by this antigen, they are allowed to proliferate, thereby helping to prevent melanoma tumor evasion. As a result of the up-regulation of the immune system, numerous immune-mediated adverse effects have been reported including colitis, dermatitis, hepatitis and rarely hypophysitis. Typically, these effects are treated with high-dose steroids and most eventually resolve. We present a case of autoimmune (lymphocytic) hypophysitis following treatment with four doses of ipilimumab 3mg/kg and discuss the work-up, treatment and prognosis of the event.
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Recovery of parathyroid hormone secretion and function in postoperative hypoparathyroidism: a case series.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Transient and permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism are recognized complications of neck surgery. Postoperative hypoparathyroidism is usually considered permanent when it persists for 6 months; in rare cases, recovery of hypoparathyroidism through 1 year has been described. Recovery of hypoparathyroidism years after diagnosis has not previously been reported.
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Preparation of ?-imino aldehydes by [1,3]-rearrangements of O-alkenyl oximes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The synthesis of ?-imino aldehydes has been achieved through the thermal [1,3]-rearrangement of O-alkenyl benzophenone oximes. A copper-mediated C-O bond coupling between benzophenone oxime and alkenyl boronic acids provides facile access to the required O-alkenyl oximes and a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination can be applied to the ?-imino aldehyde products to give ?-imino-?,?-unsaturated esters. The scope of the method is described and mechanistic experiments are discussed.
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A Randomized Pilot Trial of an Integrated School-Worksite Weight Control Program.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Objective: Worksite provision of paid time off for parent participation in a school-based healthy weight program may improve treatment adherence and outcomes. The current pilot study examined whether parents who received worksite support for attendance at a school-based healthy weight program would attend more sessions, lose more weight, and make healthier changes in home food environments than parents who did not receive worksite support. Method: Thirty-eight urban, low-income African American and Mexican American mothers of kindergartners were randomized to an integrated school-parent-worksite program that targeted healthy home food environments and energy balance self-monitoring or the identical school-based program without worksite support. Ten sessions were delivered to parent participants during afterschool hours. Process measures included session attendance and energy balance log completion. Outcome measures included parent body mass index (BMI) change, child BMI z-score change, and home food inventory (HFI) score changes over 12 months. Results: Results showed better weight change for parents (i.e., BMI unit reduction of 1.4 vs. 0.3 in comparison group, p = .001), increased parental attendance, and improvements in the home food environment when parents received paid time off from their worksite for their participation in the healthy weight program. Child weight change was also observed despite no direct contact with children. Conclusions: The current pilot study provides support for the hypothesis that worksite support for school-based interventions may improve health outcomes that depend on parental involvement. Removing barriers to attendance in a healthy weight program resulted in improved treatment adherence and outcomes in low-income, minority parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Interrupted Fischer-indole intermediates via oxyarylation of alkenyl boronic acids.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The oxyarylation of alkenyl boronic acids with N-arylbenzhydroxamic acids has been achieved under both copper-mediated and copper-catalyzed conditions to provide access to interrupted Fischer-indole intermediates. This transformation is believed to proceed through a copper-promoted C-O bond forming event followed by a [3,3] rearrangement. The scope of the method is described and mechanistic experiments are discussed.
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High coffee intake, but not caffeine, is associated with reduced estrogen receptor negative and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with no effect modification by CYP1A2 genotype.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Associations between caffeine and coffee consumption and breast cancer risk are uncertain, with studies suggesting inverse and null associations. Variation in cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), a gene responsible for caffeine metabolism, may modify these associations. Cases (n = 3,062) were recruited through the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,427) through random digit dialing. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and intakes of 7 caffeine-containing items and total caffeine, and examine whether a genetic variant in CYP1A2 (rs762551) modified these associations. Analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER), menopausal, and smoking status. Generally, coffee and caffeine were not associated with breast cancer risk; however, a significant reduction in risk was observed with the highest category of coffee consumption [?5 cups per day vs. never, multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.98]. Variant rs762551 did not modify associations. In stratified analyses, high coffee intake was associated with reduced risk of ER- (MVOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.92) and postmenopausal breast cancer (MVOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94). High coffee consumption, but not total caffeine, may be associated with reduced risk of ER- and postmenopausal breast cancers, independent of CYP1A2 genotype. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings.
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Germline HOXB13 p.Gly84Glu mutation and risk of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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The HOXB13 pGly84Glu mutation has recently been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer but the association of other cancer sites with this allele has not been assessed. Data has suggested that HOXB13 expression levels are decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines indicating this gene may be involved in colorectal tumourigenesis.
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fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, social brain regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations.
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Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population-based case-control study in ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and pancreas cancer have suggested a potential role of the vitamin D pathway in the etiology of this fatal disease. Variants in vitamin-D related genes are known to affect 25(OH)D levels and function and it is unknown if these variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. The association between 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes was evaluated within the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Pancreatic cancer cases with pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n?=?628) and controls were identified through random digit dialing (n?=?1193). Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. SNPs in the CYP24A1, CYP2R1, calcium sensing receptor (CASR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRA) and megalin (LRP2) genes were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. For example, pancreas cancer risk was inversely associated with CYP2R1 rs10741657 (AA versus GG, OR?=?0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and positively with CYP24A1 rs6127119 (TT versus CC. OR?=?1.94; 95%CI: 1.28-2.94). None of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Vitamin D pathway gene variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk and future studies are needed to understand the possible role of vitamin D in tumorigenesis and may have implications for cancer-prevention strategies.
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Food insecurity, childhood illness and maternal emotional distress in Ethiopia.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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The relationship between food insecurity, maternal emotional distress and childhood morbidity in resource-poor settings is not well clarified. The present study aimed to assess independent associations between household food insecurity and childhood morbidity and potential modifications by maternal emotional distress.
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Vitamin D-related genetic variants, interactions with vitamin D exposure, and breast cancer risk among Caucasian women in Ontario.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Vitamin D, from diet and sunlight exposure, may be associated with reduced breast-cancer risk. This study investigated if candidate gene variants in vitamin D pathways are associated with breast cancer risk, or modify the associations between breast cancer and vitamin D exposure.
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Ultraviolet sunlight exposure during adolescence and adulthood and breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study among Ontario women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Recent studies suggest that vitamin D may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but most studies have evaluated only dietary vitamin D intake. The associations among ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, factors related to cutaneous vitamin D production, and breast cancer risk were evaluated in a population-based case-control study conducted in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2004 (n = 3,101 cases and n = 3,471 controls). Time spent outdoors was associated with reduced breast cancer risk during 4 periods of life (>21 vs. ?6 hours/week age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 0.85 in the teenage years; OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.76 in the 20s-30s; OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.88 in the 40s-50s; and OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.66 in the 60s-74 years). Sun protection practices and ultraviolet radiation were not associated with breast cancer risk. A combined solar vitamin D score, including all the variables related to vitamin D production, was significantly associated with reduced breast cancer risk. These associations were not confounded or modified by menopausal status, dietary vitamin D intake, or physical activity. This study suggests that factors suggestive of increased cutaneous production of vitamin D are associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
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Glutathione peroxidase-3 deficiency promotes platelet-dependent thrombosis in vivo.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPx-3) is a selenocysteine-containing plasma protein that scavenges reactive oxygen species in the extracellular compartment. A deficiency of this enzyme has been associated with platelet-dependent thrombosis, and a promoter haplotype with reduced function has been associated with stroke risk.
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Regioselective synthesis of 2,3,4- or 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrroles via [3,3] or [1,3] rearrangements of O-vinyl oximes.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The regioselective synthesis of 2,3,4- or 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrroles has been achieved via [3,3] and [1,3] sigmatropic rearrangements of O-vinyl oximes, respectively. Iridium-catalyzed isomerization of easily prepared O-allyl oximes enables rapid access to O-vinyl oximes. The regioselectivity of pyrrole formation can be controlled by either the identity of the ?-substituent or through the addition of an amine base. When enolization is favored, a [3,3] rearrangement followed by a Paal-Knorr cyclization provides a 2,3,4-trisubstituted pyrrole; when enolization is disfavored, a [1,3] rearrangement occurs prior to enolization to produce a 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrrole after cyclization. Optimization and scope of the O-allyl oxime isomerization and subsequent pyrrole formation are discussed and mechanistic pathways are proposed. Conditions are provided for selecting either the [3,3] rearrangement or the [1,3] rearrangement product with ?-ester O-allyl oxime substrates.
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Investigating transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in the United Kingdom in 2005 to 2008.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Due to an increase in bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the United Kingdom, we investigated the characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and assessed whether extensive transmission of M. bovis between humans has occurred. A cross-sectional study linking demographic, clinical, and DNA fingerprinting (using 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat [MIRU-VNTR] typing) data on cases reported between 2005 and 2008 was undertaken. A total of 129 cases of M. bovis infection in humans were reported over the period, with a decrease in annual incidence from 0.065 to 0.047 cases per 100,000 persons. Most patients were born pre-1960, before widespread pasteurization was introduced (73%), were of white ethnicity (83%), and were born in the United Kingdom (76%). A total of 102 patients (79%) had MIRU-VNTR typing data. A total of 31 of 69 complete MIRU-VNTR profiles formed eight distinct clusters. The overall clustering proportion determined using the n - 1 method was 33%. The largest cluster, comprising 12 cases, was indistinguishable from a previously reported West Midlands outbreak strain cluster and included those cases. This cluster was heterogeneous, having characteristics supporting recent zoonotic and human-to-human transmission as well as reactivation of latent disease. Seven other, smaller clusters identified had demographics supporting recrudescence rather than recent infection. A total of 33 patients had incomplete MIRU-VNTR profiles, of which 11 may have yielded 2 to 6 further small clusters if typed to completion. The incidence of M. bovis in humans in the United Kingdom remains low, and the epidemiology is predominantly that of reactivated disease.
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A geographically-restricted but prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain identified in the West Midlands Region of the UK between 1995 and 2008.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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We describe the identification of, and risk factors for, the single most prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain in the West Midlands region of the UK.
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Vitamin D intake from food and supplements among Ontario women based on the US block food frequency questionnaire with and without modification for Canadian food values.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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To measure and compare dietary vitamin D intake among women in Ontario using a modified Block 1998 (US) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) before and after modification for Canadian-specific vitamin D food fortification.
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Facile iterative synthesis of 2,5-terpyrimidinylenes as nonpeptidic alpha-helical mimics.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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A facile iterative synthesis of 2,5-terpyrimidinylenes that are structurally analogous to alpha-helix mimics is presented. Condensation of amidines with readily prepared alpha,beta-unsaturated alpha-cyanoketones gives 5-cyano-substituted pyrimidines. Iterative transformation of the 5-cyano group into an amidine allows synthesis of 2,5-terpyrimidinylenes with variable groups at the 4-, 4-, and 4-positions. These compounds are designed to mimic the i, i + 4, and i + 7 sites of an alpha-helix.
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Carbon-carbon bond formation and pyrrole synthesis via the [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement of O-vinyl oxime ethers.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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A new method for the synthesis of 2,4- and 2,3,4-substituted pyrroles in two or three steps from commercially available ketones and allyl hydroxylamine is described. An iridium-catalyzed isomerization reaction has been developed to convert O-allyl oximes to O-vinyl oximes, which undergo a facile [3,3] rearrangement to form 1,4-imino aldehyde Paal-Knorr intermediates that cyclize to afford the corresponding pyrroles. Optimization and examples of the isomerization and pyrrole formation are discussed.
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Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce breast cancer risk. Despite the biological interaction between vitamin D and calcium, few studies have evaluated their joint effects on breast cancer risk.
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Chaperone signalling complexes in Alzheimers disease.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsp) have emerged as critical regulators of proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease pathologies. The very nature of the chaperone system, which is to maintain protein quality control, means that most nascent proteins come in contact with chaperone proteins. Thus, amyloid precursor protein (APP), members of the gamma-secretase complex (presenilin 1 [PS1] collectively), the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) as well as a number of neuroinflammatory components are all in contact with chaperones from the moment of their production. Chaperones are often grouped together as one machine presenting abnormal or mutant proteins to the proteasome for degradation, but this is not at all the case. In fact, the chaperone family consists of more than 100 proteins in mammalian cells, and the primary role for most of these proteins is to protect clients following synthesis and during stress; only as a last resort do they facilitate protein degradation. To the best of our current knowledge, the chaperone system in eukaryotic cells revolves around the ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsp90, the two primary chaperone scaffolds. Other chaperones and co-chaperones manipulate the ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsp90, facilitating either folding of the client or its degradation. In the case of Alzheimers disease (AD), a number of studies have recently emerged describing the impact that these chaperones have on the proteotoxic effects of tau and amyloid- beta accumulation. Here, we present the current understandings of chaperone biology and examine the literature investigating these proteins in the context of AD.
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Formation and utility of azasilacyclopentadienes derived from silacyclopropenes and nitriles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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The copper-catalyzed insertions of nitriles into the Si-C bonds of silacyclopropenes provide azasilacyclopentadienes, which can be converted to allylic amines after reduction and protodesilylation. The enamine functionality of azasilacyclopentadienes also participates in 1,4-addition reactions and undergoes a hydroboration and oxidation sequence to form an allylic 1,2-amino alcohol.
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A comparison between whites and blacks with severe multi-organ iron overload identified in 16,152 autopsies.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Little is known about differences in the prevalence of severe iron overload at death in whites and blacks. We evaluated data and samples from 16,152 autopsies (8484 whites, 7668 blacks) performed at a single university hospital.
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Aging analysis reveals slowed tau turnover and enhanced stress response in a mouse model of tauopathy.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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We have extensively analyzed the biochemical and histochemical profiles of the tau protein from the rTg4510 transgenic mouse model in which the animals uniquely develop forebrain tau pathologies similar to those found in human tauopathies. Levels of several soluble phosphorylated tau species were highest at 1 month relative to later time points, suggesting that certain tau hyperphosphorylation events were insufficient to drive tangle formation in young mice. Despite a robust, pre-tangle-like accumulation of phospho-tau in 1-month-old mice, this material was cleared by 3 months, indicating that the young mouse brain either fails to facilitate tau insolubility or possesses an enhanced ability to clear tau relative to the adult. We also found that while heat shock protein expression increased with normal aging, this process was accelerated in rTg4510 mice. Moreover, by exploiting an exon 10 (-) specific antibody, we demonstrated that endogenous mouse tau turnover was slowed in response to human tau over-expression, and that this endogenous tau adopted disease-related properties. These data suggest that a younger brain fails to develop lasting tau pathology despite elevated levels of phosphorylated tau, perhaps because of reduced expression of stress-related proteins. Moreover, we show that the active production of small amounts of abnormal tau protein facilitates dysfunction and accumulation of otherwise normal tau, a significant implication for the pathogenesis of patients with Alzheimers disease.
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Validity evidence for the Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS).
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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To test the validity, reliability, and uses of the multidimensional Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS).
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Lifestyle, dietary, and medical history factors associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Ontario, Canada.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has one of the worst survival rates of all the cancers. Established risk factors for this malignancy are smoking, body mass index (BMI) and family history of pancreatic cancer. Findings are inconsistent regarding pancreatitis, diabetes, allergies, intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin C, calcium, and folate supplements. Possible pancreatic cancer risk factors were evaluated within the population-based Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study.
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Preparation and rearrangement of N-vinyl nitrones: synthesis of spiroisoxazolines and fluorene-tethered isoxazoles.
Org. Lett.
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N-Vinyl nitrones derived from fluorenone have been prepared via a copper-mediated coupling between fluorenone oxime and vinyl boronic acids. These compounds undergo subsequent rearrangement and addition reactions that are distinct from the traditional [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactivity of nitrones. Thermal rearrangements of fluorenone N-vinyl nitrones give spiroisoxazolines, while treatment with alkynes provides fluorene-tethered isoxazoles. The scope and limitations of the preparation of fluorenone N-vinyl nitrones and their subsequent rearrangement and addition reactions are discussed.
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Phytoestrogen intake from foods, during adolescence and adulthood, and risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor tumor subgroup among Ontario women.
Int. J. Cancer
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Phytoestrogen intake may reduce breast cancer risk and limited evidence suggests this association may hold for hormone receptor-positive tumors only. The study aims were to assess whether the association between phytoestrogen intake during adolescence and adulthood and breast cancer risk varies by estrogen and progesterone receptor (ERPR) tumor subgroup. Cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (2002-2003), and ERPR status was ascertained from pathology reports for 81% of cases (n = 2,438). Controls were identified through random digit dialing of Ontario households (n = 3,370). Published phytoestrogen food values were applied to food frequency questionnaire responses to assess isoflavone, lignan and total phytoestrogen intake, during adolescence and adulthood. Polytomous multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for association between phytoestrogen intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor ERPR tumor subgroups. Among premenopausal women, few associations were observed for adolescent or adult phytoestrogen intake across all tumor subgroups. Among postmenopausal women, adolescent phytoestrogen intake (isoflavone, lignan and total) was associated with reduced risk across all hormone receptor subgroups; however, statistical significance was most consistent within the ER+PR+ subgroup. For example, ER+PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer risk was associated with adolescent phytoestrogen intake (highest vs. lowest: OR = 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.96). Among all women and postmenopausal women, ORs for high adult lignan intake were all below 1.0 within each tumor subgroup, suggesting reduced breast cancer risk, although none reached statistical significance. In conclusion, adolescent phytoestrogen intake was associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly for ER+PR+ tumor subgroup.
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Use of isoflavone supplements is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Int. J. Cancer
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Botanical supplements are widely used and contain diverse ingredients, including isoflavones. Food-based isoflavones have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated supplements identified by isoflavone content and breast cancer risk. Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario, Canada were evaluated using cases (n = 3,101) identified in 2002-2003 from the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,471) identified through random digit dialing methods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Several individual supplements were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (e.g., Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; n(users) = 58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when ? 3 were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; n(users) = 332; p(trend) = 0.008) or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n(users) = 325; p(trend) = 0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among high content users who ever took ? 3 supplements (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81; n(users) = 118; p(trend) = 0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; n(users) = 60; p(trend) = 0.03). Associations did not differ by estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status. In conclusion, isoflavone supplements were associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further research to examine these novel findings is warranted, given the low supplement use and potential limitations of our results.
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Geographic differences in physical education and adolescent BMI: have legal mandates made a difference?
J Sch Nurs
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The school environment is an ideal setting for healthy weight programming with adolescents. The federal government has reinforced the importance of school-based health promotion. The current study examined the preliminary influence of the 2006 school wellness policy requirement of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act (CNWICRA) on adolescent Body Mass Index (BMI) and physical education participation. Nationally representative data from the 2003 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) were used. The authors examined BMI percentile and physical education participation based on survey year and geographic region. Results suggest a slight decrease in BMI with no changes in physical education participation. A main effect for geographic region was found for both physical education participation and BMI percentile, while a geographic region-by-survey year interaction was discovered when analyzing BMI percentiles. Results suggest a need for continued investigation and may inform future healthy weight programming and geographically tailored wellness policies.
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The association between sexual assault and suicidal activity in a national sample.
Sch Psychol Q
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Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal behavior overall and among sexual assault victims were examined. The results supported that students with sexual assault histories were significantly more likely (odds ratio [OR]=6.4) to have reported at least one suicide attempt in the past year than students who did not report sexual assault histories. Male students with a sexual assault history reported suicide attempts requiring medical attention more frequently than male attempters without sexual assault histories, as well as both groups of female suicide attempters. Implications of the findings for suicide prevention and intervention programs are discussed.
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Preparation of ?-oxygenated ketones by the dioxygenation of alkenyl boronic acids.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
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Two in two: Dioxygenation of alkenyl boronic acids has been achieved with N-hydroxyphthalimide. The two-step process involves etherification of an alkenyl boronic acid with N-hydroxyphthalimide followed by a [3,3] rearrangement. The dioxygenated product can then be hydrolyzed to form either the corresponding ?-hydroxy ketone or the ?-benzoyloxy ketone.
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Passive cigarette smoke exposure during various periods of life, genetic variants, and breast cancer risk among never smokers.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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The association between passive cigarette smoke exposure and breast cancer risk is inconclusive and may be modified by genotype. The authors investigated lifetime passive cigarette smoke exposures, 36 variants in 12 carcinogen-metabolizing genes, and breast cancer risk among Ontario, Canada, women who had never smoked (2003-2004). DNA (saliva) was available for 920 breast cancer cases and 960 controls. Detailed information about passive smoke exposure was collected for multiple age periods (childhood, teenage years, and adulthood) and environments (home, work, and social). Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable logistic regression, and statistical interactions were assessed using the likelihood ratio test. Among postmenopausal women, most associations between passive smoke and breast cancer risk were null, whereas among premenopausal women, nonsignificant positive associations were observed. Significant interactions were observed between certain types of passive smoke exposure and genetic variants in CYP2E1, NAT2, and UGT1A7. While these interactions were statistically significant, the magnitudes of the effect estimates were not consistent or easily interpretable, suggesting that they were perhaps due to chance. Although the results of this study were largely null, it is possible that premenopausal women exposed to passive smoke or carrying certain genetic variants may be at higher risk of breast cancer.
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Opioid Prescribing: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Guidelines for Chronic Pain.
Ann. Intern. Med.
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Deaths due to prescription opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. High-quality guidelines could help clinicians mitigate risks associated with opioid therapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.