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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
THE FUNGUS TRICHOPHYTON REDELLII SP. NOV. CAUSES SKIN INFECTIONS THAT RESEMBLE WHITE-NOSE SYNDROME OF HIBERNATING BATS.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Abstract Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.
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Does adult ADHD interact with COMT val (158) met genotype to influence working memory performance?
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype have been linked to altered dopaminergic transmission and possible impairment in frontal lobe functioning. This study offers an investigation of a possible interaction between ADHD diagnosis and COMT genotype on measures of working memory and executive function. Thirty-five adults with ADHD, who were recruited from the ADHD outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, and thirty-five matched healthy controls completed the Digit Span test and the Stroop Color Word Test. While there were no main effects of ADHD or COMT, the two factors interacted on both Digit Span subtests with the two groups' met/met carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Forward subtest and the val/val carriers showing significantly different performance on the Digit Span Backward subtest. Findings provide preliminary support for a differential impact of COMT genotype on working memory measures in adult patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls.
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Mentalizing and the Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Sharing Others' Embarrassment.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The experience of embarrassment provides a highly salient cue for the human moral apparatus. Interestingly, people also experience embarrassment on behalf of others' inappropriate conditions. The perceiver's embarrassment often lacks an equivalent expression of embarrassment in the social counterpart. The present study examines this phenomenon and distinguishes neural circuits involved in embarrassment with and embarrassment for another person's mishaps. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the embarrassment on behalf of others engages the temporal pole and the medial prefrontal cortex, central structures of the mentalizing network, together with the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, sharing others' embarrassment additionally stimulated the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), which exhibited increased functional integration with inferior parietal and insular cortex areas. These findings characterize common neural circuits involved in the embodied representation of embarrassment and further unravel the unique role of the posterior STS in sharing others' affective state.
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Neural correlates of a standardized version of the trail making test in young and elderly adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The trail making test (TMT) is a widely applied diagnostic tool measuring executive functioning in order to discriminate between healthy and pathological aging processes. However, due to its paper-and-pencil nature it is difficult to adapt for functional brain imaging. Related neural underpinnings even in healthy aging are mostly unknown since no consistent administration for imaging is available. In this study a standardized implementation of the TMT for functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is proposed to investigate associated frontal cortex activation in healthy young (mean age 25.7 ± 3.02 years) and elderly adults (mean age 70.95 ± 3.55 years). The TMT consisted of a number condition (TMT-A), an alternating number and letter condition (TMT-B) as well as a control task. Behavioral results demonstrated that elderly participants performed slower but committed a similar number of errors compared to younger adults. The fNIRS results showed that particularly the TMT-B provoked bilateral activation in the ventro- and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC and dlPFC) as well as in premotor regions. Elderly participants displayed more significantly activated channels and a different activation pattern compared to younger participants especially manifesting in more bilateral dlPFC activation. In line with the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in elderly adults (HAROLD) model, the results were interpreted as an additional need for cognitive control resources in elderly participants. This study succeeded in implementing an appropriate version of the TMT for fNIRS and helps elucidating neural aging effects associated with this task.
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Medial prefrontal cortex stimulation modulates the processing of conditioned fear.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The extinction of conditioned fear depends on an efficient interplay between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats, high-frequency electrical mPFC stimulation has been shown to improve extinction by means of a reduction of amygdala activity. However, so far it is unclear whether stimulation of homologues regions in humans might have similar beneficial effects. Healthy volunteers received one session of either active or sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) covering the mPFC while undergoing a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Repetitive TMS was applied offline after fear acquisition in which one of two faces (CS+ but not CS-) was associated with an aversive scream (UCS). Immediate extinction learning (day 1) and extinction recall (day 2) were conducted without UCS delivery. Conditioned responses (CR) were assessed in a multimodal approach using fear-potentiated startle (FPS), skin conductance responses (SCR), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and self-report scales. Consistent with the hypothesis of a modulated processing of conditioned fear after high-frequency rTMS, the active group showed a reduced CS+/CS- discrimination during extinction learning as evident in FPS as well as in SCR and arousal ratings. FPS responses to CS+ further showed a linear decrement throughout both extinction sessions. This study describes the first experimental approach of influencing conditioned fear by using rTMS and can thus be a basis for future studies investigating a complementation of mPFC stimulation to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
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Promoter occupancy of the basal class I transcription factor A differs strongly between active and silent VSG expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Monoallelic expression within a gene family is found in pathogens exhibiting antigenic variation and in mammalian olfactory neurons. Trypanosoma brucei, a lethal parasite living in the human bloodstream, expresses variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from 1 of 15 bloodstream expression sites (BESs) by virtue of a multifunctional RNA polymerase I. The active BES is transcribed in an extranucleolar compartment termed the expression site body (ESB), whereas silent BESs, located elsewhere within the nucleus, are repressed epigenetically. The regulatory mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Here we show that two essential subunits of the basal class I transcription factor A (CITFA) predominantly occupied the promoter of the active BES relative to that of a silent BES, a phenotype that was maintained after switching BESs in situ. In these experiments, high promoter occupancy of CITFA was coupled to high levels of both promoter-proximal RNA abundance and RNA polymerase I occupancy. Accordingly, fluorescently tagged CITFA-7 was concentrated in the nucleolus and the ESB. Because a ChIP-seq analysis found that along the entire BES, CITFA-7 is specifically enriched only at the promoter, our data strongly indicate that monoallelic BES transcription is activated by a mechanism that functions at the level of transcription initiation.
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Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology.
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Advancing the neuroscience of social emotions with social immersion.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Second-person neuroscience offers a framework for the study of social emotions, such as embarrassment and pride. However, we propose that an enduring mental representation of oneself in relation to others without a continuous direct social interaction is possible. We call this state "social immersion" and will explain its impact on the neuroscience of social emotions.
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Cardiac contractile reserve parameters are related to prognosis in septic shock.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Cardiac reserve could be defined as the spontaneous magnitude from basal to maximal cardiac power under stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of cardiac reserve parameters in resuscitated septic shock patients.
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The impact of task relevance and degree of distraction on stimulus processing.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The impact of task relevance on event-related potential amplitudes of early visual processing was previously demonstrated. Study designs, however, differ greatly, not allowing simultaneous investigation of how both degree of distraction and task relevance influence processing variations. In our study, we combined different features of previous tasks. We used a modified 1-back task in which task relevant and task irrelevant stimuli were alternately presented. The task irrelevant stimuli could be from the same or from a different category as the task relevant stimuli, thereby producing high and low distracting task irrelevant stimuli. In addition, the paradigm comprised a passive viewing condition. Thus, our paradigm enabled us to compare the processing of task relevant stimuli, task irrelevant stimuli with differing degrees of distraction, and passively viewed stimuli. EEG data from twenty participants was collected and mean P100 and N170 amplitudes were analyzed. Furthermore, a potential connection of stimulus processing and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated.
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Guidelines and quality measures for the diagnosis of optic ataxia.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Since the first description of a systematic mis-reaching by Bálint in 1909, a reasonable number of patients showing a similar phenomenology, later termed optic ataxia (OA), has been described. However, there is surprising inconsistency regarding the behavioral measures that are used to detect OA in experimental and clinical reports, if the respective measures are reported at all. A typical screening method that was presumably used by most researchers and clinicians, reaching for a target object in the peripheral visual space, has never been evaluated. We developed a set of instructions and evaluation criteria for the scoring of a semi-standardized version of this reaching task. We tested 36 healthy participants, a group of 52 acute and chronic stroke patients, and 24 patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia. We found a high interrater reliability and a moderate test-retest reliability comparable to other clinical instruments in the stroke sample. The calculation of cut-off thresholds based on healthy control and cerebellar patient data showed an unexpected high number of false positives in these samples due to individual outliers that made a considerable number of errors in peripheral reaching. This study provides first empirical data from large control and patient groups for a screening procedure that seems to be widely used but rarely explicitly reported and prepares the grounds for its use as a standard tool for the description of patients who are included in single case or group studies addressing optic ataxia similar to the use of neglect, extinction, or apraxia screening tools.
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On the distinction of empathic and vicarious emotions.
Front Hum Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In the introduction to the special issue "The Neural Underpinnings of Vicarious Experience" the editors state that one "may feel embarrassed when witnessing another making a social faux pas". In our commentary we address this statement and ask whether this example introduces a vicarious or an empathic form of embarrassment. We elaborate commonalities and differences between these two forms of emotional experiences and discuss their underlying mechanisms. We suggest that both, vicarious and empathic emotions, originate from the simulation processes mirroring and mentalizing that depend on anchoring and adjustment. We claim the term "empathic emotion" to be reserved exclusively for incidents where perceivers and social targets have shared affective experience, whereas "vicarious emotion" offers a wider scope and also includes non-shared affective experiences. Both are supposed to be highly functional in social interactions.
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New RAB3GAP1 mutations in patients with Warburg Micro Syndrome from different ethnic backgrounds and a possible founder effect in the Danish.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Warburg Micro Syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, microcornia, congenital cataracts, optic atrophy, cortical dysplasia, in particular corpus callosum hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, spastic diplegia, and hypogonadism. We have found five new mutations in the RAB3GAP1 gene in seven patients with suspected Micro Syndrome from families with Turkish, Palestinian, Danish, and Guatemalan backgrounds. A thorough clinical investigation of the patients has allowed the delineation of symptoms that are consistently present in the patients and may aid the differential diagnosis of Micro Syndrome for patients in the future. All patients had postnatal microcephaly, micropthalmia, microcornia, bilateral congenital cataracts, short palpebral fissures, optic atrophy, severe mental retardation, and congenital hypotonia with subsequent spasticity. Only one patient had microcephaly at birth, highlighting the fact that congenital microcephaly is not a consistent feature of Micro syndrome. Analysis of the brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) revealed a consistent pattern of polymicrogyria in the frontal and parietal lobes, wide sylvian fissures, a thin hypoplastic corpus callosum, and increased subdural spaces. All patients were homozygous for the mutations detected and all mutations were predicted to result in a truncated RAB3GAP1 protein. The analysis of nine polymorphic markers flanking the RAB3GAP1 gene showed that the mutation c.1410C>A (p.Tyr470X), for which a Danish patient was homozygous, occurred on a haplotype that is shared by the unrelated heterozygous parents of the patient. This suggests a possible founder effect for this mutation in the Danish population.
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Nutrient-dependent regulation of autophagy through the target of rapamycin pathway.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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In response to nutrient deficiency, eukaryotic cells activate macroautophagy, a degradative process in which proteins, organelles and cytoplasm are engulfed within unique vesicles called autophagosomes. Fusion of these vesicles with the endolysosomal compartment leads to breakdown of the sequestered material into amino acids and other simple molecules, which can be used as nutrient sources during periods of starvation. This process is driven by a group of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, and is suppressed by TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling under favourable conditions. Several distinct kinase complexes have been implicated in autophagic signalling downstream of TOR. In yeast, TOR is known to control autophagosome formation in part through a multiprotein complex containing the serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1. Recent work in Drosophila and mammalian systems suggests that this complex and its regulation by TOR are conserved in higher eukaryotes, and that Atg1 has accrued additional functions including feedback regulation of TOR itself. TOR and Atg1 also control the activity of a second kinase complex containing Atg6/Beclin 1, Vps (vacuolar protein sorting) 15 and the class III PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) Vps34. During autophagy induction, Vps34 activity is mobilized from an early endosomal compartment to nascent autophagic membranes, in a TOR- and Atg1-responsive manner. Finally, the well-known TOR substrate S6K (p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase) has been shown to play a positive role in autophagy, which may serve to limit levels of autophagy under conditions of continuously low TOR activity. Further insight into these TOR-dependent control mechanisms may support development of autophagy-based therapies for a number of pathological conditions.
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Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by the recently described fungus Geomyces destructans. First isolated in 2008, the origins of this fungus in North America and its ability to persist in the environment remain undefined. To investigate the correlation between manifestation of WNS and distribution of G. destructans in the United States, we analyzed sediment samples collected from 55 bat hibernacula (caves and mines) both within and outside the known range of WNS using a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Geomyces destructans was detected in 17 of 21 sites within the known range of WNS at the time when the samples were collected; the fungus was not found in 28 sites beyond the known range of the disease at the time when environmental samples were collected. These data indicate that the distribution of G. destructans is correlated with disease in hibernating bats and support the hypothesis that the fungus is likely an exotic species in North America. Additionally, we examined whether G. destructans persists in infested bat hibernacula when bats are absent. Sediment samples were collected from 14 WNS-positive hibernacula, and the samples were screened for viable fungus by using a culture technique. Viable G. destructans was cultivated from 7 of the 14 sites sampled during late summer, when bats were no longer in hibernation, suggesting that the fungus can persist in the environment in the absence of bat hosts for long periods of time.
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A culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome.
Mycologia
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The recent emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing unprecedented mortality among hibernating bats of eastern North America, has revealed a knowledge gap regarding fungal communities associated with bats and their hibernacula. We used culture-based techniques to investigate the diversity of fungi in soil samples collected from 24 bat hibernacula in the eastern United States. Ribosomal RNA regions (internal transcribed spacer and partial intergenic spacer) were sequenced to preliminarily characterize isolates. Geomyces species were one of the most abundant and diverse groups cultured, representing approximately 33% of all isolates. Geomyces destructans was isolated from soil samples from three hibernacula in states where WNS is known to occur, and many of the other cultured Geomyces isolates likely represent undescribed taxa. Further characterization of the diversity of fungi that occur in hibernacula both will facilitate an improved understanding of the ecology of G. destructans within this complex fungal community and provide an opportunity to identify characteristics that differentiate G. destructans from non-pathogenic relatives.
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Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans.
Mycologia
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The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was qualified further by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research.
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Increased autonomic activation in vicarious embarrassment.
Int J Psychophysiol
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We studied the somatovisceral response pattern of vicarious embarrassment for someone elses inappropriate condition. Participants (N=54) were confronted with hand-drawn sketches depicting public situations and were instructed to rate the intensity of their vicarious embarrassment. The inappropriate condition varied according to the attribution of intentionality (absent/present) and awareness (absent/present). Irrespective of these attributions, participants reported stronger vicarious embarrassment in comparison to neutral situations. Across a set of eleven somatovisceral variables vicarious embarrassment elicited a pattern of increased autonomic activation which was modulated by the awareness of the protagonist about the ongoing norm violation. The somatovisceral response pattern matches previous findings for the first-person experience of embarrassment. Together, these results support the hypothesis that processes of perspective taking also mediate the vicarious experience of embarrassment.
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Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome.
PLoS ONE
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White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.