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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Five-factor personality traits and sleep: evidence from two population-based cohort studies.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The current study examines associations between five factor personality traits and average sleep duration, sleep deficiency, and sleep problems.
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Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
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Temperament and depressive symptoms: What is the direction of the association?
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Temperament characteristics have been suggested to be associated with mental health outcomes, especially depression, but the direction of the association is unknown. In this study, we tested whether temperament characteristics, as defined by the Buss-Plomin adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability (EAS) temperament model, predict depressive symptoms or whether depressive symptoms predict changes in temperament characteristics.
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Longitudinal measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance scales in the Young Finns study.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In order to make valid conclusions about individual change in work-related risk factors it is important to examine whether these factors are measurement invariant over time. We tested the measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scales using the ERI Questionnaire (ERI-Q). Additionally, we examined the criterion validity of the ERI scales.
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Temperament and character traits predict future burden of depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Personality traits are associated with depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Evidence for their value in predicting accumulation of future dysphoric episodes or clinical depression in long-term follow-up is limited, however.
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Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism, chronic stress and atherosclerosis: interleukin-6-174G>C polymorphism, chronic stress and risk of early atherosclerosis in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Interleukin-6 protein has been suggested as a mediator connecting chronic stress and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether the functional G174C polymorphism (rs1800795) of interleukin-6 gene is associated with vital exhaustion, a measure of chronic stress, or with preclinical atherosclerosis.
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Longitudinal Associations Between Changes in Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adulthood: The Young Finns Study.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Although previous studies have associated physical activity (PA) with lower depressive symptoms, the combined effects of the (1) frequency, (2) intensity, and (3) duration of long-term PA have not been examined in detail.
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Brief report: Emotional distress and recent stressful life events in long QT syndrome mutation carriers.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To study emotional distress in symptomatic and asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who had experienced a recent stressful life event. The participants were 209 symptomatic and 279 asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Emotional distress was assessed with the Cope questionnaire and stressful life events with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers with burdening recent stressful life events reported a higher emotional distress (? = 0.35, p < 0.001), while the asymptomatic did not show such difference (? = 0.13, p = 0.393). Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who have experienced stressful life events recently report an increased emotional distress.
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Age- and Cohort-Related Variance of Type-A Behavior Over 24 Years: the Young Finns Study.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Over the recent decades, the incidence of cardiovascular and heart diseases has decreased while levels of type-A behavior, i.e., a potential risk factor, appear to have increased. However, the long-term developmental patterns of type-A behavior is poorly understood. Both age- and cohort-related changes may be involved in these developments.
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Associations between five-factor model traits and perceived job strain: a population-based study.
J Occup Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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This study examined the association between Five-Factor Model personality traits and perceived job strain. The sample consisted of 758 women and 614 men (aged 30-45 years in 2007) participating in the Young Finns study. Personality was assessed with the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire and work stress according to Karaseks demand-control model of job strain. The associations between personality traits and job strain and its components were measured by linear regression analyses where the traits were first entered individually and then simultaneously. The results for the associations between individually entered personality traits showed that high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with high job strain. High neuroticism, high openness, and low agreeableness were related to high demands, whereas high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with low control. In the analyses for the simultaneously entered traits, high neuroticism, low openness, and low conscientiousness were associated with high job strain. In addition, high neuroticism was related to high demands and low control, whereas low extraversion was related to low demands and low control. Low openness and low conscientiousness were also related to low control. This study suggests that personality is related to perceived job strain. Perceptions of work stressors and decision latitude are not only indicators of structural aspects of work but also indicate that there are individual differences in how individuals experience their work environment.
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Maturity and change in personality: developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood.
Dev. Psychopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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We studied the developmental trends of temperament and character in a longitudinal population-based sample of Finnish men and women aged 20-45 years using the Temperament and Character Inventory model of personality. Personality was assessed in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (n = 2,104, 2,095, and 2,056, respectively). Mean-level changes demonstrated qualitatively distinct developmental patterns for character (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) and temperament (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence). Character developed toward greater maturity, although self-transcendence decreased with age. However, self-transcendence was the strongest predictor of overall personality change. Cohort effects indicated lower level of self-transcendence and higher level of self-directedness and cooperativeness in younger birth cohorts. Regarding temperament, novelty seeking decreased and persistence increased slightly with age. Both high novelty seeking and high persistence predicted overall personality change. These findings suggest that temperament and character traits follow different kinds of developmental trajectories.
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Personality traits as risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease mortality: pooled analysis of three cohort studies.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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We examined whether personality traits are differently associated with coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. Participants were pooled from three prospective cohort studies (Health and Retirement Study, Wisconsin Longitudinal Study graduate and sibling samples; n = 24,543 men and women, mean age 61.4 years, mortality follow-up between 3 and 15 years). There were 423 coronary heart disease deaths and 88 stroke deaths during 212,542 person-years at risk. Higher extraversion was associated with an increased risk of stroke (hazard ratio per each standard deviation increase in personality trait HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.10-1.80) but not with coronary heart disease mortality (HR = 0.93, 0.83-1.05). High neuroticism, in turn, was more strongly related to the risk of coronary heart disease (HR = 1.16, 1.04-1.29) than stroke deaths (HR = 0.95, 0.78-1.17). High conscientiousness was associated with lower mortality risk from both coronary heart disease (HR = 0.74, 0.67-0.81) and stroke (HR = 0.78, 0.63-0.97). Cardiovascular risk associated with personality traits appears to vary between main cardiac and cerebral disease endpoints.
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Effort-reward imbalance at work is predicted by temporal and energetic characteristics of behavior: a population-based study.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Personality dispositions may influence perceptions of work stress. The paper examines the relationship between temperament in terms of Strelau’s Regulative Theory of Temperament and the effort-reward imbalance and its components.
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Body-image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with chronic dysphoria.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Individual depressive symptoms may contribute to the risk of chronic depression. This study aimed to explore which symptoms predict chronic dysphoria, a hallmark of depression.
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Parental care-giving and home environment predicting offsprings temperament and character traits after 18 years.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Although many personality theories emphasize the role of parental behaviors in shaping personality development, empirical data from longitudinal studies remain scarce. It is also not known, if parental behaviors affect character development more strongly than temperament or vice versa. In a prospective study, 1083 volunteer participants of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Parents of the participants had answered questions about parenting attitudes, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and role satisfaction 18 years before. We studied the univariate and the cumulative effects of parental care-giving and family environment on offsprings personality traits. Parental care-giving and home-environment were more strongly associated with offspring character traits reflecting personality maturity (Self-directedness and Cooperativeness) than with offspring temperament traits (Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence and Persistence) reflecting emotional and behavioral tendencies. The differences were most evident in the cumulative effects model. Maternal variables were stronger predictors than paternal variables. The present findings suggest that not all personality traits are similarly predicted by parental care-giving and home-environment. In particular, character development is more strongly related to such measures than temperament. Parental care-giving and home-environment are more strongly related to psychological maturity (character) than emotional and behavioral tendencies (temperament).
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Socio-economic position and mental disorders in a working-age Finnish population: the health 2000 study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Mental disorders are more common in people with lower socio-economic position (SEP) but it is not known which specific SEP component is most strongly linked to poor mental health. We compared the strength of associations of three SEP components-occupation, income and education-with common mental disorders in a Finnish population.
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Adulthood EAS-temperament and carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.
Psychol Health
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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We examined the association between adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability temperament scale and preclinical atherosclerosis and, whether this association is mediated by cardiovascular risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body-mass index (BMI)). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 537 men and 811 women from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study aged 15-30 years at the baseline in 1992 and aged 24-39 years at the follow-up in 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In men, there was an association between the temperament dimension activity and IMT (? = 0.08, p = 0.036) which was partially mediated by BMI (? decreased from 0.08 to 0.05; p-value of Sobel test = 0.002). However, after correction for multiple comparisons the association between IMT and the temperament dimension activity in men was only of borderline significance. In women, there were no associations between temperament and IMT or FMD. These results suggest that a highly active temperament may contribute to early signs of atherosclerosis in men and that body mass may mediate this association.
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Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study.
Depress Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI) profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (n = 1402 to 1902). TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Becks depression inventory, BDI) were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR) and fanatical people (ScT) were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.
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Moderating effect of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation in the association between depressive symptoms and carotid atherosclerosis: evidence from the Young Finns study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Depression and inflammation have been suggested to be involved in the atherosclerotic processes, but empirical evidence is mixed. We tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with atherosclerosis only when combined with other risk factors, such as inflammation indicated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation.
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Socio-economic differences in long-term psychiatric work disability: prospective cohort study of onset, recovery and recurrence.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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To examine the associations between socio-economic position (SEP) and the onset of psychiatric work disability, return to work and recurrence of disability.
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Cloningers temperament traits and inherited long QT syndrome.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited cardiac disorder which predisposes the mutation carrier to ventricular arrhythmias that can lead to sudden death. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between the symptom status of congenital long QT syndrome mutation carriers and their temperament.
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Associations of personality profiles with various aspects of well-being: a population-based study.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Well-being consists of affective and non-affective components. Personality traits measure individual differences in adaptive functioning and mental health. In a previous Israeli study personality was strongly associated with well-being. However, it is not well known which aspects of this association are culture-specific, and which are common to most cultures.
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Hostility, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cardiac control in young adults: The Young Finns Study.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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We studied whether there is an association between hostility and cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) risk factors, such as the metabolic syndrome, systemic inflammation and autonomic cardiac control. Participants were 912 women and 712 men aged 15-30 when hostility was measured in 1992. Metabolic syndrome was assessed 9years later in 2001 using 3 definitions: the National Institute of Health Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP), the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance criteria (EGIR), and the International Diabetes Federation criteria (IDF). C-reactive protein (CRP) defined in 2001 was the marker of inflammation. Cardiac control indices were from EGC recording. In women, hostility predicted increased risk of metabolic syndrome (EGIR, and the IDF definitions, ORs = 1.34, 1.35, p < 0.05), and higher levels of inflammation (? = 0.09, p < 0.01). We concluded that hostility is associated with metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in women and these conditions may be factors linking hostility to CHD.
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Lipid trajectories as predictors of depressive symptoms: the Young Finns Study.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The aim of this study was to identify common trajectories of lipid levels across childhood and early adulthood life span.
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The interaction between serotonin receptor 2A and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms is associated with the novelty-seeking subscale impulsiveness.
Psychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Novelty seeking is a trait that has been consistently associated with problem behaviours. There is evidence for heritability of novelty seeking, but the molecular genetic basis of the trait is still widely unclear.
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School performance as a predictor of adulthood obesity: a 21-year follow-up study.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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We examined the impact of school performance measured in terms of grade point averages (GPAs) in early and middle adolescence (ages 9, 12, and 15), and the impact of school performance throughout the different school stages on adult obesity. The participants were 732 healthy women and men derived from a population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. GPAs were measured at the ages of 9, 12, and 15. The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), and the waist circumference (WC) were conducted participants being aged 27 or 30. Birth weight, childhood BMI, adulthood physical activity, maternal and paternal BMI, and maternal education were controlled for. The results showed that low GPAs in each measurement and low GPAs throughout the comprehensive school were a risk factor of adulthood obesity, but only among women. The association remained when controlling for potential confounding variables (p-values in the fully adjusted models 0.026, 0.007, and 0.004 at the ages of 9, 12, and 15, respectively). The results were similar when the BMI was used as a dichotomous variable (BMI > or = 30 and BMI < 30). Low school performance has previously been associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption later in life. Our result underscores that low school performance is a health risk factor that should be taken seriously in preventive health education.
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DRD2 C32806T modifies the effect of child-rearing environment on adulthood novelty seeking.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Preliminary evidence suggests that there may be longitudinal interactions between environmental and genetic factors in predicting Novelty seeking. We have previously found in small and selected subsample from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, that an association between the polymorphism of dopamine receptor D4 was moderated by the childhood environment, as indexed by hostile maternal child-rearing. We wanted to replicate this finding in a population based sample of 1,114 men and women using another candidate gene of dopaminergic system, that is, the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2). The child-rearing environment of the participants was assessed by their mothers when the participants were children or adolescents, and adulthood Novelty seeking was self-rated by the participants 17 and 21 years later at the ages of 24-39. Genotyping of DRD2 C32806T (rs 1800497) was performed using TaqMan 5nuclease assay. DRD2 was not directly associated with Novelty seeking, but there was a significant DRD2 x strict maternal disciplinary style interaction in predicting Novelty seeking (F = 7.08, P = 0.008). The interaction showed that when the child-rearing environment was punitive, participants carrying any A1 allele of the DRD2 gene had higher scores on Novelty seeking than carriers of the A2/A2 genotype. The genotype had no effect on Novelty seeking when the childhood environment was more favorable. The findings suggest that the DRD2 may have an environmentally moderated impact on Novelty seeking and that the origins of such an association may lie already in childhood.
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Cardiac stress reactivity and recovery of novelty seekers.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Novelty seeking temperament has been associated with higher coronary heart disease risk factors, but the mechanism behind the association is open. Cardiac stress response is a potential candidate.
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Interactive effect of long-term mental stress and cardiac stress reactivity on carotid intima-media thickness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.
Stress
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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The present study examined the interaction between vital exhaustion and cardiac reactivity and recovery on preclinical atherosclerosis assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in young men and women. We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and pre-ejection period (PEP) in response to mental arithmetic and speech tasks. Vital exhaustion and carotid IMT were also measured. Significant associations were observed for men aged 28-37 years, but not for men aged 22-25 years, nor for women in these age groups. It was shown that, among highly exhausted men in the older age group, lower HR reactivity was related to greater IMT. Our results also imply that, among non-exhausted men in this age group, slow HR and RSA recovery after acute stress predicted higher IMT. These results suggest that long-term stress as assessed by vital exhaustion is a risk only if it has resulted in ineffective cardiac stress reactivity. Autonomic imbalance resulting from chronic stress may be the common mechanism linking vital exhaustion and cardiac responsiveness to an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
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Depressive symptoms and the metabolic syndrome in childhood and adulthood: a prospective cohort study.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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To examine the reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome in childhood and adulthood.
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Cloningers temperament traits and preclinical atherosclerosis: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Cloningers psychobiological model of temperament has recently raised interest as a risk factor for CHD. However, there are no studies that have examined the associations of Cloningers temperament traits with atherosclerosis.
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Shift work in young adults and carotid artery intima-media thickness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Shift work is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the timing or mechanisms of this association is unclear.
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Pairwise measures of causal direction in the epidemiology of sleep problems and depression.
PLoS ONE
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Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30-45), and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52-55). These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data) and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically) known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.
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Temperament and character predict body-mass index: a population-based prospective cohort study.
J Psychosom Res
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Personality is a potential factor determining individual differences in body-weight change. The current study examines associations between personality traits and change in body-mass index (BMI) over six years.
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Maintenance of genetic variation in human personality: testing evolutionary models by estimating heritability due to common causal variants and investigating the effect of distant inbreeding.
Evolution
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Personality traits are basic dimensions of behavioral variation, and twin, family, and adoption studies show that around 30% of the between-individual variation is due to genetic variation. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. Several evolutionary mechanisms could explain how genetic variation is maintained in traits, and each of these makes predictions in terms of the relative contribution of rare and common genetic variants to personality variation, the magnitude of nonadditive genetic influences, and whether personality is affected by inbreeding. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from > 8000 individuals, we estimated that little variation in the Cloninger personality dimensions (7.2% on average) is due to the combined effect of common, additive genetic variants across the genome, suggesting that most heritable variation in personality is due to rare variant effects and/or a combination of dominance and epistasis. Furthermore, higher levels of inbreeding were associated with less socially desirable personality trait levels in three of the four personality dimensions. These findings are consistent with genetic variation in personality traits having been maintained by mutation-selection balance.
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Disruptive behavior in childhood and socioeconomic position in adulthood: a prospective study over 27 years.
Int J Public Health
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We examined whether childhood disruptive behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity and social adjustment), predicts adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP), i.e., educational level, occupational status and income and social mobility.
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Serotonin receptor 1B genotype and hostility, anger and aggressive behavior through the lifespan: the Young Finns study.
J Behav Med
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The serotonin system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of hostility, anger, and aggressive behavior. Previous molecular genetic studies suggest that the serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) rs6296 genotype might have a particular role in these types of behaviors. We examined whether HTR1B is related to hostility, anger, and aggressive behavior phenotypes over a lifespan and whether it modifies the connection between childhood aggressive behavior and adulthood hostility and anger. The participants were 967 women and men from a large population based sample (The Young Finns Study) with a 27-year follow-up. Childhood aggressive behavior was reported by the mother twice when the participants were 3 to 12 years of age. Adulthood hostility and anger were self-reported by the participants between ages 24 and 36. Childhood aggressive behavior predicted adulthood hostility over 27 years. HTR1B SNP rs6296 was associated with childhood aggressive behavior but not with adulthood anger or hostility. The HTR1B SNP rs6296 modified the association between childhood aggressive behavior and adulthood hostility. Aggressive behavior and hostility might form a life course pattern, and the HTR1B might contribute to a development of this pattern.
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation and depressive symptoms: results from the Young Finns Study.
Psychosom Med
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To examine whether the activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in serotonin production, is associated with depressive symptoms.
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Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population.
BMC Public Health
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An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association.
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Differential associations of job control components with mortality: a cohort study, 1986-2005.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Inconsistent evidence of the hypothesized favorable effects of high job control on health may have resulted from a failure to treat job control as a multifactor concept. The authors studied whether the 2 components of job control, decision authority and skill discretion, were differentially associated with cause-specific mortality in 13,510 Finnish forest company employees with no history of severe illness. Surveys on work characteristics were carried out in 1986 and 1996, and the respondents were followed up until the end of 2005 by use of the Statistics Finland National Death Registry. During a mean follow-up of 15.5 years, 981 participants died. In the analyses adjusted for confounders, employees with high and intermediate levels of skill discretion had a lower all-cause mortality risk than those with low skill discretion, with hazard ratios of 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.02) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.96), respectively. In contrast, high decision authority was associated with elevated risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, and alcohol-related mortality, with hazard ratios of 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.54), 1.49 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.02), and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.00), respectively. The results suggest that job control is not an unequivocal concept in relation to mortality; decision authority and skill discretion show different and to some extent opposite associations.
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Moderating effects of leisure-time physical activity on the association between job strain and depressive symptoms: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
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We examined whether long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) has a moderating effect on the association between job strain and depressive symptoms using prospective data.
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Socioeconomic status and the development of depressive symptoms from childhood to adulthood: a longitudinal analysis across 27 years of follow-up in the Young Finns study.
Soc Sci Med
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We examined two alternative hypotheses on the association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms: social causation and health selection. The latent growth curve (LGC) approach was used to examine trajectories of change in depressive symptoms over a period of 15 years in a dataset (the Young Finns study) consisting of a nationally representative sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 1613). Depressive symptoms were examined at four examination phases between 1992 and 2007. SES was measured as parental SES childhood (baseline of the study in 1980) and as the participants own SES in 2007 when the participants had reached adulthood and were between 30 and 45 years of age. The level of depressive symptoms was associated (r = -.14) with a slower decrease in symptoms during follow-up. Lower age, male gender, higher parental occupational grade but not parental income and lower negative emotionality in childhood were associated with a lower level of depressive symptoms. Higher age was also associated with a slower decrease in depressive symptoms. A lower level of depression and faster decrease in depressive symptoms were associated with a higher socioeconomic position in adulthood. A similar pattern was found in the relationship between the level of depression and income in adulthood. We concluded that the effect of childhood SES on depressive symptoms diminishes over time, but a higher level of, and especially faster decline of, depressive symptoms predicts the adulthood occupational SES gradient.
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