An elusive goal of cellular immune vaccines is the generation of large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in response to subunit immunization. A broad spectrum of cytokines and cell-surface costimulatory molecules are known to shape the programming, magnitude, and repertoire of T cells responding to vaccination. We show here that the majority of innate immune receptor agonist-based vaccine adjuvants unexpectedly depend on IL-27 for eliciting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. This is in sharp contrast to infectious challenge, which generates T-cell responses that are IL-27-independent. Mixed bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrate that IL-27 dependency is T cell-intrinsic, requiring T-cell expression of IL-27R?. Further, we show that IL-27 dependency not only dictates the magnitude of vaccine-elicited T-cell responses but also is critical for the programming and persistence of high-affinity T cells to subunit immunization. Collectively, our data highlight the unexpected central importance of IL-27 in the generation of robust, high-affinity cellular immune responses to subunit immunization.
The evolutionary conservation of T lymphocyte subsets bearing ?? TCRs using invariant ?-chains is indicative of unique and important functions. Among these T lymphocytes, NKT cells that express an invariant TCR?-chain and recognize lipid Ags presented by the nonclassical MHC class I molecule CD1d are probably the most studied. However, a new population of evolutionarily conserved T cells with another invariant TCR? rearrangement was recently characterized. These cells, which are very abundant in humans, tend to reside in mucosal tissues and, therefore, were named mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. Until recently, little was known about MAIT cells; however, several recent advances in our understanding of MAIT cell characteristics and functions secure their upcoming rise to fame in the immunology field and in clinical practice.
The self-reactivity of their T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is thought to contribute to the development of immune regulatory cells, such as invariant NK T cells (iNKT). In the mouse, iNKT cells express TCRs composed of a unique V?14-J?18 rearrangement and recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules. We created mice expressing a transgenic TCR-? chain that confers high affinity for self-lipid/CD1d complexes when randomly paired with the mouse iNKT V?14-J?18 rearrangement to study their development. We show that although iNKT cells undergo agonist selection, their development is also shaped by negative selection in vivo. In addition, iNKT cells that avoid negative selection in these mice express natural sequence variants of the canonical TCR-? and decreased affinity for self/CD1d. However, limiting the affinity of the iNKT TCRs for "self" leads to inefficient Egr2 induction, poor expression of the iNKT lineage-specific zinc-finger transcription factor PLZF, inadequate proliferation of iNKT cell precursors, defects in trafficking, and impaired effector functions. Thus, proper development of fully functional iNKT cells is constrained by a limited range of TCR affinity that plays a key role in triggering the iNKT cell-differentiation pathway. These results provide a direct link between the affinity of the TCR expressed by T-cell precursors for self-antigens and the proper development of a unique population of lymphocytes essential to immune responses.
Various populations of memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells have been described over the last 15-20 y, all of which possess elevated effector functions relative to naive phenotype cells. Using a technique for isolating Ag-specific cells from unprimed hosts, we recently identified a new subset of cells, specific for nominal Ag, but phenotypically and functionally similar to memory cells arising as a result of homeostatic proliferation. We show in this study that these virtual memory (VM) cells are independent of previously identified innate memory cells, arising as a result of their response to IL-15 trans presentation by lymphoid tissue-resident CD8?(+) dendritic cells in the periphery. The absence of IL-15, CD8(+) T cell expression of either CD122 or eomesodermin or of CD8a(+) dendritic cells all lead to the loss of VM cells in the host. Our results show that CD8(+) T cell homeostatic expansion is an active process within the nonlymphopenic environment, is mediated by IL-15, and produces Ag-inexperienced memory cells that retain the capacity to respond to nominal Ag with memory-like function. Preferential engagement of these VM T cells into a vaccine response could dramatically enhance the rate by which immune protection develops.
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariant ?? TCR and are restricted by the MHC class I-related molecule MR1. MAIT cells recognize uncharacterized ligand(s) presented by MR1 through the cognate interaction between their TCR and MR1. To understand how the MAIT TCR recognizes MR1 at the surface of APCs cultured both with and without bacteria, we undertook extensive mutational analysis of both the MAIT TCR and MR1 molecule. We found differential contribution of particular amino acids to the MAIT TCR-MR1 interaction based upon the presence of bacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the structure of the MR1 molecules with the microbial-derived ligand(s) differs from the one with the endogenous ligand(s). Furthermore, we demonstrate that microbial-derived ligand(s) is resistant to proteinase K digestion and does not extract with common lipids, suggesting an unexpected class of antigen(s) might be recognized by this unique lymphocyte population.
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are distinct lymphocyte lineages that recognize lipid antigens presented by the non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex molecule CD1d. Two categories of NKT cells, type I and type II, have been described based on T-cell receptor expression and antigenic specificity. In both cases, increasing evidence suggest that recognition of self-antigens by these cells plays an important role not only in their development but also in their regulation of a broad range of immune responses. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how and when NKT cell autoreactivity manifests itself, how the NKT T cell receptor engages self-antigens and the nature of these self-antigens.
Natural killer T cell antigen receptors (NKT TCRs) recognize lipid-based antigens (Ags) presented by CD1d. Although the TCR ?-chain is invariant, NKT TCR V? exhibits greater diversity, with one (V?11) and three (V?8, V?7, and V?2) V? chains in humans and mice, respectively. With the exception of the V?2 NKT TCR, NKT TCRs possess canonical tyrosine residues within complementarity determining region (CDR) 2? that are critical for CD1d binding. Thus, how V?2 NKT TCR docks with CD1d-Ag was unclear. Despite the absence of the CDR2?-encoded tyrosine residues, we show that the V?2 NKT TCR engaged CD1d-Ag in a similar manner and with a comparable affinity and energetic footprint to the manner observed for the V?8.2 and V?7 NKT TCRs. Accordingly, the germline-encoded regions of the TCR ?-chain do not exclusively dictate the innate NKT TCR-CD1d-Ag docking mode. Nevertheless, clear fine specificity differences for the CD1d-Ag existed between the V?2 NKT TCR and the V?8.2 and V?7 NKT TCRs, with the V?2 NKT TCR exhibiting greater sensitivity to modifications to the glycolipid Ag. Furthermore, within the V?2 NKT TCR-CD1d-?GalCer complex, the CDR2? loop mediated fewer contacts with CD1d, whereas the CDR1? and CDR3? loops contacted CD1d to a much greater extent compared with most V?11, V?8.2, and V?7 NKT TCRs. Accordingly, there is a greater interplay between the germline- and nongermline-encoded loops within the TCR ?-chain of the V?2 NKT TCR that enables CD1d-Ag ligation.
?? T cell receptors (TCRs) bind specifically to foreign antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) or MHC-like molecules. Accumulating evidence indicates that the germline-encoded TCR segments have features that promote binding to MHC and MHC-like molecules, suggesting coevolution between TCR and MHC molecules. Here, we assess directly the evolutionary conservation of ?? TCR specificity for MHC. Sequence comparisons showed that some V?s from distantly related jawed vertebrates share amino acids in their complementarity determining region 2 (CDR2). Chimeric TCRs containing amphibian, bony fish, or cartilaginous fish V?s can recognize antigens presented by mouse MHC class II and CD1d (an MHC-like protein), and this recognition is dependent upon the shared CDR2 amino acids. These results indicate that features of the TCR that control specificity for MHC and MHC-like molecules were selected early in evolution and maintained between species that last shared a common ancestor more than 400 million years ago.
The most potent foreign antigens for natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are ?-linked glycolipids, whereas NKT cell self-reactivity involves weaker recognition of structurally distinct ?-linked glycolipid antigens. Here we provide the mechanism for the autoreactivity of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) on NKT cells to the mono- and tri-glycosylated ?-linked agonists ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) and isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3), respectively. In binding these disparate antigens, the NKT cell TCRs docked onto CD1d similarly, achieving this by flattening the conformation of the ?-linked ligands regardless of the size of the glycosyl head group. Unexpectedly, the antigenicity of iGb3 was attributable to its terminal sugar group making compensatory interactions with CD1d. Thus, the NKT cell TCR molds the ?-linked self ligands to resemble the conformation of foreign ?-linked ligands, which shows that induced-fit molecular mimicry can underpin the self-reactivity of NKT cell TCRs to ?-linked antigens.
The recognition of lipid antigens by T cells is a complex and fascinating phenomenon. The MHC-like molecules of the CD1 family have evolved to present a wide variety of both self and foreign lipids for recognition by T-cell receptors. While much progress has been made in our understanding of the Natural Killer T (NKT) cells that recognize lipids presented by CD1d molecules, our knowledge of the T-cell populations directed at the related group 1 CD1 molecules, i.e. CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, has lagged behind. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, a study identifies a surprisingly large portion of human peripheral blood T cells as being autoreactive to the group 1 CD1 proteins. This work and other recent developments highlight the presence of a substantial number of unconventional T cells as part of our normal T-cell repertoire. This interesting finding is discussed in details in this Commentary.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells respond to a variety of CD1d-restricted antigens (Ags), although the basis for Ag discrimination by the NKT cell receptor (TCR) is unclear. Here we have described NKT TCR fine specificity against several closely related Ags, termed altered glycolipid ligands (AGLs), which differentially stimulate NKT cells. The structures of five ternary complexes all revealed similar docking. Acyl chain modifications did not affect the interaction, but reduced NKT cell proliferation, indicating an affect on Ag processing or presentation. Conversely, truncation of the phytosphingosine chain caused an induced fit mode of TCR binding that affected TCR affinity. Modifications in the glycosyl head group had a direct impact on the TCR interaction and associated cellular response, with ligand potency reflecting the t(1/2) life of the interaction. Accordingly, we have provided a molecular basis for understanding how modifications in AGLs can result in striking alterations in the cellular response of NKT cells.
The antigen receptor for natural killer T cells (NKT TCR) binds CD1d-restricted microbial and self-lipid antigens, although the molecular basis of self-CD1d recognition is unclear. Here, we have characterized NKT TCR recognition of CD1d molecules loaded with natural self-antigens (Ags) and report the 2.3 Å resolution structure of an autoreactive NKT TCR-phosphatidylinositol-CD1d complex. NKT TCR recognition of self- and foreign antigens was underpinned by a similar mode of germline-encoded recognition of CD1d. However, NKT TCR autoreactivity is mediated by unique sequences within the non-germline-encoded CDR3? loop encoding for a hydrophobic motif that promotes self-association with CD1d. Accordingly, NKT cell autoreactivity may arise from the inherent affinity of the interaction between CD1d and the NKT TCR, resulting in the recognition of a broad range of CD1d-restricted self-antigens. This demonstrates that multiple self-antigens can be recognized in a similar manner by autoreactive NKT TCRs.
The recognition of lipid antigens by T cells is a complex and fascinating phenomenon. The MHC-like molecules of the CD1 family have evolved to present a wide variety of both self and foreign lipids for recognition by T-cell receptors. While much progress has been made in our understanding of the NKT cells that recognize lipids presented by CD1d molecules, our knowledge of the T-cell populations directed at the related group 1 CD1 molecules, i.e. CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, has lagged behind. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, a study identifies a surprisingly large portion of human peripheral blood T cells as being autoreactive to the group 1 CD1 proteins. This work and other recent developments highlight the presence of a substantial number of unconventional T cells as part of our normal T-cell repertoire. This interesting finding is discussed in details in this commentary.
Invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) play a pivotal role in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. However, it is unclear what role they play in the initiation (sensitization) phase as opposed to the effector (challenge) phase. The role of iNKT cells during sensitization was examined by determining the response of mice to intratracheal transfer of OVA-pulsed or OVA-alpha-galactosylceramide (OVA/alphaGalCer)-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) prior to allergen challenge. Wild-type (WT) recipients of OVA-BMDCs developed AHR, increased airway eosinophilia, and increased levels of Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas recipients of OVA/alphaGalCer BMDCs failed to do so. In contrast, transfer of these same OVA/alphaGalCer BMDCs into IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma(-/-)) mice enhanced the development of these lung allergic responses, which was reversed by exogenous IFN-gamma treatment following OVA-BMDC transfer. Further, Jalpha18-deficient recipients, which lack iNKT cells, developed the full spectrum of lung allergic responses following reconstitution with highly purified WT liver or spleen iNKT cells and transfer of OVA-BMDCs, whereas reconstituted recipients of OVA/alphaGalCer BMDCs failed to do so. Transfer of iNKT cells from IFN-gamma(-/-) mice restored the development of these responses in Jalpha18-deficient recipients following OVA-BMDC transfer; the responses were enhanced following OVA/alphaGalCer BMDC transfer. iNKT cells from these IFN-gamma(-/-) mice produced higher levels of IL-13 in vitro compared with WT iNKT cells. These data identify IFN-gamma as playing a critical role in dictating the consequences of iNKT cell activation in the initiation phase of the development of AHR and airway inflammation.
Following stimulation through their T cell receptor, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells function as innate effector cells by rapidly releasing large amounts of effector cytokines and chemokines and therefore have an important role in modulating the ensuing immune response. iNKT cells recognize, and are activated by, diverse glycolipid antigens, many of which are found in microorganisms. However, iNKT cells also show some reactivity to self. Here, I outline our current understanding of iNKT cell autoreactivity and propose that several self lipids are probably involved in the positive selection and autoreactivity of iNKT cells.
We have previously shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists cooperate with CD40 to generate CD8 T cell responses exponentially larger than the responses generated with traditional vaccine formulations. We have also shown that combined TLR agonist/anti-CD40 immunization uniquely induces the upregulation of CD70 on antigen bearing dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, immunization with either a TLR agonist or a CD40 stimulus alone does not significantly increase CD70 expression on DCs. Furthermore, the CD8(+) T cell response generated by combined TLR agonist/anti-CD40 immunization is dependent on the expression of CD70 by DCs, as CD70 blockade following immunization dramatically decreases the CD8 T cell response. Here we show that other innate pathways, independent of the TLRs, can also cooperate with CD40 to induce potent, CD70 dependent, CD8 T cell responses. These innate stimuli include Type I IFN (IFN) and alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) or aC-GalCer, glycolipids that are presented by a nonclassical class I MHC molecule, CD1d, and are able to activate NKT cells. Furthermore, this combined IFN/anti-CD40 immunization generates protective memory against bacterial challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Together these data indicate the importance of assessing CD70 expression on DCs as a marker for the capacity of a given vaccine formulation to potently activate cellular immunity. Our data indicate that optimal induction of CD70 expression requires a coordinated stimulation of both innate (TLR, IFN, alphaGalCer) and adaptive (CD40) signaling pathways.
The semi-invariant natural killer (NK) T-cell receptor (NKTcr) recognises structurally diverse glycolipid antigens presented by the monomorphic CD1d molecule. While the alpha-chain of the NKTcr is invariant, the beta-chain is more diverse, but how this diversity enables the NKTcr to recognise diverse antigens, such as an alpha-linked monosaccharide (alpha-galactosylceramide and alpha-galactosyldiacylglycerol) and the beta-linked trisaccharide (isoglobotriaosylceramide), is unclear. We demonstrate here that NKTcrs, which varied in their beta-chain usage, recognised diverse glycolipid antigens with a similar binding mode on CD1d. Nevertheless, the NKTcrs recognised distinct epitopic sites within these antigens, including alpha-galactosylceramide, the structurally similar alpha-galactosyldiacylglycerol and the very distinct isoglobotriaosylceramide. We also show that the relative roles of the CDR loops within the NKTcr beta-chain varied as a function of the antigen. Thus, while NKTcrs characteristically use a conserved docking mode, the NKTcr beta-chain allows these cells to recognise unique aspects of structurally diverse CD1d-restricted ligands.
Mouse type I natural killer T cell receptors (iNKT TCRs) use a single V alpha 14-J alpha 18 sequence and V beta s that are almost always V beta 8.2, V beta 7, or V beta 2, although the basis of this differential usage is unclear. We showed that the V beta bias occurred as a consequence of the CDR2 beta loops determining the affinity of the iNKT TCR for CD1d-glycolipids, thus controlling positive selection. Within a conserved iNKT-TCR-CD1d docking framework, these inherent V beta-CD1d affinities are further modulated by the hypervariable CDR3 beta loop, thereby defining a functional interplay between the two iNKT TCR CDR beta loops. These V beta biases revealed a broadly hierarchical response in which V beta 8.2 > V beta 7 > V beta 2 in the recognition of diverse CD1d ligands. This restriction of the iNKT TCR repertoire during thymic selection paradoxically ensures that each peripheral iNKT cell recognizes a similar spectrum of antigens.
The semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor (NKT TCR) recognizes CD1d-lipid antigens. Although the TCR alpha chain is typically invariant, the beta chain expression is more diverse, where three V beta chains are commonly expressed in mice. We report the structures of V alpha 14-V beta 8.2 and V alpha 14-V beta 7 NKT TCRs in complex with CD1d-alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and the 2.5 A structure of the human NKT TCR-CD1d-alpha-GalCer complex. Both V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 NKT TCRs and the human NKT TCR ligated CD1d-alpha-GalCer in a similar manner, highlighting the evolutionarily conserved interaction. However, differences within the V beta domains of the V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 NKT TCR-CD1d complexes resulted in altered TCR beta-CD1d-mediated contacts and modulated recognition mediated by the invariant alpha chain. Mutagenesis studies revealed the differing contributions of V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 residues within the CDR2 beta loop in mediating contacts with CD1d. Collectively we provide a structural basis for the differential NKT TCR V beta usage in NKT cells.
An alphabeta T-cell response depends on the recognition of antigen plus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins by its antigen receptor (TCR). The ability of peripheral alphabeta T cells to recognize MHC is at least partly determined by MHC-dependent thymic selection, by which an immature T cell survives only if its TCR can recognize self MHC. This process may allow MHC-reactive TCRs to be selected from a repertoire with completely random and unbiased specificities. However, analysis of thymocytes before positive selection indicated that TCR proteins might have a predetermined ability to bind MHC. Here we show that specific germline-encoded amino acids in the TCR promote generic MHC recognition and control thymic selection. In mice expressing single, rearranged TCR beta-chains, individual mutation of amino acids in the complementarity-determining region (CDR) 2beta to Ala reduced development of the entire TCR repertoire. Altogether, these results show that thymic selection is controlled by germline-encoded MHC contact points in the alphabeta TCR and indicate that the diversity of the peripheral T-cell repertoire is enhanced by this built-in specificity.
T lymphocytes express clonal receptors, called T cell receptors (TCRs), which specifically recognize antigens presented in combination with major histocompatibility molecules (MHC). To date, T cell antigens can be broadly categorized into two classes: peptides and lipids. A recent paper published in Nature by Kjer-Nielsen and colleagues reveals that a unique population of T lymphocytes expresses TCRs that recognize a completely new and unexpected class of antigens, vitamin metabolites.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly produce a variety of cytokines following T cell receptor (TCR) activation and can shape the immune response in many different settings. There are two main NKT cell subsets: type I NKT cells are typically characterized by the expression of a semi-invariant TCR, whereas the TCRs expressed by type II NKT cells are more diverse. This Review focuses on the defining features and emerging generalities regarding how NKT cells specifically recognize self, microbial and synthetic lipid-based antigens that are presented by CD1d. Such information is vitally important to better understand, and fully harness, the therapeutic potential of NKT cells.
T cells bearing receptors made up of ? and ? chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low but appreciable affinity with MHC + peptide combinations in the thymus cortex. However, it is also possible that the polypeptides of TCRs themselves do not have random specificities but rather are biased toward reaction with MHC. Evolution would therefore have selected for a collection of TCR variable elements that are prone to react with MHC. If this were to be so, positive selection would act on thymocytes bearing a pre biased collection of TCRs to pick out those that react to some extent, but not too well, with self MHC + self-peptides. A problem with studies of this evolutionary idea is the fact that there are many TCR variable elements and that these differ considerably in the amino acids with which they contact MHC. However, recent experiments by our group and others suggest that one group of TCR variable elements, those related to the mouse V?8 family, has amino acids in their CDR2 regions that consistently bind a particular site on an MHC ?-helix. Other groups of variable elements may use different patterns of amino acids to achieve the same goal. Mutation of these amino acids reduces the ability of T cells and thymocytes to react with MHC. These amino acids are present in the variable regions of distantly related species such as sharks and human. Overall the data indicate that TCR elements have indeed been selected by evolution to react with MHC proteins. Many mysteries about TCRs remain to be solved, including the nature of auto-recognition, the basis of MHC allele specificity, and the very nature and complexity of TCRs on mature T cells.
The T cell response to B cell lymphomas differs from the majority of solid tumors in that the malignant cells themselves are derived from B lymphocytes, key players in immune response. B cell lymphomas are therefore well situated to manipulate their surrounding microenvironment to enhance tumor growth and minimize anti-tumor T cell responses. We analyzed the effect of T cells on the growth of a transplantable B cell lymphoma and found that iNKT cells suppressed the anti-tumor CD8(+) T cell response. Lymphoma cells transplanted into syngeneic wild type (WT) mice or Jalpha18(-/-) mice that specifically lack iNKT cells grew initially at the same rate, but only the mice lacking iNKT cells were able to reject the lymphoma. This effect was due to the enhanced activity of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in the absence of iNKT cells, and could be partially reversed by reconstitution of iNKT cells in Jalpha 18(-/-) mice. Treatment of tumor-bearing WT mice with alpha -galactosyl ceramide, an activating ligand for iNKT cells, reduced the number of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, lymphoma growth in CD1d1(-/-) mice that lack both iNKT and type II NKT cells was similar to that in WT mice, suggesting that type II NKT cells are required for full activation of the anti-tumor immune response. This study reveals a tumor-promoting role for iNKT cells and suggests their capacity to inhibit the CD8(+) T cell response to B cell lymphoma by opposing the effects of type II NKT cells.
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are divided into type I and type II subsets on the basis of differences in their T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire and CD1d-antigen specificity. Although the mode by which type I NKT cell TCRs recognize CD1d-antigen has been established, how type II NKT cell TCRs engage CD1d-antigen is unknown. Here we provide a basis for how a type II NKT cell TCR, XV19, recognized CD1d-sulfatide. The XV19 TCR bound orthogonally above the A pocket of CD1d, in contrast to the parallel docking of type I NKT cell TCRs over the F pocket of CD1d. At the XV19 TCR-CD1d-sulfatide interface, the TCR? and TCR? chains sat centrally on CD1d, where the malleable CDR3 loops dominated interactions with CD1d-sulfatide. Accordingly, we highlight the diverse mechanisms by which NKT cell TCRs can bind CD1d and account for the distinct antigen specificity of type II NKT cells.
We have investigated the role of CD40 signaling in islet-reactive, diabetogenic CD4(+) Th1 T-cell clones. Using multispectral flow cytometry, we showed that CD40 and CD154 are co-expressed and form complexes on the surface of activated T cells. We also demonstrate that activated Tcells can transactivate CD4(+) CD40(+) T cells through the CD40-CD154 pathway. To investigate the role of CD40 signaling on Th1 cells, we used the diabetogenic clone BDC-5.2.9 retrovirally transduced with a truncated form of the CD40 molecule to produce a CD40 dominant-negative T-cell clone. Upon challenge with antigen in vitro, the production of IFN-#x003B3; by BDC-5.2.9 CD40DN was greatly reduced and, in vivo, the dominant-negative variant was unable to induce diabetes. Transduction with the CD40DN vector was also effective in preventing transfer of disease by primary NOD CD4(+) T cells. Ex vivo analysis of pancreatic infiltrates after transfer of BDC-5.2.9 CD40DN cells revealed an overall reduction of cell numbers and cytokine production by both T cells and macrophages. These data indicate that CD40 is an important signaling molecule on autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and contributes to their pathogenic effector function.
There is accumulating evidence that autoimmunity to insulin B chain peptide, amino acids 9-23 (insulin B:9-23), is central to development of autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse model. We hypothesized that enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes is the result of targeting of insulin by a T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence commonly encoded in the germline. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that a particular V? gene TRAV5D-4 with multiple junction sequences is sufficient to induce anti-islet autoimmunity by studying retrogenic mouse lines expressing ?-chains with different V? TRAV genes. Retrogenic NOD strains expressing V? TRAV5D-4 ?-chains with many different complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 sequences, even those derived from TCRs recognizing islet-irrelevant molecules, developed anti-insulin autoimmunity. Induction of insulin autoantibodies by TRAV5D-4 ?-chains was abrogated by the mutation of insulin peptide B:9-23 or that of two amino acid residues in CDR1 and 2 of the TRAV5D-4. TRAV13-1, the human ortholog of murine TRAV5D-4, was also capable of inducing in vivo anti-insulin autoimmunity when combined with different murine CDR3 sequences. Targeting primary autoantigenic peptides by simple germline-encoded TCR motifs may underlie enhanced susceptibility to the development of autoimmune diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.