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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The estimated lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus in the United States.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Estimates of the lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) can help to quantify HPV incidence, illustrate how common HPV infection is, and highlight the importance of HPV vaccination.
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The estimated impact of human papillomavirus vaccine coverage on the lifetime cervical cancer burden among girls currently aged 12 years and younger in the United States.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Using a previously published dynamic model, we illustrate the potential benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination among girls currently 12 years or younger in the United States. Increasing vaccine coverage of young girls to 80% would avert 53,300 lifetime cervical cancer cases versus 30% coverage and 28,800 cases versus 50% coverage.
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Human papillomavirus vaccination: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
MMWR Recomm Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This report summarizes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccines, provides updated data from clinical trials and postlicensure safety studies, and compiles recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of HPV vaccines. Persistent infection with oncogenic HPV types can cause cervical cancer in women as well as other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers in women and men. HPV also causes genital warts. Two HPV vaccines are licensed in the United States. Both are composed of type-specific HPV L1 protein, the major capsid protein of HPV. Expression of the L1 protein using recombinant DNA technology produces noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs). Quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) contains four HPV type-specific VLPs prepared from the L1 proteins of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. Bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV2) contains two HPV type-specific VLPs prepared from the L1 proteins of HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines are administered in a 3-dose series. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with HPV4 or HPV2 for females aged 11 or 12 years and with HPV4 for males aged 11 or 12 years. Vaccination also is recommended for females aged 13 through 26 years and for males aged 13 through 21 years who were not vaccinated previously. Males aged 22 through 26 years may be vaccinated. ACIP recommends vaccination of men who have sex with men and immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) through age 26 years if not previously vaccinated. As a compendium of all current recommendations for use of HPV vaccines, information in this report is intended for use by clinicians, vaccination providers, public health officials, and immunization program personnel as a resource. ACIP recommendations are reviewed periodically and are revised as indicated when new information and data become available.
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Would young women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics benefit from human papillomavirus vaccination? An assessment of human papillomavirus DNA and seropositivity from human papillomavirus sentinel surveillance, 2003-2005.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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There are limited data on the proportion who have been exposed to vaccine-type human papillomavirus (HPV) among women attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics; this information could inform the potential benefits of HPV vaccination for women attending this venue.
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HPV vaccine coverage among men who have sex with men - National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2011.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for disease associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). In late 2011, HPV vaccine was recommended for males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, we assessed self-reported HPV vaccine uptake among MSM, using multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 3221 MSM aged 18-26, 157 (4.9%) reported ?1 vaccine dose. Uptake was higher among men who visited a healthcare provider (aPR 2.3, CI: 1.2-4.2), disclosed same-sex sexual attraction/behavior to a provider (aPR 2.1, CI: 1.3-3.3), reported a positive HIV test (aPR 2.2, CI: 1.5-3.2), or received hepatitis vaccine (aPR 3.9, CI: 2.4-6.4). Of 3064 unvaccinated MSM, 2326 (75.9%) had visited a healthcare provider within 1 year. These national data on HPV vaccine uptake among MSM provide a baseline as vaccination recommendations are implemented.
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Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among adolescents, 2007-2013, and postlicensure vaccine safety monitoring, 2006-2014--United States.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Since mid-2006, a licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for routine vaccination of adolescent girls at ages 11 or 12 years. Two vaccines that protect against HPV infection are currently available in the United States. Both the quadrivalent (HPV4) and bivalent (HPV2) vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18, which cause 70% of cervical cancers; HPV4 also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts. In 2011, the ACIP also recommended HPV4 for the routine vaccination of adolescent boys at ages 11 or 12 years. HPV vaccines can be safely co-administered with other routinely recommended vaccines, and ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess progress with HPV vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, characterize adherence with recommendations for HPV vaccination by the 13th birthday, and describe HPV vaccine adverse reports received postlicensure, CDC analyzed data from the 2007-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) and national postlicensure vaccine safety data among females and males. Vaccination coverage with ?1 dose of any HPV vaccine increased significantly from 53.8% (2012) to 57.3% (2013) among adolescent girls and from 20.8% (2012) to 34.6% (2013) among adolescent boys. Receipt of ?1 dose of HPV among girls by age 13 years increased with each birth cohort; however, missed vaccination opportunities were common. Had HPV vaccine been administered to adolescent girls born in 2000 during health care visits when they received another vaccine, vaccination coverage for ?1 dose by age 13 years for this cohort could have reached 91.3%. Postlicensure monitoring data continue to indicate that HPV4 is safe. Improving practice patterns so that clinicians use every opportunity to recommend HPV vaccines and address questions from parents can help realize reductions in vaccine-preventable infections and cancers caused by HPV.
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Evaluation of a surveillance case definition for anogenital warts, Kaiser Permanente northwest.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Most studies of anogenital wart (AGW) epidemiology have used large clinical or administrative databases and unconfirmed case definitions based on combinations of diagnosis and procedure codes.
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Prevaccine era human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 seropositivity in the U.S.A., National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2003-2006.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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A vaccine is available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16 and 18; in the prevaccine era, seropositivity to vaccine types is a measure of natural exposure.
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Uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine among adolescent males and females: Immunization Information System sentinel sites, 2009-2012.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination at age 11 or 12 years for girls since 2006 and for boys since 2011. We sought to describe adolescent HPV vaccination coverage, doses administered from 2009 to 2012, and age at first vaccination by sex.
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Noninfluenza vaccination coverage among adults - United States, 2012.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and well below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2014. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, vaccinations recommended for adults target different populations based on age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ?19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, and vaccination target criteria). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2012-13 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2011, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged 19-64 years, herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ?60 years, and HPV vaccination among women aged 19-26 years; coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic gaps in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap, herpes zoster, and HPV vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and other authorities have recommended that health-care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of vaccination into routine clinical practice for adult patients.
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CDC grand rounds: Reducing the burden of HPV-associated cancer and disease.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men and women in the United States. Most sexually active persons will acquire HPV in their lifetime. Recent data indicate that approximately 79 million persons are currently infected with HPV, and 14 million persons are newly infected each year in the United States.
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Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.
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Human papilloma virions in the laboratory.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) can cause cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Non-carcinogenic HPVs can cause anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Currently, few research laboratories propagate, isolate or generate papilloma virions. However, there have been questions about potential exposure and risk in this setting. In this brief note, we discuss the use of wild type and laboratory-generated virions in research laboratories, potential routes of laboratory exposure, and considerations for HPV vaccination of laboratory personnel.
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Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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Cervical and Oral HPV Prevalence among Females in the United States.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, indicated human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence of 42.7% in the cervix and 3.8% in the oral cavity among adult females. Prevalence of oral HPV was 5-fold higher among women with cervical HPV than among those without (7.0% vs. 1.4%, prevalence ratio=4.9, 95% CI: 2.7-8.7. Among the 3% of women with HPV at both sites, complete type concordance was detected in 6.6% and partial agreement in 37.7%. These data suggest that HPV infections at these two sites are not independent, although type-specific concordance is low.
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Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread-optimally universal-implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
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Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2--United States, 1999-2010.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Background.?Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are common infections with serious sequelae. HSV-1 is an increasingly important cause of genital herpes in industrialized countries.Methods.?Using nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among 14- to 49-year-olds in the United States. We estimated seroprevalence in 1999-2004 and 2005-2010, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. We also reviewed HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence from 1976-1980 to 2005-2010.Results.?In 2005-2010, the seroprevalence of HSV-1 was 53.9%, and the seroprevalence of HSV-2 was 15.7%. From 1999-2004 to 2005-2010, HSV-1 seroprevalence declined by nearly 7% (P < .01), but HSV-2 seroprevalence did not change significantly. The largest decline in HSV-1 seroprevalence from 1999-2004 to 2005-2010 was observed among adolescents aged 14-19 years, among whom seroprevalence declined by nearly 23%, from 39.0% to 30.1% (P < .01). In this age group, HSV-1 seroprevalence declined >29% from 1976-1980 to 2005-2010 (P < .01).Conclusions.?An increasing number of adolescents lack HSV-1 antibodies at sexual debut. In the absence of declines in HSV-2 infections, the prevalence of genital herpes may increase.
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Expedited partner therapy in federally qualified health centers--New York City, 2012.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Management of patients sex partners is a critical element of sexually transmitted disease (STD) control. Expedited partner therapy (EPT), a practice in which patients deliver medication or a prescription directly to their partners, is one option for partner management. As of 2009, New York State law specifically allows EPT for chlamydial infection. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in New York City (NYC) care for patients at risk for STDs. We describe the policies and practices surrounding EPT and other STD management in NYC FQHCs.
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Trends in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites aged 14 to 49 years--United States, 1988 to 2010.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. We sought to assess differences in HSV-2 seroprevalence among non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites and describe trends over time from 1988 to 2010.
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Population Impact of HPV Vaccines: Summary of Early Evidence.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available in the United States and around the world to prevent HPV-associated diseases including cervical cancer and genital warts. HPV vaccination is currently recommended for adolescents: target ages for routine and catch-up vaccinations vary by country. Because the time from vaccination to cancer development can be several decades, many studies are evaluating more immediate outcomes. In the 4 years since the vaccine was introduced, reductions in HPV vaccine type prevalence and genital warts have been reported in young females in the United States and other countries. Many questions remain about the long-term impact, but the initial studies show promising results for the relatively new HPV vaccine.
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Incidence of genital warts in adolescents and young adults in an integrated health care delivery system in the United States before human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Information on genital wart incidence in adolescents and young adults before human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for understanding the impact of the vaccine on the epidemiology of this early outcome of HPV infection.
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Prevalence of circumcision among men and boys aged 14 to 59 years in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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In 2009, an estimated 3590 new heterosexually acquired HIV infections occurred in males in the United States. Three randomized controlled trials demonstrated that male circumcision decreased a mans risk for HIV acquisition through heterosexual sex. We describe circumcision prevalence in US males and determine circumcision prevalence among males potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection.
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Challenges in congenital syphilis surveillance: how are congenital syphilis investigations classified?
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Congenital syphilis is a serious, preventable, and nationally notifiable disease. Despite the existence of a surveillance case definition, congenital syphilis is sometimes classified differently using an algorithm on the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions case reporting form.
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"Testing-only" visits: an assessment of missed diagnoses in clients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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At sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, advances in testing technology coupled with increasing demands and diminishing resources have promoted the use of testing-only visits (clinic visits with testing for STDs but no full examination) to meet increasing demands for STD services.
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Reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among young women following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2003-2010.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced into the routine immunization schedule in the United States in late 2006 for females aged 11 or 12 years, with catch-up vaccination recommended for those aged 13-26 years. In 2010, 3-dose vaccine coverage was only 32% among 13-17 year-olds. Reduction in the prevalence of HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18) will be one of the first measures of vaccine impact.
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Estimates of the timing of reductions in genital warts and high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after onset of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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The objective of this study was to estimate the number of years after onset of a quadrivalent HPV vaccination program before notable reductions in genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will occur in teenagers and young adults in the United States.
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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ: comparison of ICD-9 codes and pathology results--Kaiser Permanente, United States, 2000-2005.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3+ (CIN3+) and adenocarcinoma in situ incidence will be an important measure of HPV vaccine impact. Integrated healthcare delivery systems, such as Kaiser Permanente, could be used to monitor CIN3+ trends; however, limited evaluations of data from healthcare delivery systems for CIN3+ surveillance exist.
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Minor Consent and Delivery of Adolescent Vaccines.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States.
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Evaluation of genital self-sampling methods for HPV detection in males.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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There are no population-based HPV prevalence estimates in males because optimal sampling methods are unclear.
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HPV vaccination of boys in primary care practices.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) for the routine immunization schedule for 11- to 12-year-old boys. Before October 2011, HPV4 was permissively recommended for boys. We conducted a study in 2010 to provide data that could guide efforts to implement routine HPV4 immunization in boys. Our objectives were to describe primary care physicians: 1) knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease and HPV4, 2) recommendation and administration practices regarding HPV vaccine in boys compared to girls, 3) perceived barriers to HPV4 administration in boys, and 4) personal and practice characteristics associated with recommending HPV4 to boys.
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Maternal underestimation of childs sexual experience: suggested implications for HPV vaccine uptake at recommended ages.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Despite official recommendation for routine HPV vaccination of boys and girls at age 11-12 years, parents and providers are more likely to vaccinate their children/patients at older ages. Preferences for vaccinating older adolescents may be related to beliefs about an adolescents sexual experience or perceived parental resistance to vaccinating children who are assumed to be sexually inexperienced.
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Factors associated with human papillomavirus vaccination among young adult women in the United States.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended to protect against HPV-related diseases.
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Can clinical tests help monitor human papillomavirus vaccine impact?
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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As immunization programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) are implemented more widely around the world, interest is increasing in measuring their impact. One early measurable impact of HPV vaccine is on the prevalence of specific HPV types in a population. In low-resource settings, a potentially attractive strategy would be to monitor HPV prevalence using clinical cervical cancer screening test results to triage specimens for HPV typing. We assessed this approach in a nationally representative population of U.S. females aged 14-59 years. Using self-collected cervico-vaginal swab specimens from 4,150 women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2003-2006, we evaluated type-specific HPV prevalence detected by the Roche linear array (LA) research test on all specimens, compared with type-specific HPV prevalence detected by LA conducted only on specimens positive by the digene hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) clinical test. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examined relative type-specific HPV prevalence according to the two testing approaches. The population prevalence of oncogenic HPV vaccine types 16/18 was 6.2% (CI:5.4-7.1) by LA if all specimens were tested, and 2.4% (CI:1.9-3.0) if restricted to positive HC-2. Relative prevalence of individual HPV types was similar for both approaches. Compared with typing all specimens, a triage approach would require testing fewer specimens, but a greater reduction in HPV prevalence or a larger group of specimens would be needed to detect vaccine impact. Further investigation is warranted to inform type-specific HPV monitoring approaches around the world.
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Individual and geographic disparities in human papillomavirus types 16/18 in high-grade cervical lesions: Associations with race, ethnicity, and poverty.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Current vaccines protect against 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV 16 and 18, which are associated with 70% of cervical cancers and 50% of high-grade cervical lesions. HPV type distribution was examined among women with high-grade lesions by individual and area-based measures of race, ethnicity, and poverty.
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Health care use and opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination among young men who have sex with men.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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We studied 2941 young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System data. Within the past 12 months, 88.9% used health care, suggesting many opportunities for recommended care including human papillomavirus vaccination. However, only 61.3% disclosed male-male sexual attraction/behavior to a provider, which may result in some opportunities being missed.
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Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This years report includes incidence trends for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination (recommended for adolescents aged 11-12 years).
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Prevalence of HPV types in cervical specimens from an integrated healthcare delivery system: baseline assessment to measure HPV vaccine impact.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available to prevent cervical cancer. One early measure of HPV vaccine impact would be a reduction in vaccine-related HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18, or HPV 16, 18) in cervical samples from young women. We aimed to assess feasibility of specimen collection and baseline HPV prevalence in an integrated healthcare delivery system.
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HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980-2007.
Int J Circumpolar Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women.
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Updates on human papillomavirus and genital warts and counseling messages from the 2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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In April 2009, experts on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were convened to review updates on STD prevention and treatment in preparation for the revision of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STD Treatment Guidelines. At this meeting, there was a discussion of important updates on human papillomavirus (HPV), genital warts, and cervical cancer screening.
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Acceptability of school requirements for human papillomavirus vaccine.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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We characterized parental attitudes regarding school HPV vaccination requirements for adolescent girls. Study participants were 866 parents of 10–18 y-old girls in areas of North Carolina with elevated cervical cancer incidence. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. Approximately half (47%) of parents agreed that laws requiring HPV immunization for school attendance "are a good idea" when opt-out provisions were not mentioned. Far more agreed that "these laws are okay only if parents can opt out if they want to" (84%). Predictors of supporting requirements included believing HPV vaccine is highly effective against cervical cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI:1.7–.0) or is more beneficial if provided at an earlier age (OR = 16.1, 95% CI:8.4–1.0). Parents were less likely to agree with vaccine requirements being a good idea if they expressed concerns related to HPV vaccine safety (OR = 0.3, 95% CI:0.1–.5), its recent introduction (OR = 0.3, 95% CI:0.2–.6). Parental acceptance of school requirements appears to depend on perceived HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, understanding of the optimal age for vaccine administration, and inclusion of opt-out provisions.
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Human papillomavirus vaccination series initiation and completion, 2008-2009.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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The goal was to describe factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series initiation (?1 dose) and completion (?3 doses) and parents intent to have their daughters vaccinated.
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A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result.
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Chlamydia partner services for females in California family planning clinics.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Prompt treatment of exposed partners is critical for preventing further transmission of chlamydia, reinfection, and sequelae among females. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been allowable in California since 2001; however, few data are available regarding PDPT use and treatment outcomes.
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Acceptability of Carraguard vaginal microbicide gel among HIV-infected women in Chiang Rai, Thailand.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Few studies of microbicide acceptability among HIV-infected women have been done. We assessed Carraguard® vaginal gel acceptability among participants in a randomized, controlled, crossover safety trial in HIV-infected women in Thailand.
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The connection between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the United States: implications for dentistry.
J Am Dent Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Results from studies conducted in the past several years suggest that some oropharyngeal cancers, those of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, are associated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, the authors summarize the available evidence regarding the epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, the available HPV vaccines and the implications of these for dentistry. They also examine the differences in HPV prevalence between cancers of the oral cavity and those of the oropharynx.
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Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among females in the United States, the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) include >40 sexually transmitted viruses. Most HPV infections do not progress to disease, but infection with certain types of HPV can cause cervical and other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer, and other types of HPV are associated with anogenital warts. HPV vaccines prevent infection with HPV 16 and 18, which account for 70% of cases of cervical cancer, and HPV 6 and 11, which cause 90% of the cases of anogenital warts.
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 prevalence among females in the United States--National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006: opportunity to measure HPV vaccine impact?
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA detection from females aged 14-59 years who self-collected cervicovaginal swab specimens. Prevalence was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8%-10.0%) and was highest among women aged 20-24 years (18.5%; 95% CI, 14.9%-22.8%). Age group, education, marital status, and sexual behavior were associated with detection. These data provide baseline information before HPV vaccine introduction. Early impact of vaccine in the United States may be determined by a reduction in the prevalence of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection among young women.
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Use of home-obtained vaginal swabs to facilitate rescreening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections: two randomized controlled trials.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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To determine whether the use of home-based, self-obtained vaginal swabs among women who were treated for Chlamydia infection can increase rescreening rates in comparison with clinic-based rescreening, and to identify subgroups in which rescreening could be enhanced using self-obtained vaginal swabs.
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Longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in a high-risk geographic area.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is low among adolescent girls in the United States. We sought to identify longitudinal predictors of HPV vaccine initiation in populations at elevated risk for cervical cancer.
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Parent attitudes about school requirements for human papillomavirus vaccine in high-risk communities of Los Angeles, California.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization requirements for school entry could increase HPV vaccine uptake but are controversial. This study assessed parents attitudes about HPV immunization requirements.
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Compliance with recommended dosing intervals for HPV vaccination among females, 13-17 years, National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2008-2009.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Data from the 2008 and 2009 National Immunization Survey-Teen were analyzed to determine age at initiation of the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) series among females 13-17 years (n=7594) and assess compliance with the recommended HPV dosing intervals. Among females who initiated the HPV series, 56.7% of females<13 years at the time of the HPV vaccine recommendation publication did so by age 13; while the majority of females 13-14 and 15-17 years at the time of the recommendation publication did so at ages 14 (44.4%) and 16 (46.7%), respectively. Forty-six percent of females who received three doses completed the vaccination series in a period longer than the recommended time interval. Series completion at an earlier age to ensure protection before sexual debut is optimal. Improved provider communication of the need for three doses for long-term protection and implementing clinical practice guidelines to use reminder-recall systems may increase HPV completion.
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The cost-effectiveness of male HPV vaccination in the United States.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of adding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 12-year-old males to a female-only vaccination program for ages 12-26 years in the United States.
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The HPV vaccine impact monitoring project (HPV-IMPACT): assessing early evidence of vaccination impact on HPV-associated cervical cancer precursor lesions.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The following paper describes a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and five Emerging Infections Program sites to develop a comprehensive population-based approach to monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact on cervical cancer precursors and associated HPV genotypes. The process of establishing this novel monitoring system is described, and development details such as enumeration of sources for reporting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ, approaches to case ascertainment, electronic reporting, and HPV typing are outlined. Implementation of a feasible and sustainable surveillance system for HPV-associated cervical precancers will enable evaluation of the direct impact of HPV vaccination.
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Uptake of 2009 H1N1 vaccine among adolescent females.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The public health response to the threat of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus during the 2009-2010 influenza season was extensive. To better understand the lower than expected vaccine uptake, we aimed to characterize correlates of 2009 H1N1 vaccination among adolescent females in the U.S. and examine accessibility of the vaccine to parents.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in high-risk communities.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among adolescent girls, parents intentions to vaccinate daughters, and barriers and facilitators of vaccination in a population at elevated risk for cervical cancer.
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Considerations for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of mid-adult women in the United States.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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In the United States, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for 11 or 12 year old girls, with catch-up vaccination through age 26 years. Data are available for women over the age of 26 years on immunogenicity for both quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines and on efficacy for the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. If HPV vaccines are licensed for use in women over 26 years of age (mid-adult women), recommendations for this age group will need to be considered. This review summarizes vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity data in mid-adult women, and addresses epidemiologic data related to key questions for consideration of vaccine recommendations for women over age 26 years.
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Human papillomavirus vaccination practices: a survey of US physicians 18 months after licensure.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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The objectives of this study were to assess, in a nationally representative network of pediatricians and family physicians, (1) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination practices, (2) perceived barriers to vaccination, and (3) factors associated with whether physicians strongly recommended HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old female patients.
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Approaches to monitoring biological outcomes for HPV vaccination: challenges of early adopter countries.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic outcomes is a complex and challenging task, but also plays an important role in documenting the benefit of vaccination, monitoring the progress of vaccination programs, and providing data to inform vaccination and disease prevention policies.
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Women who have sex with women in the United States: prevalence, sexual behavior and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection-results from national health and nutrition examination survey 2001-2006.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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To estimate the prevalence of same-sex sexual behavior in women in the United States; to describe demographic and behavioral characteristics and the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine coverage in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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This study aims to estimate human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage by demographic and sexual behavior characteristics 1-2 years after vaccine licensure in a nationally representative sample of females aged 9-59 years in the United States.
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Men who have sex with men in the United States: demographic and behavioral characteristics and prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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To describe demographic and behavioral characteristics and the prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections in men who had sex with men identified through a nationally representative, population-based survey.
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Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence, incidence, risk factors and antibiotic-resistance in an adolescent population.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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To determine the prevalence and incidence of trichomoniasis, risk factors for infection, and the prevalence of metronidazole and tinidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in female adolescents.
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Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infections.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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It is uncertain which methods for the diagnosis of rectal gonococcal and chlamydial infection are optimal. This study evaluated the performance of culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for rectal chlamydial and gonococcal diagnosis. From July 2003 until February 2007, 441 rectal test sets were collected from individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and three HIV clinics who gave a history of anal intercourse or were women at high risk for Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Rectal swab specimens were tested using culture and commercial NAATs employing transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), and PCR amplification. Test performance was evaluated using a rotating standard by which patients were classified as infected if either two or three comparator tests were positive. Test sensitivities for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae ranged from 66.7% to 71.9% for culture to 100% for TMA. Specificities were 99.7% to 100% for culture and greater than 95.5% for all three NAATs. Test sensitivities for C. trachomatis ranged from 36.1% to 45.7% for culture and among NAATS from 91.4% to 95.8% for PCR to 100% for TMA. Specificities of the NAATs ranged from 95.6% to 98.5% (two-of-three standard) and from 88.8% to 91.8% (three-of-three standard). Over 60% and 80% of gonococcal and chlamydial infections, respectively, among men who have sex with men and over 20% of chlamydial infections in women would have been missed if the rectal site had not been tested. Currently available NAATs are more sensitive for the detection of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at the rectal site than is culture.
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Post-licensure monitoring of HPV vaccine in the United States.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Post-licensure evaluation of vaccines plays an important role in monitoring the progress of immunization programs, demonstrating population impact of vaccines, and providing data for ongoing policy decisions. Two human papillomovirus (HPV) vaccines are licensed and recommended for use in females in the United States, a quadrivalent human HPV vaccine, licensed in 2006 and a bivalent vaccine HPV vaccine licensed in 2009. HPV vaccination is recommended for females 11 or 12 years of age with catch-up vaccination through age 26 years. Post-licensure monitoring of the HPV vaccine program has included some of the same systems established for other vaccines, such as those for vaccine safety and coverage monitoring. However, monitoring HPV vaccine impact on infection and disease outcomes has required new efforts. While there are well established cancer registries in the United States, it will take decades before the impact of vaccine on cervical cancer is observed. More proximal measures of vaccine impact include outcomes such as prevalence of HPV vaccine types, incidence of cervical precancers and genital warts. We review systems in place or being established for post-licensure monitoring of HPV vaccine in the United States.
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Acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccine for males: a review of the literature.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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The quadrivalent human papillomavirus virus vaccine was recently licensed for use in males in the United States. This study reviews available published literature on acceptability among parents, health care providers, and young males. Among 23 published articles, half were conducted in the United States. The majority (87%) used quantitative survey methodology, and 13% used more explorative qualitative techniques. Convenience samples were used in most cases (74%) and 26% relied on nationally representative samples. Acceptability of a human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccine that protects against cervical cancer and genital warts was high in studies conducted among male college students (74%-78%) but lower in a community sample of males (33%). Among mothers of sons, support of HPV vaccination varied widely from 12% to 100%, depending on the mothers ethnicity and type of vaccine, but was generally high for a vaccine that would protect against both genital warts and cervical cancer. Health providers intention to recommend HPV vaccine to male patients varied by patient age but was high (82%-92%) for older adolescent patients. A preference to vaccinate females over males was reported in a majority of studies among parents and health care providers. Messages about cervical cancer prevention for female partners did not resonate among adult males or parents. Future acceptability studies might incorporate more recent data on HPV-related disease, HPV vaccines, and cost-effectiveness data to provide more current information on vaccine acceptability.
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Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female adolescents aged 14 to 19 in the United States.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2009
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Most young women initiate sexual activity during adolescence; risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) accompanies this initiation. In this study we estimated the prevalence of the most common STIs among a representative sample of female adolescents in the United States.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.