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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Younger pubertal age is associated with allergy and other atopic conditions in girls.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune responses characteristic of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, are associated with increased childhood atopic conditions.
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Neighborhood influences on girls' obesity risk across the transition to adolescence.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls.
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Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy predicts adiposity of the offspring.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To investigate associations between maternal pregnancy hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring adiposity.
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A multilevel model of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Breast cancer has a complex etiology that includes genetic, biologic, behavioral, environmental, and social factors. Etiologic factors are frequently studied in isolation with adjustment for confounding, mediating, and moderating effects of other factors. A complex systems model approach may present a more comprehensive picture of the multifactorial etiology of breast cancer.
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Considering the value of dietary assessment data in informing nutrition-related health policy.
Adv Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Dietary assessment has long been known to be challenged by measurement error. A substantial amount of literature on methods for determining the effects of error on causal inference has accumulated over the past decades. These methods have unrealized potential for improving the validity of data collected for research studies and national nutritional surveillance, primarily through the NHANES. Recently, the validity of dietary data has been called into question. Arguments against using dietary data to assess diet-health relations or to inform the nutrition policy debate are subject to flaws that fall into 2 broad areas: 1) ignorance or misunderstanding of methodologic issues; and 2) faulty logic in drawing inferences. Nine specific issues are identified in these arguments, indicating insufficient grasp of the methods used for assessing diet and designing nutritional epidemiologic studies. These include a narrow operationalization of validity, failure to properly account for sources of error, and large, unsubstantiated jumps to policy implications. Recent attacks on the inadequacy of 24-h recall-derived data from the NHANES are uninformative regarding effects on estimating risk of health outcomes and on inferences to inform the diet-related health policy debate. Despite errors, for many purposes and in many contexts, these dietary data have proven to be useful in addressing important research and policy questions. Similarly, structured instruments, such as the food frequency questionnaire, which is the mainstay of epidemiologic literature, can provide useful data when errors are measured and considered in analyses.
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Breastfeeding Versus Formula-Feeding and Girls' Pubertal Development.
Matern Child Health J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood.
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Advanced imaging among health maintenance organization enrollees with cancer.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare expenditures for advanced imaging studies (defined as computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], positron emission tomography [PET] scans, and nuclear medicine studies [NM]) rapidly increased in the past two decades for patients with cancer. Imaging rates are unknown for patients with cancer, whether under or over age 65 years, in health maintenance organizations (HMOs), where incentives may differ.
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Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes.
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Dietary predictors of urinary environmental biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004-7.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls.
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Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described.
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Non-initiation and early discontinuation of adjuvant trastuzumab in women with localized HER2-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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One year of trastuzumab therapy is recommended for women with HER2-positive breast cancer ?1.0 cm in size to increase survival and is considered for women with tumors 0.5-0.9 cm in size. We analyzed compliance with trastuzumab among women with HER2-positive breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Of 1145 recruited patients with breast cancer, 152 were HER2-positive (13.2 %), of whom 126 had tumors ?1.0 cm; 110/126 (87.3 %) of these initiated trastuzumab. Non-receipt was associated with older age, better prognosis tumors, and with non-receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 110 who initiated treatment, 18 (15 %) did not complete treatment, 15 (83 %) of them because of cardiotoxicity. Of 20 women with tumors 0.5-0.9 cm, 5 (25 %) initiated trastuzumab. Compliance with trastuzumab was very high among those with HER2-positive breast cancer, as was the completion of the recommended therapy.
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Comparative effectiveness of adjunctive bevacizumab for advanced lung cancer: the cancer research network experience.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Bevacizumab plus carboplatin-paclitaxel (BCP) chemotherapy has Food and Drug Administration approval for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer based upon improved survival in a clinical trial. However, subgroup analyses of this and other studies have suggested variable results by age and gender.
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Race and breast cancer survival by intrinsic subtype based on PAM50 gene expression.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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To evaluate whether differences in PAM50 breast cancer (BC) intrinsic (Luminal A, Luminal B, Basal-like, and HER2-enriched) subtypes help explain the Black-White BC survival disparity. Utilizing a stratified case-cohort design, this study included 1,635 women from the Pathways and Life After Cancer Epidemiology cohorts, selecting women with tumors based upon IHC classification, recurrences, and deaths.One millimeter punches were obtained from tumor tissue, and expression of the PAM50 genes for molecular subtype was determined by RT-qPCR of extracted RNA. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between race and BC outcomes, adjusted for PAM50 BC subtype. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Black women had a higher prevalence of the Basal-like BC subtype. Adjusted for potential confounding variables and disease characteristics at diagnosis, Black women had higher risks of recurrence (HR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.06-2.57) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.02-2.86) than White women, but adjusting further for subtype did not attenuate survival disparities. By contrast, Hispanic women had a lower risk of recurrence (HR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.96) than Whites. Among those with the Basal-like subtype, Black women had a similar recurrence risk as women in other race groups but a higher recurrence risk for all other subtypes. Hispanic women had a lower recurrence risk within each subtype, though associations were not significant, given limited power. Although Black women had a higher risk of the Basal-like subtype, which has poor prognosis, this did not explain the Black-White BC survival disparity.
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Intrinsic subtypes from the PAM50 gene expression assay in a population-based breast cancer survivor cohort: prognostication of short- and long-term outcomes.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The PAM50, a gene expression assay to categorize breast tumors into intrinsic subtypes, has not been previously used to examine short- and long-term prognostication in a population-based cohort where treatment patterns and time of initial follow-up vary.
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Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.
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Does KRAS testing in metastatic colorectal cancer impact overall survival? A comparative effectiveness study in a population-based sample.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are approved for treating metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC); KRAS mutation testing is recommended prior to treatment. We conducted a non-inferiority analysis to examine whether KRAS testing has impacted survival in CRC patients.
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Asthma and physical activity in multiracial girls from three US sites.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Abstract Objective: Studies comparing physical activity levels in children with and without asthma have had mixed results. Our objective was to investigate the association between asthma diagnosis and physical activity and to examine differences in these associations by race/ethnicity, weight status and caregiver education. Methods: We investigated the association between asthma (defined as report of physician-diagnosed asthma with at least one asthma related symptom) and measures of physical and sedentary activity in a study of 6- to 8-year-old girls in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Project. We compared reported activity and pedometer measurements among girls with and without asthma, and examined modification of these associations by race/ethnicity, weight status and caregiver education. Results: Girls (n?=?1182) were included with 33.5% White, 4.8% Asian, 30.6% non Hispanic Black and 30.7% Hispanic. Asthma was present in 16.2% of girls. Overall, 38% of girls reported no participation in organized recreational activities and 58% had >2?h/day of television, video game and computer time combined. Girls with asthma whose parents were less educated reported fewer pedometer steps and less non-scheduled activity than girls without asthma with similar caregiver education level. Among girls with asthma, those on a controller medication had higher levels of sedentary activity and more structured physical activity but were less likely to report high intensity physical activity. Conclusions: Among girls whose parents are less educated, girls with asthma may have lower physical activity levels than girls without asthma. Use of a controller medication may be related to physical and sedentary activity.
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Onset of breast development in a longitudinal cohort.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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There is growing evidence of pubertal maturation occurring at earlier ages, with many studies based on cross-sectional observations. This study examined age at onset of breast development (thelarche), and the impact of BMI and race/ethnicity, in the 3 puberty study sites of the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program, a prospective cohort of >1200 girls.
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Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6-8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12-19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens.
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Patient-physician interaction and quality of life in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Few studies have explored how patient-physician interactions influence patients quality of life (QOL). In a prospective cohort study of 1,855 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program from 2006 to 2011, we examined associations between patient-physician interactions during cancer treatment and QOL, overall and by racial/ethnic group. Participants completed the interpersonal processes of care (IPC) survey at approximately 8 months post-diagnosis to assess specific domains of the patient-physician interaction during the months after cancer diagnosis. Domains included: compassion, elicited concerns, explained results, decided together, lack of clarity, discrimination due to race/ethnicity, and disrespectful office staff. The functional assessment of cancer therapy-breast cancer was completed concurrently to measure QOL. Linear regression models examined the association of IPC with QOL, first adjusting for patient covariates including age, race, clinical factors, and psychosocial measures and then for physician characteristics such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specialty. For all participants (n = 1,855), IPC scores suggesting greater lack of clarity, discrimination due to race/ethnicity, and disrespectful office staff in patient-physician interactions were associated with lower QOL (P< 0.01). IPC scores suggesting physicians demonstrating compassion, eliciting concerns, or explaining results were associated with higher QOL (P< 0.01). Among Whites (n = 1,306), only the associations with higher QOL remained. African Americans (n = 110) who reported higher scores on physician compassion and elicited concerns had higher QOL, whereas higher scores for disrespectful office staff had lower QOL. No associations were observed among Asians (n = 201) and Hispanics (n = 186). After further adjustment for physician factors, the associations among Whites remained, whereas those among African Americans disappeared. In the breast cancer treatment setting, characteristics of the patient-physician interaction as perceived by the patient are associated with QOL, yet were not specific to patient race/ethnicity.
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Social networks, social support mechanisms, and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
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Racial disparities in posttraumatic stress after diagnosis of localized breast cancer: the BQUAL study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Little is known about the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over time among women diagnosed with breast cancer. This study examines changes in PTSD symptoms in the first 6 months after diagnosis and assesses racial/ethnic differences in PTSD symptomatology over time.
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Colon cancer survival with herbal medicine and vitamins combined with standard therapy in a whole-systems approach: ten-year follow-up data analyzed with marginal structural models and propensity score methods.
Integr Cancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Although localized colon cancer is often successfully treated with surgery, advanced disease requires aggressive systemic therapy that has lower effectiveness. Approximately 30% to 75% of patients with colon cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is limited formal evidence of survival efficacy. In a consecutive case series with 10-year follow-up of all colon cancer patients (n = 193) presenting at a San Francisco Bay-Area center for Chinese medicine (Pine Street Clinic, San Anselmo, CA), the authors compared survival in patients choosing short-term treatment lasting the duration of chemotherapy/radiotherapy with those continuing long-term. To put these data into the context of treatment responses seen in conventional medical practice, they also compared survival with Pan-Asian medicine + vitamins (PAM+V) with that of concurrent external controls from Kaiser Permanente Northern California and California Cancer Registries. Kaplan-Meier, traditional Cox regression, and more modern methods were used for causal inference-namely, propensity score and marginal structural models (MSMs), which have not been used before in studies of cancer survival and Chinese herbal medicine. PAM+V combined with conventional therapy, compared with conventional therapy alone, reduced the risk of death in stage I by 95%, stage II by 64%, stage III by 29%, and stage IV by 75%. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term PAM+V. Combining PAM+V with conventional therapy improved survival, compared with conventional therapy alone, suggesting that prospective trials combining PAM+V with conventional therapy are justified.
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Racial/ethnic differences in initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy among women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Mortality after breast cancer diagnosis is known to vary by race/ethnicity even after adjustment for differences in tumor characteristics. As adjuvant hormonal therapy decreases risk of recurrence and increases overall survival among women with hormone receptor-positive tumors, treatment disparities may play a role. We explored racial/ethnic differences in initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy, defined as two or more prescriptions for tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor filled within the first year after diagnosis of hormone receptor-positive localized or regional-stage breast cancer. The sample included women diagnosed with breast cancer enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] compared initiation by race/ethnicity (Hispanic, African American, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and South Asian vs. non-Hispanic White [NHW]) using logistic regression. Covariates included age and year of diagnosis, area-level socioeconomic status, co-morbidities, tumor stage, histology, grade, breast cancer surgery, radiation and chemotherapy use. Our sample included 13,753 women aged 20-79 years, diagnosed between 1996 and 2007, and 70% initiated adjuvant hormonal therapy. In multivariable analysis, Hispanic and Chinese women were less likely than NHW women to initiate adjuvant hormonal therapy ([OR] = 0.82; [CI] 0.71-0.96 and [OR] = 0.78; [CI] 0.63-0.98, respectively). Within an equal access, insured population, lower levels of initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy were found for Hispanic and Chinese women. Findings need to be confirmed in other insured populations and the reasons for under-initiation among these groups need to be explored.
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Lung cancer survival with herbal medicine and vitamins in a whole-systems approach: ten-year follow-up data analyzed with marginal structural models and propensity score methods.
Integr Cancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Complementary and alternative medicines are used by up to 48% of lung cancer patients but have seen little formal assessment of survival efficacy. In this 10-year retrospective survival study, the authors investigated Pan-Asian medicine + vitamins (PAM+V) therapy in a consecutive case series of all non-small-cell lung cancer patients (n = 239) presenting at a San Francisco Bay Area Chinese medicine center (Pine Street Clinic). They compared short-term treatment lasting the duration of chemotherapy/radiotherapy with long-term therapy continuing beyond conventional therapy. They also compared PAM+V plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy alone, using concurrent controls from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California and California Cancer Registries. They adjusted for confounding with Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression, and newer methods - propensity score and marginal structural models (MSMs), which when analyzing data from observational studies or clinical practice records can provide results comparable with randomized trials. Long-term use of PAM+V beyond completion of chemotherapy reduced stage IIIB deaths by 83% and stage IV by 72% compared with short-term use only for the duration of chemotherapy. Long-term PAM+V combined with conventional therapy reduced stage IIIA deaths by 46%, stage IIIB by 62%, and stage IV by 69% compared with conventional therapy alone. Survival rates for stage IV patients treated with PAM+V were 82% at 1 year, 68% at 2 years, and 14% at 5 years. PAM+V combined with conventional therapy improved survival in stages IIIA, IIIB, and IV, compared with conventional therapy alone. Prospective trials using PAM+V with conventional therapy for lung cancer patients are justified.
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Change in physical activity during active treatment in a prospective study of breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Physical activity offers many benefits to breast cancer survivors, yet research on physical activity during the immediate period following a breast cancer diagnosis is limited. In a prospective cohort study of 1,696 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program from 2006-2009, we describe change in self-reported physical activity levels from around diagnosis to 6 months post-diagnosis and determine factors associated with change. Participants completed a comprehensive physical activity questionnaire at baseline (2 months post-diagnosis) and at follow-up (8 months post-diagnosis). Predictors of physical activity change were determined by multivariable linear regression. Reductions in all physical activity levels were observed (P < 0.0001); mean (SD) change (h/week) of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was -1.28 (4.48) and sedentary behavior was -0.83 (6.95). In fully-adjusted models, overweight and obesity were associated with greater declines in MVPA of -1.58 h/week (SD = 0.92) and -1.29 h/week (SD = 0.93), respectively (P = 0.0079). Receipt of chemotherapy only was also associated with a greater decrease in MVPA (-2.12 h/week; SD = 0.92; P < 0.0001), specifically for recreational activities (-1.62 h/week; SD = 0.64; P = 0.0001). These data suggest challenges in maintaining physical activity levels during active treatment among women with breast cancer. Interventions to encourage physical activity in breast cancer survivors should be pursued.
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Antioxidant supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) cohort.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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There is concern that antioxidant supplement use during chemotherapy and radiation therapy may decrease treatment effects, yet the effects of such supplements on recurrence and survival are largely unknown.
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Following cancer prevention guidelines reduces risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Few studies have evaluated the combined impact of following recommended lifestyle behaviors on cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, and most included tobacco avoidance. Because 80% of Americans are never or former smokers, it is important to consider the impact of other recommended behaviors.
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Multivitamin use and breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Little is known about the relation of multivitamin use to breast cancer outcomes. 2,236 women diagnosed from 1997 to 2000 with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I ? 1 cm, II, or IIIA) were enrolled about 2 years post-diagnosis, primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (83%). Multivitamin use pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis was assessed via mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were ascertained yearly by self-report and verified by medical record review. Delayed-entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, and lifestyle factors. Overall, 54 and 72% of the cohort reported using multivitamins pre- and post-diagnosis, respectively. A total of 380 recurrences, 212 breast cancer deaths, and 396 total deaths were confirmed. Compared to never use, multivitamin use after diagnosis was not associated with any outcome (recurrence HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.20; total mortality HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19). Compared to never use, persistent use of multivitamins from pre- to post-diagnosis was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.06) and total mortality (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.12). The protective associations were limited to women who had been treated by radiation only (P for trend = 0.048 and 0.083 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively) and both radiation and chemotherapy (P for trend = 0.015 and 0.095 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively). In stratified analyses, women who consistently used multivitamins before and after diagnosis and ate more fruits/vegetables (P for trend = 0.008) and were more physically active (P for trend = 0.034) had better overall survival. Multivitamin use along with practice of other health-promoting behaviors may be beneficial in improving breast cancer outcomes in select groups of survivors.
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Associations of physical activity with quality of life and functional ability in breast cancer patients during active adjuvant treatment: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Physical activity can improve quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors but little is known about associations of physical activity and QOL during active cancer therapy. We examine associations between activity levels and QOL in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Women with invasive, non-metastatic breast cancer (n=2,279) were enrolled between 2006 and 2009 from a managed care organization; assessment were done during active therapy. A physical activity frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the average weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours spent in moderate and vigorous activity during active treatment. QOL was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer. Linear regression models tested cross-sectional associations of QOL and functional well-being with physical activity and covariates [socio-demographics, comorbidity, body mass index (BMI), clinical variables, social support, and assessment timing]. Physical activity had a significant positive unadjusted association with all QOL sub-scales (except emotional well-being) (all P values < 0.01). Overall QOL was 4.6 points higher for women in the highest quartile of moderate and vigorous activity versus women in the lowest quartile (P<0.001). In regression models, higher activity was associated with better overall QOL and functional well-being, controlling for covariates (P<0.05). Increasing BMI was also independently but inversely associated with overall QOL (P<0.001) but did not explain the relationship of activity and QOL. White women reported the higher levels of activity than minority women and activity was associated with QOL for Whites but not for minority women. Greater physical activity is associated with small but clinically meaningful increases in QOL during active breast cancer care therapy for Whites but this effect is not seen for minority women. If confirmed in longitudinal analyses, these differences may have implications for disparities research.
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The influence of neighborhood food stores on change in young girls body mass index.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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As the prevalence of childhood obesity has risen in past decades, more attention has been given to how the neighborhood food environment affects childrens health outcomes.
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Risk factors for lymphedema in a prospective breast cancer survivorship study: the Pathways Study.
Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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To determine the incidence of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) during the early survivorship period as well as demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors associated with BCRL development.
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A practical method for collecting food record data in a prospective cohort study of breast cancer survivors.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Multiple-day diet records can be unsuitable for cohort studies because of high administrative and analytical costs. Costs could be reduced if a subsample of participants were analyzed in a nested case-control study. However, completed records are usually reviewed ("documented") with participants to correct errors and omissions before analysis. The authors evaluated the suitability of using undocumented 3-day food records in 2 samples of women in a Northern California cohort study of breast cancer survivorship (2006-2009). One group of participants (n = 130) received an introduction to the food record at enrollment, while another (n = 70) received more comprehensive instruction. Food records were mailed to participants 6 months later for follow-up and were analyzed as received and after phone documentation. Error rates for adequate completion were high in the first group but substantially lower among persons receiving instruction; prevalences of missing data on serving size and incomplete food descriptions changed from 30% to 4% and from 32% to 6%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Correlations between nutrient intakes calculated from undocumented and documented records were 0.72-0.93 in the first group and were significantly stronger (0.84-0.99) among persons receiving instruction. Documentation had little effect on intraclass correlation coefficients across days, but training increased the coefficients for many nutrients. When participants receive proper instruction, undocumented food records can be satisfactory for large epidemiologic studies.
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Alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer: the life after cancer epidemiology study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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To examine the association of alcohol consumption after breast cancer diagnosis with recurrence and mortality among early-stage breast cancer survivors.
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Early discontinuation and non-adherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy are associated with increased mortality in women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Despite the benefit of adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) on mortality among women with breast cancer (BC), many women are non-adherent with its use. We investigated the effects of early discontinuation and non-adherence to HT on mortality in women enrolled in Kaiser Permanente of Northern California (KPNC). We identified women diagnosed with hormone-sensitive stage I-III BC, 1996-2007, and used automated pharmacy records to identify prescriptions and dates of refill. We categorized patients as having discontinued HT early if 180 days elapsed from the prior prescription. For those who continued, we categorized patients as adherent if the medication possession ratio was ?80%. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between discontinuation and non-adherence with all-cause mortality. Among 8,769 women who filled at least one prescription for HT, 2,761 (31%) discontinued therapy. Of those who continued HT, 1,684 (28%) were non-adherent. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 813 women died. Estimated survival at 10 years was 80.7% for women who continued HT versus 73.6% for those who discontinued (P < 0.001). Of those who continued, survival at 10 years was 81.7 and 77.8% in women who adhered and non-adhered, respectively (P < 0.001). Adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, both early discontinuation (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.46) and non-adherence (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23-1.81), among those who continued, were independent predictors of mortality. Both early discontinuation and non-adherence to HT were common and associated with increased mortality. Interventions to improve continuation of and adherence to HT may be critical to improve BC survival.
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Pubertal assessment method and baseline characteristics in a mixed longitudinal study of girls.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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The objective of this study was to describe the assessment methods and maturation status for a multisite cohort of girls at baseline recruitment and at ages 7 and 8 years.
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Early discontinuation and nonadherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy in a cohort of 8,769 early-stage breast cancer patients.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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While studies have found that adjuvant hormonal therapy for hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC) dramatically reduces recurrence and mortality, adherence to medications is suboptimal. We investigated the rates and predictors of early discontinuation and nonadherence to hormonal therapy in patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente of Northern California health system.
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Father absence, body mass index, and pubertal timing in girls: differential effects by family income and ethnicity.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Numerous studies show associations between father absence and girls early puberty. However, most research has been retrospective, focused on menarche, and failed to consider body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and income in the analyses. This study resolves these scientific gaps.
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Investigation of relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols and pubertal stages in girls.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Hormonally active environmental agents may alter the course of pubertal development in girls, which is controlled by steroids and gonadotropins.
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Breast cancer DNA methylation profiles are associated with tumor size and alcohol and folate intake.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Although tumor size and lymph node involvement are the current cornerstones of breast cancer prognosis, they have not been extensively explored in relation to tumor methylation attributes in conjunction with other tumor and patient dietary and hormonal characteristics. Using primary breast tumors from 162 (AJCC stage I-IV) women from the Kaiser Division of Research Pathways Study and the Illumina GoldenGate methylation bead-array platform, we measured 1,413 autosomal CpG loci associated with 773 cancer-related genes and validated select CpG loci with Sequenom EpiTYPER. Tumor grade, size, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and triple negative status were significantly (Q-values <0.05) associated with altered methylation of 209, 74, 183, 69, and 130 loci, respectively. Unsupervised clustering, using a recursively partitioned mixture model (RPMM), of all autosomal CpG loci revealed eight distinct methylation classes. Methylation class membership was significantly associated with patient race (P<0.02) and tumor size (P<0.001) in univariate tests. Using multinomial logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders, patient age and tumor size, as well as known disease risk factors of alcohol intake and total dietary folate, were all significantly (P<0.0001) associated with methylation class membership. Breast cancer prognostic characteristics and risk-related exposures appear to be associated with gene-specific tumor methylation, as well as overall methylation patterns.
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Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Neighborhood environments affect childrens health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions. The authors investigated the associations of various neighborhood characteristics with young girls diet and physical activity.
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Quality of life among women recently diagnosed with invasive breast cancer: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Few studies have assessed quality of life (QOL) of women diagnosed with breast cancer within the first few weeks of their initial diagnosis. We describe QOL among 950 women recently diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Starting in January 2006, we invited women aged > or =21 years who were diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) to enroll in the Pathways Study, a prospective study of breast cancer survivorship. QOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B), along with sociodemographic and social support information. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the KPNC cancer registry and electronic medical record. We used multivariable linear regression models to identify factors associated with QOL scores calculated from the FACT-B. The mean age +/- SD of the sample was 59.6 years (+/-11.9 years), and the mean time +/-SD from diagnosis until interview was 8.0 weeks (+/-3.2 weeks). Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower scores in all QOL domains (P < 0.01), and later stage at diagnosis was associated with lower scores in all domains (P < 0.05) except for social well-being. Higher levels of social support were associated with higher QOL except for physical well-being (P < 0.05). These associations were stronger within 2 months of breast cancer diagnosis. Quality of life as influenced by a diagnosis of breast cancer is an important factor in cancer survivorship. Age, stage at diagnosis, and social support are key factors in this important variable.
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Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function.
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Nutritional factors in ovarian cancer survival.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Because symptoms tend be nonspecific, early detection is difficult, and most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor. Nonetheless, there is clinical evidence that even given the same tumor characteristics (histologic type, stage, and grade), some cases experience much better survival than others. This has led to extensive research on molecular prognostic factors to enable more efficient and targeted therapeutic regimens. However, little is known about the impact that lifestyle factors, such as diet or physical activity, may have in the prognosis of ovarian cancer, whether on disease-free survival or on the response to and complications from treatment. The role of obesity on ovarian cancer survival is unclear. Obesity may delay diagnosis, hinder optimal surgical and cytotoxic treatment, and cause postoperative complications. As overweight and obesity rates reach epidemic proportions, the impact of body mass index in the clinical management of ovarian cancer is increasingly significant, whereas current evidence of its impact is limited and inconclusive.
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Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer, we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food sources. Intake from supplements was not considered in the meta-analyses because of the few studies that reported relevant information. Based on case-control data, the random-effects summary odds ratios (OR) were, for beta-carotene: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79-0.98) per 1,000 mcg/1,000 kcal (I2: 77.7%; p < 0.01); for vitamin C: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.98) per 50 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 66.1%; p < 0.01); and, for vitamin E: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) per 5 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 0.0%; p: 0.45). In contrast, the only prospective study identified provided little indication of an association. Although the current case-control data suggest an inverse relationship of endometrial cancer risk with dietary intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food sources, additional studies are needed, particularly cohort studies, to confirm an association.
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Antioxidant supplementation and risk of incident melanomas: results of a large prospective cohort study.
Arch Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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To examine whether antioxidant supplement use is associated with melanoma risk in light of recently published data from the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SUVIMAX) study, which reported a 4-fold higher melanoma risk in women randomized to receive a supplement with nutritionally appropriate doses of antioxidants.
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Dietary patterns and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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To determine the association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and mortality of early-stage breast cancer survivors.
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A cohort study of vitamin D intake and melanoma risk.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Data suggest that vitamin D intake may have chemopreventive efficacy against melanoma, but there have been no published epidemiologic studies examining the association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in a large prospective cohort. We examined whether dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake was associated with melanoma risk among 68,611 men and women who were participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle cohort study. Participants reported dietary vitamin D intake over the past year and 10-year use of multivitamin and individual vitamin D supplements on a baseline questionnaire. After follow-up through 2006, 455 incident melanomas were identified through linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D intake after adjustment for melanoma risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, we did not detect a risk reduction of melanoma in the highest quartiles of dietary vitamin D intake (RR=1.31, CI=0.94-1.82), 10-year average supplemental vitamin D intake (RR=1.13, CI=0.89-1.43), or combined dietary and supplemental intake (1.05, CI=0.79-1.40). In this large prospective cohort, we did not find an association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk.
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Complementary and alternative therapy use before and after breast cancer diagnosis: the Pathways Study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Many women use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to maintain or improve their health. We describe CAM use among the first 1,000 participants enrolled in the Pathways Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC). Participants, identified by rapid case ascertainment in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, are women > or = 21 years diagnosed with first invasive BC. Comprehensive baseline data are collected on CAM use through in-person interviews. Study participants include 70.9% non-Hispanic whites, 10.2% Hispanics, 9.0% Asians, 6.5% African-Americans, and 3.4% others. Most women (82.2%) were diagnosed with AJCC stage I/II BC at average (+/-SD) age 59.5 (+/-12.0) years and reported prior use of at least one form of CAM (96.5% of participants). In the 5 years before diagnosis, CAM therapies used at least weekly by >20% of women included green tea, glucosamine, omega-3 fatty acids, prayer and religion. CAM use was high (86.1% of participants) in the period immediately following diagnosis; 47.5% used botanical supplements, 47.2% used other natural products, 28.8% used special diets, 64.2% used mind-body healing, and 26.5% used body/energy/other treatments. In multivariable analyses, frequent use of each CAM modality before and after diagnosis was associated with use of other CAM modalities and other health behaviors (i.e., high fruit/vegetable intake, lower BMI). CAM use before and after BC diagnosis is common in this diverse group of women. Our results emphasize the need for clinicians to discuss CAM use with all BC patients.
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Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer studies within a large health maintenance organization.
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Interpersonal influences and attitudes about adjuvant therapy treatment decisions among non-metastatic breast cancer patients: an examination of differences by age and race/ethnicity in the BQUAL study.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Patients are increasingly involved in cancer treatment decisions and yet little research has explored factors that may affect patient attitudes and beliefs about their therapeutic choices. This paper examines psychosocial factors (e.g., attitudes, social support), provider-related factors (e.g., communication, trust), and treatment considerations in a prospective study of a sample of non-metastatic breast cancer patients eligible for chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy (BQUAL cohort). The data come from a multisite cohort study of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian non-metastatic breast cancer patients recruited in New York City, Northern California, and Detroit, Michigan. Baseline surveys were conducted over the telephone between 2006 and 2010 among a total of 1,145 women. Most participants were white (69 %), had more than a high school education (76 %), and were diagnosed with stage I disease (51 %). The majority of women reported discussing chemotherapy and hormonal therapy with their doctor (90 and 83 %, respectively); these discussions primarily took place with medical oncologists. Nearly a quarter of women reported that the treatment decision was difficult, and the majority were accompanied to the doctor (76 %) and involved a friend or family member in making the decision (54 %). Positive considerations (e.g., beliefs about treatment reducing risk of recurrence) were important in making treatment decisions. Participants preferred a shared decision-making style, but results suggested that there is room for improvement in terms of actual patients involvement in making the decision and provider communication, particularly among black patients. Patients 65 years and older reported fewer provider discussions of chemotherapy, poorer patient-provider communication, higher rates of being assisted by family members in making the decision, and more negative attitudes and beliefs toward treatment.
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Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
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As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.
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KRAS testing and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor treatment for colorectal cancer in community settings.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), mutations in the KRAS gene predict poor response to EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Clinical treatment guidelines now recommend KRAS testing if EGFR inhibitors are considered. Our study investigates the clinical uptake and utilization of KRAS testing.
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Patterns and predictors of breast cancer chemotherapy use in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2004-2007.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Chemotherapy regimens for early stage breast cancer have been tested by randomized clinical trials, and specified by evidence-based practice guidelines. However, little is known about the translation of trial results and guidelines to clinical practice. We extracted individual-level data on chemotherapy administration from the electronic medical records of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), a pre-paid integrated healthcare system serving 29 % of the local population. We linked data to the California Cancer Registry, incorporating socio-demographic and tumor factors, and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses on the receipt of specific chemotherapy regimens. We identified 6,004 women diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer at KPNC during 2004-2007; 2,669 (44.5 %) received at least one chemotherapy infusion at KPNC within 12 months of diagnosis. Factors associated with receiving chemotherapy included <50 years of age [odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.81-2.86], tumor >2 cm (OR 2.14, 95 % CI 1.75-2.61), involved lymph nodes (OR 11.3, 95 % CI 9.29-13.6), hormone receptor-negative (OR 6.94, 95 % CI 4.89-9.86), Her2/neu-positive (OR 2.71, 95 % CI 2.10-3.51), or high grade (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 2.77-4.49) tumors; comorbidities associated inversely with chemotherapy use [heart disease for anthracyclines (OR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.14-0.41), neuropathy for taxanes (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.22-0.89)]. Relative to high-socioeconomic status (SES) non-Hispanic Whites, we observed less anthracycline and taxane use by SES non-Hispanic Whites (OR 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.82) and American Indians (OR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.06-0.93), and more anthracycline use by high-SES Asians/Pacific Islanders (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02-2.90). In this equal-access healthcare system, chemotherapy use followed practice guidelines, but varied by race and socio-demographic factors. These findings may inform efforts to optimize quality in breast cancer care.
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A survey of breast cancer physicians regarding patient involvement in breast cancer treatment decisions.
Breast
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Shared breast cancer treatment decision-making between patients and physicians increases patient treatment satisfaction and compliance and is influenced by physician-related factors. Attitudes and behaviors about patient involvement in breast cancer treatment decisions and treatment-related communication were assessed by specialty among breast cancer physicians of women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Quality of Care Study (BQUAL).
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Patterns and predictors of first-line chemotherapy use among adults with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the cancer research network.
Lung Cancer
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Relatively low rates of chemotherapy receipt have been observed in older patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in SEER-Medicare-based studies. However, little is known about variation in first-line NSCLC chemotherapy use in younger patients, health maintenance organization (HMO)-based settings, and for high-cost, novel agents, such as bevacizumab and erlotinib.
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Noninitiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with localized breast cancer: the breast cancer quality of care study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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For some women, adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic breast cancer decreases recurrences and increases survival; however, patient-physician decisions regarding chemotherapy receipt can be influenced by medical and nonmedical factors.
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Employment status and quality of life in recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors.
Psychooncology
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Breast cancer survivors are less likely to be employed than similar healthy women, yet effects of employment on the well being of survivors are largely unknown. In a prospective cohort study of 2013 women diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 with invasive breast cancer in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we describe associations between hours worked per week and change in employment with quality of life (QOL) from diagnosis through active treatment.
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Validation of AJCC TNM staging for breast tumors diagnosed before 2004 in cancer registries.
Cancer Causes Control
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American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor (T), Nodal (N), and Metastatic (M) staging is commonly used in clinical practice for treatment decisions, yet before 2004, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-affiliated cancer registries did not routinely include TNM staging defined by AJCC criteria, reporting instead SEER Summary Staging.
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The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions in a large, multiethnic cohort of young adults in California.
Ann Epidemiol
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To identify population groups that are most susceptible to obesity-related health conditions at young age.
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Non-initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Quality of Care Study (BQUAL).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Adjuvant hormonal therapy for non-metastatic hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer decreases risk of breast cancer recurrence and increases survival. However, some women do not initiate this life-saving treatment. We used a prospective cohort design to investigate factors related to non-initiation of hormonal therapy among women with newly diagnosed, non-metastatic HR-positive breast cancer recruited from three U.S. sites. Serial interviews were conducted at baseline and during treatment to examine sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, and treatment decision-making factors. Multivariate modeling assessed associations between variables of interest and hormonal therapy initiation. Of 1,050 breast cancer patients recruited, 725 (69%) had HR-positive breast cancer, of whom 87 (12.0%) based on self-report and 122 (16.8%) based on medical record/pharmacy fill rates did not initiate hormonal therapy. In a multivariable analysis, non-initiation of hormonal therapy, defined by medical record/pharmacy, was associated with having greater negative beliefs about efficacy of treatment (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18-1.70). Non-initiation was less likely in those who found the quality of patient/physician communication to be higher (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99), the hormonal therapy treatment decision an easy one to make (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90) or neither easy nor difficult (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.58); and had more positive beliefs about hormonal therapy efficacy (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.34-0.62). Factors influencing non-initiation of adjuvant hormonal therapy are complex and influenced by patient beliefs regarding treatment efficacy and side effects. Educational interventions to women about the benefits of hormonal therapy may decrease negative beliefs and increase hormone therapy initiation.
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The Breast Cancer Quality of Care Study (BQUAL): a multi-center study to determine causes for noncompliance with breast cancer adjuvant therapy.
Breast J
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In oncology, quality of care is a major issue for patients and providers. Significant variations in care, including nonreceipt of adjuvant systemic therapy, nonadherence to therapy, and/or early discontinuation of therapy, occur frequently and may impact survival. Reasons for these variations are not well understood, but may play a role in the prominent disparity in breast cancer survival between blacks and whites. Since May 2006, the Breast Cancer Quality of Care Study (BQUAL) has recruited 1158 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer from several centers across the country, with completed data on 1057 participants to date. Detailed information on demographic, behavioral, biomedical, and emotional factors related to chemotherapy use was collected on each participant at baseline and at two follow-up interviews during the first 6?months. In addition, for women with ER+ tumors, further questionnaires were completed every 6?months regarding hormonal therapy use. Each participant was also asked to provide a DNA sample, and to allow medical record review. We surveyed physicians providing care to the study participants regarding attitudes toward adjuvant treatment. The mean age of participants was 58?years (SD 11.6), and 15% (n?=?160) were black. The majority had an annual household income <$90,000 (n?=?683), had college education or higher (n?=?802), 55.9% were married, and 57.9% were not currently employed. Seventy-six percent had hormone-receptor-positive tumors, 49.9% initiated chemotherapy and 82.7% started hormonal therapy. Blacks were more likely to have lower annual household income (p?
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Does neighborhood environment influence girls pubertal onset? findings from a cohort study.
BMC Pediatr
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Pubertal onset occurs earlier than in the past among U.S. girls. Early onset is associated with numerous deleterious outcomes across the life course, including overweight, breast cancer and cardiovascular health. Increases in childhood overweight have been implicated as a key reason for this secular trend. Scarce research, however, has examined how neighborhood environment may influence overweight and, in turn, pubertal timing. The current study prospectively examined associations between neighborhood environment and timing of pubertal onset in a multi-ethnic cohort of girls. Body mass index (BMI) was examined as a mediator of these associations.
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Outpatient use of low molecular weight heparin monotherapy for first-line treatment of venous thromboembolism in advanced cancer.
Oncologist
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Evidence-based treatment guidelines recommend low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) monotherapy for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). This analysis assessed the first-line treatment strategies for VTE in patients with advanced solid tumors.
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American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.
CA Cancer J Clin
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The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.