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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Long-term Protection From Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in a Medium-Burden Tuberculosis Setting: The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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?The duration of protection against tuberculosis provided by isoniazid preventive therapy is not known for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals living in settings of medium tuberculosis incidence.
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Effect of buffer on the immune response to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in bangladesh: a community based randomized controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Polio eradication efforts have been hampered by low responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in some developing countries. Since stomach acidity may neutralize vaccine viruses, we assessed whether administration of a buffer solution could improve the immunogenicity of tOPV.
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Influence of community health volunteers on care seeking and treatment coverage for common childhood illnesses in the context of free health care in rural Sierra Leone.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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To examine whether community health volunteers induced significant changes in care seeking and treatment of ill children under five 2 years after their deployment in two underserved districts of Sierra Leone.
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Prevalent tuberculosis at HIV diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Cohort.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Although Brazil has model HIV care programs, many patients continue to present late to care. We studied the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed at HIV diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to quantify missed opportunities for TB prevention.
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Impact of isoniazid preventive therapy for HIV-infected adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an epidemiological model.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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The potential epidemiological impact of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), delivered at levels that could be feasibly scaled up among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in modern, moderate-burden settings, remains uncertain.
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Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2-6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions.
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Survival of HIV patients with tuberculosis started on simultaneous or deferred HAART in the THRio cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The timing of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after a tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients can affect clinical outcomes and survival. We compared survival after tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected adults who initiated HAART and tuberculosis therapy simultaneously to those who delayed the start of HAART for at least two months.
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Estimation of the herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine against radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children under 2 years old in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been associated with excessive decrease of invasive Hib diseases, i.e., pneumonia and meningitis, with increased national or regional Hib vaccine coverage. Only a few studies have examined herd protection at the individual level and even less evidence is available from Asia. We examined Hib vaccine herd protection against radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children less than 2 years old.
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Point-of-care lateral flow assays for tuberculosis and cryptococcal antigenuria predict death in HIV infected adults in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mortality in hospitalized, febrile patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is high due to HIV-infected, severely immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic co-infection, particularly disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal disease. We sought to determine if a positive lateral flow assay (LFA) result for urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and cryptococcal antigenuria was associated with mortality.
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CD4 and viral load dynamics in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults from Soweto, South Africa: a prospective cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD4 count is a proxy for the extent of immune deficiency and declines in CD4 count are a measure of disease progression. Decline in CD4 count is an important component: for estimating benefits of ARV treatment; for individual level counselling on the rapidity of untreated disease progression and prognosis; and can be used in planning demand for health services. Our objective is to report CD4 decline and changes in viral load (VL) in a group of HIV-infected adults enrolled in a randomized trial of preventive treatment for TB in South Africa where clade C infection predominates.
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Stunting is characterized by chronic inflammation in Zimbabwean infants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting.
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Effect of improved tuberculosis screening and isoniazid preventive therapy on incidence of tuberculosis and death in patients with HIV in clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a stepped wedge, cluster-randomised trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Preventive therapy for tuberculosis in patients with HIV is effective, but it has not been widely implemented in moderate or high-burden settings. We assessed the effect of widespread use of isoniazid preventive therapy on rates of tuberculosis and death in people with HIV in Brazil.
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Post-authorization safety surveillance of a liquid pentavalent vaccine in Guatemalan children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Combination vaccines have improved the efficiency of delivery of new vaccines in low and middle-income countries. Post-authorization monitoring of adverse events (AEs) after vaccination with a liquid pentavalent DTwP-HepB-Hib combination vaccine was conducted in Guatemalan infants.
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A common evaluation framework for the African Health Initiative.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The African Health Initiative includes highly diverse partnerships in five countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia), each of which is working to improve population health by strengthening health systems and to evaluate the results. One aim of the Initiative is to generate cross-site learning that can inform implementation in the five partnerships during the project period and identify lessons that may be generalizable to other countries in the region. Collaborators in the Initiative developed a common evaluation framework as a basis for this cross-site learning.
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Clustering of neonatal deaths in Bangladesh: results from the Projahnmo studies.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Neonatal mortality (NM) tends to be clustered within a small subset of mothers, households and/or geographical areas. Knowledge of the maternal and newborn factors associated with NM can help identify high-risk mothers and guide the targeting of intervention programmes.
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Lack of nonspecific protection against all-cause nonrotavirus gastroenteritis by vaccination with orally administered rotavirus vaccine.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is recognized as a global, common threat to child survival, especially in developing countries. Rotavirus, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of severe AGE; however, there are numerous other pathogens that also cause AGE. Several studies have demonstrated that oral vaccination against rotavirus has generated the unanticipated benefit of protecting against AGE caused by nonrotavirus pathogens.
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Impact of more than a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use on carriage and invasive potential in Native American communities.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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We assessed the impact of 12 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype-specific invasive disease potential among Native Americans.
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Accidental staggered paracetamol overdose: An interesting case report.
J Pharmacol Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used drugs both over the counter and on prescription. Liquid paracetamol is available over the counter all over the world. Most commonly available concentrations are 120 mg/5 ml and 250 mg/5 ml. Many parents and healthcare professionals assume that doses available in different countries are similar. However, 500 mg/5 ml bottle is available in some countries including the United Kingdom. This leaves a potential for accidental overdose with therapeutic intent. We have reviewed the experience of diagnosing and managing an interesting case of paracetamol over dosage caused by several ingestions over 24 hours period (staggered paracetamol over dosage). It highlights the importance of communication between health professionals and parents while managing common medical problems.
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Safety and efficacy of HIV hyperimmune globulin for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their infants in Kampala, Uganda (HIVIGLOB/NVP STUDY).
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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This phase III, randomized, clinical trial compared single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) plus HIV hyperimmune globulin (HIVIGLOB) with sdNVP alone for preventing maternal-to-child transmission of HIV. Primary objectives were to determine rates of HIV infection among infants and to assess the safety of HIVIGLOB in combination with sdNVP in HIV-infected Ugandan pregnant women and their infants.
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Morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed infants in Zimbabwe before availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major cause of pediatric morbidity in Africa. In addition, HIV-exposed, but uninfected (HEU) infants can comprise a substantial proportion of all infants born in high prevalence countries and may also be a vulnerable group with special health problems.
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New regimens to prevent tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Treatment of latent tuberculosis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is efficacious, but few patients around the world receive such treatment. We evaluated three new regimens for latent tuberculosis that may be more potent and durable than standard isoniazid treatment.
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Pneumococcal sequence type replacement among American Indian children: a comparison of pre- and routine-PCV7 eras.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of pneumococcal isolates collected during an efficacy trial of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children from 1998 to 2000 showed a non-differential expansion of pre-existing sequence types (STs) and only one capsule-switching event in the PCV7-randomized communities. PCV7 was introduced as a routine infant vaccine in October 2000. We assessed variability in PCV7 effectiveness and mechanisms of ST replacement after prolonged routine PCV7 use.
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In utero and intra-partum HIV-1 transmission and acute HIV-1 infection during pregnancy: using the BED capture enzyme-immunoassay as a surrogate marker for acute infection.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The BED assay was developed to estimate the proportion of recent HIV infections in a population. We used the BED assay as a proxy for acute infection to quantify the associated risk of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy and delivery. Design A total of 3773 HIV-1 sero-positive women were tested within 96 h of delivery using the BED assay, and CD4 cell count measurements were taken. Mothers were classified according to their likelihood of having recently seroconverted.
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Predictive value of weight loss on mortality of HIV-positive mothers in a prolonged breastfeeding setting.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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HIV-positive lactating women may be at high risk of weight loss due to increased caloric requirements and postpartum physiological weight loss. Ten percent weight loss is associated with a higher risk of mortality in HIV-positive patients and this alone is a criterion for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation where CD4 counts are not available. However, no study has investigated this association in lactating postpartum women. We investigated whether 10% weight loss predicts death in postpartum HIV-positive women. A total of 9207 HIV-negative and 4495 HIV-positive mothers were recruited at delivery. Women were weighed at 6 weeks, 3 months, and every 3 months thereafter for up to 24 months postpartum and data on mortality up to 2 years were collected. The median duration of breastfeeding was longer than 18 months. Among HIV-positive women, the independent predictors of ?10% weight loss were CD4 cell count, body mass index, and household income. Mortality was up to 7.12 (95% CI 3.47-14.61) times higher in HIV-positive women with ?10% weight loss than those without weight loss. Ten percent weight loss in postpartum lactating HIV-positive women was significantly predictive of death. Our findings suggest that 10% weight loss is an appropriate criterion for HAART initiation among postpartum breastfeeding women.
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Net survival of perinatally and postnatally HIV-infected children: a pooled analysis of individual data from sub-Saharan Africa.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Previously, HIV epidemic models have used a double Weibull curve to represent high initial and late mortality of HIV-infected children, without distinguishing timing of infection (peri- or post-natally). With more data on timing of infection, which may be associated with disease progression, a separate representation of children infected early and late was proposed.
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Mother to child transmission of HIV among Zimbabwean women who seroconverted postnatally: prospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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To estimate the rates and timing of mother to infant transmission of HIV associated with breast feeding in mothers who seroconvert postnatally, and their breast milk and plasma HIV loads during and following seroconversion, compared with women who tested HIV positive at delivery.
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The implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV clinics: the experience from the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study was launched in September 2005 to assess the impact of integrated tuberculosis (TB) and HIV treatment strategies in 29 HIV clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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Estimating the extent of underreporting of mortality among HIV-infected individuals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Non-HIV-related causes of death have been increasing after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Underlying and contributing causes of death were assessed in respect to the presence/absence of HIV/AIDS among HIV-infected/AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Demographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, and schooling) and CD4?cell counts closest to death were assessed through logistic regression models comparing those who did not have with those who had HIV/AIDS mentioned on the death certificate. The linkage with the two cohorts identified 1249 records, of which 370 (29.6%) did not have HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate [77 (20.8%) attributed to undefined and 72 (19.5%) to external causes]. After excluding external causes, 25.3% still did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age >40 years (OR?=?2.09; 95%CI?=?1.49-2.93; p?
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A modeling framework for the analysis of HPV incidence and persistence: a semi-parametric approach for clustered binary longitudinal data analysis.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease of growing public health importance, and over 40 genotypes have been identified in genital infections. Current HPV cohort studies often follow participants at pre-determined visits, such as every 6 months, and data generated from such epidemiology studies can be described as clustered longitudinal binary data where correlation arises in two ways: the directionless clustering due to the multiple genotypes tested within an individual, and the temporal correlation among the repeated measurements on the same genotype along time. Current analyses for identification of risk factors associated with HPV incidence and persistence often either do not fully utilize information in the data set or ignore the correlation between the multiple genotypes. Given the scientific definition of incidence and persistence, conditional probability modeling provides us a natural mathematical tool. We thus present a semi-parametric regression model for such data where full specification of the joint multivariate binary distribution is avoided by using conditioning argument to handle the temporal correlation and GEE to account for the correlation between the multiple genotypes. The model is applied to the HPV data from the Rakai male circumcision (MC) trial to evaluate the as-treated efficacy of MC and also identify modifiable risk factors for incidence and persistence of oncogenic HPV types in men. A simulation study is performed to provide empirical information on the number of individuals that is needed for satisfactory power and estimation accuracy of the association parameter estimates in future studies.
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Risk factors and case management of acute diarrhoea in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.
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Heat treatment of expressed breast milk is a feasible option for feeding HIV-exposed, uninfected children after 6 months of age in rural Zimbabwe.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers EHT experiences, childrens diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.
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Postpartum plasma CD4 change in HIV-positive women: implications for timing of HAART initiation.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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CD4 counts increase during the postpartum period and may not correctly identify HAART-eligible HIV-positive women. HAART eligibility when defined by two CD4 cutoffs (<200 and <350 cells/microl) measured at two time points (within 96 h of delivery and 6 weeks) in postpartum HIV-positive women was compared. Among HIV-positive women who had CD4 at delivery and 6 weeks (n = 423), time to Stage 3 or 4 opportunistic infection or death was compared using Cox regression between three groups of women: (1) CD4 <200 cells/microl at delivery and 6 weeks, (2) CD4 <200 cells/microl at delivery but >or=200 cells/microl at 6 weeks, and (3) CD4 >or=200 cells/microl at delivery and at 6 weeks. The analysis was repeated using the CD4 <350 cells/microl cut-off. CD4 counts increased by a median (IQR) of 70 (1-178) cells/microl between delivery and 6 weeks and decreased thereafter to approximately delivery levels at 12 months. Only 60% and 61% who had CD4 <200 cells/microl and CD4 <350 cells/microl, respectively, at delivery also had those levels at 6 weeks. Among those with CD4 <350 cells/microl at both delivery and 6 weeks, the risk of death or Stage 3 or 4 disease was 5.27 (95% CI 1.85-14.96) times higher than those with CD4 <350 at delivery but >or=350 cells/microl at 6 weeks. The use of CD4 counts immediately postpartum to define HAART eligibility may lead to substantial misclassification.
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Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in young children in Peru: community-based cross-sectional prevalence study.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Few studies have examined the influence of individual-, household-, and community-scale risk factors on carriage of resistant commensal bacteria. We determined childrens medical, agricultural, and environmental exposures by household, pharmacy, and health facility surveys and Escherichia coli cultures of children, mothers hands, household animals, and market chickens in Peru. Among 522 children with a positive stool culture, by log-binomial regression, using "any antibiotic" and 1-14 (versus 0) sulfa doses in the past 3 months increased childrens risk, respectively, for ampicillin- and sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli carriage (P = 0.01-0.02). Each household member taking "any antibiotic" increased childrens risk for sulfamethoxazole- and multidrug-resistant E. coli carriage (P < 0.0001). Residence in a zone where a larger proportion of households served home-raised chicken (as contrasted with intensively antibiotic-raised market chicken) protected against carrying E. coli resistant to all drugs (P = 0.0004-0.04). Environmental contamination with drug-resistant bacteria appeared to significantly contribute to childrens carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli.
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Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Uncircumcised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative men aged 15-49 years were randomized to immediate circumcision (intervention arm, 441 subjects) or delayed circumcision (control arm, 399 subjects). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Incident high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was estimated in men who acquired a new HR-HPV genotype. HR-HPV clearance was determined in men with prior genotype-specific HR-HPV infections. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HR-HPV acquisition were estimated by Poisson multiple regression.
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Circumcision of HIV-infected men: effects on high-risk human papillomavirus infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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In Rakai, Uganda, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men were randomized to undergo either immediate circumcision (intervention arm) or delayed circumcision (control arm). Penile swab samples were assayed for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) by Roche HPV Linear Array at enrollment and at 24 months (intervention arm, 103 subjects; control arm, 107 subjects). Rate ratios (RRs) of HR-HPV were estimated by Poisson regression. At 24 months, HR-HPV prevalence was found in 57 (55.3%) of 103 subjects in the intervention arm and in 77 (71.7%) of 107 subjects in the control arm (RR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.97). Multiple HR-HPV infections were found in 19 (22.4%) of 85 subjects in the intervention arm and in 45 (42.5%) of 106 subjects in the control arm (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83). New HR-HPV genotypes were acquired by 34 (42.0%) of 81 subjects in the intervention arm and by 53 (57.0%) 85 subjects in the control arm (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54-1.01; P = .06). Multiple new HR-HPV genotypes were acquired by 8 (9.9%) of 81 subjects in the intervention arm and by 23 (24.7%) of 93 subjects in the control arm (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.84; P = .01). Circumcision did not affect the acquisition of single HR-HPV infections (RR, 1.00; 95% CI 0.65-1.53) or clearance of HR-HPV infections (RR, 1.09; 95% CI 0.94-1.27). Circumcision of HIV-positive men reduced the prevalence and incidence of multiple HR-HPV infections.
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Invasive pneumococcal disease a decade after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in an American Indian population at high risk for disease.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Before 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates among Navajo were several-fold those of the general US population. Only 50% of IPD cases in children involved PCV7 serotypes.
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Significantly diminished long-term specificity of the BED capture enzyme immunoassay among patients with HIV-1 with very low CD4 counts and those on antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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To estimate the proportion who test as recent infections by the BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED) among patients about to commence, and those receiving, antiretroviral therapy.
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Parametric frailty models for clustered data with arbitrary censoring: application to effect of male circumcision on HPV clearance.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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In epidemiological studies, subjects are often followed for a period during which study outcomes are measured at selected time points, such as by diagnostic testing performed on biological samples collected at each visit. Although test results may indicate the presence or absence of a disease or condition, they cannot provide information on when exactly it occurred. Such study designs generate arbitrarily censored time-to-event data, which can include left, interval and right censoring. Adding to this complexity, the data may be clustered such that observations within the same cluster are not independent, such as time to recovery of an infectious disease of family or community members. This data structure is observed when evaluating circumcisions effect on clearance of penile high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections using data collected from the male circumcision(MC) trial conducted in Rakai, Uganda, where the multiple infections within individual and HPV testings performed at trial follow-up visits gave rise to the clustered data with arbitrary censoring.
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Associations between breast milk viral load, mastitis, exclusive breast-feeding, and postnatal transmission of HIV.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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. Exclusive breast-feeding is protective against postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), compared with mixed breast-feeding. Accordingly, exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months is the World Health Organizations recommendation to HIV-infected mothers for whom exclusive replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, safe, or sustainable. The mechanism of exclusive breast-feeding protection is unknown but is hypothesized to be mediated through reduced mastitis.
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Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy on childhood mortality and nutrition in a rural area in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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WHO and UNICEF launched the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the mid-1990s to reduce deaths from diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, measles, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the effect of IMCI on health and nutrition of children younger than 5 years in Bangladesh.
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Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners.
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Epidemiological studies of the non-specific effects of vaccines: I--data collection in observational studies.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Routine vaccination programmes have led to substantial declines in the incidence of most of the target diseases. In these circumstances, vaccine effects beyond those on the target diseases may become evident. Several studies have suggested that certain vaccines may influence mortality in low income settings in ways that cannot be attributed to effects on target diseases. Trials of such non-specific effects are difficult if not impossible to organise; and observational studies of them are prone to serious confounding, because those who do or do not receive vaccines are likely to differ in many ways, some of which relate to their subsequent risk of early death, independent of vaccination. They are also prone to other biases, including the selective loss of vaccination records for children who die. We review these potential sources of bias and suggest what and how data may be collected to optimise the validity of such studies.
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Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Randomized trials show that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD). We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC.
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High incidence of childhood pneumonia at high altitudes in Pakistan: a longitudinal cohort study.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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To determine the incidence of pneumonia and severe pneumonia among children living at high altitudes in Pakistan.
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Effect of early exclusive breastfeeding on morbidity among infants born to HIV-negative mothers in Zimbabwe.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Early exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended by the World Health Organization, but EBF rates remain low throughout the world. For infants born to breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers, early EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal transmission than is feeding breast milk together with other liquids or foods. No studies conducted in Africa have reported any benefits of EBF for infants born to HIV-negative women.
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Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Male circumcision significantly reduced the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men in three clinical trials. We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men.
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Efficacy of killed whole-parasite vaccines in the prevention of leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Despite decades of investigation in countries on three continents, an efficacious vaccine against Leishmania infections has not been developed. Although some indication of protection was observed in some of the controlled trials conducted with "first-generation" whole, inactivated Leishmania parasite vaccines, convincing evidence of protection was lacking. After reviewing all previously published or unpublished randomized, controlled field efficacy clinical trials of prophylactic candidate vaccines, a meta-analysis of qualified trials was conducted to evaluate whether there was some evidence of protection revealed by considering the results of all trials together. The findings indicate that the whole-parasite vaccine candidates tested do not confer significant protection against human leishmaniasis.
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Taenia solium cysticercosis hotspots surrounding tapeworm carriers: clustering on human seroprevalence but not on seizures.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%-50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru.
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Suicide in cancer patients in California, 1997-2006.
Arch Suicide Res
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The objective of this study was to measure suicide risk in cancer patients and compare it with the general population. Suicide rates were based on 1,168 suicides in 1,123,528 cancer patients in California from 1997-2006 and were studied by race/ethnicity, sex, site, stage, and marital status. Suicide in cancer patients is 2.3 times the general population with 81% in the non-Hispanic Whites, and half within the first 2 years post diagnosis. In men, it rapidly increases by age to a high plateau in the early forties. Metastatic cancers and those of the prostate, lung and bronchus, pancreas, stomach, esophagus, and oral cavity in men and breast in women were associated with significantly higher risk. Cancer patients are at higher risk of suicide and should be specifically targeted for preventive efforts post diagnosis.
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How many joints does the 5th toe have? A review of 606 patients of 655 foot radiographs.
Foot Ankle Surg
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It is a common understanding that the fifth toe has three bones with two interphalangeal joints. However, our experience shows that a significant number have only two phalanges with one interphalangeal joint.
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Parents source of vaccine information and impact on vaccine attitudes, beliefs, and nonmedical exemptions.
Adv Prev Med
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In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their childs healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18-2.35), vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32-2.53), and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49-2.90) and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61-4.76). These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.
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Impact of six-week viral load on mortality in HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Among 453 untreated HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants, 6-week viral load was the only infant factor that independently predicted mortality. Infants with viral load ? 1.59 million copies/mL (cohort median) had 3-fold increased mortality through 6 months (hazard ratio 3.07 [95% confidence interval: 2.16, 4.38]; P < 0.001) and 2-fold increased mortality through 12 months (hazard ratio 2.03 [95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.91]; P < 0.001], compared with infants with viral load below the median.
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Design and initiation of a study to assess the direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccine given to children in rural India.
Vaccine
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The burden of disease due to influenza is not well characterized for children in developing countries and the effectiveness of available influenza vaccines in lower resource settings has not been established. We initiated a prospective, longitudinal, phase IV, household-randomized, controlled, observer-blinded three year study (2009-2011) in a rural community of India to measure the total and indirect household protective effects of immunizing children ages 6 months through 10 years with seasonal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or a control vaccine (n=3697). Active weekly surveillance was conducted year round with home visits for identification of febrile acute respiratory illness (FARI) conducted for all vaccine recipients and household members (n=18,220). Nasal and throat swabs were collected from each FARI episode for influenza detection by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was reduction in laboratory confirmed influenza infections in the influenza vaccine versus control vaccine group, with secondary outcome assessing indirect effects among the entire study population. This report describes the study site, cluster study design, choice of study and control vaccines, and the initial enrollment in the study.
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Training laboratory technicians from the Ethiopian periphery in the MODS technique enables rapid and low-cost diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is frequently complicated by emergence of drug-resistant strains. Diagnosis of TB in developing countries is often based on the relatively insensitive acid-fast staining that does not enable susceptibility profiling. Microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is an inexpensive, simple method that enables rapid TB culture coupled with susceptibility testing. A 3-week MODS training of three Ethiopian laboratory technicians was conducted at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Israel. Results of the trainee readings were blindly assessed by an experienced instructor. Two hundred fifty-five (255) trainee culture readings were evaluated throughout the course. The sensitivity and specificity were 75-100% and 31.5-100%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that sensitivity and duration of incubation were positively correlated, although specificity was positively correlated with the length of training. MODS can be reliably performed by laboratory technicians inexperienced in culture techniques in developing countries, with high sensitivity and specificity reached after a brief learning period.
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Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
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Efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among American Indian children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. Navajo and White Mountain Apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general U.S. population.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.