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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Resident physicians' opinions and behaviors regarding the use of interpreters in new orleans.
South. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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In academic medical centers, resident physicians are most involved in the care of patients, yet many have little training in the proper use of interpreters in the care of patients with limited English-language proficiency. Residents have cited lack of time and lack of access to trained medical interpreters as barriers to the use of professional interpreter services. The purpose of this study was to examine the usage patterns of interpreters and perceived barriers to using interpreters in New Orleans.
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What factors are related to success on conditional release/discharge? Findings from the new orleans forensic aftercare clinic: 2002-2013.
Behav Sci Law
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The present study investigated the empirically based factors that predicted success on conditional release among a sample of individuals conditionally discharged in Louisiana. Not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees and individuals on conditional release/discharge for incompetency to stand trial were included in the study. Success on conditional release was defined as maintenance of conditional release during the study period. Recidivism (arrest on new charges) and incidents were empirically evaluated. Success on conditional release was maintained in over 70% of individuals. Recidivism was low, with only five arrests on new charges. Success on conditional release was predicted by financial resources, not having a personality disorder, and having fewer total incidents in the program. After controlling for the influence of other variables, having an incident on conditional release was predicted by a substance use diagnosis and being released from jail. Individuals conditionally released from jail showed fewer number of days to first incident (67 vs. 575?days) compared with individuals discharged from the hospital. These data provide support for the successful management of forensic patients in the community via conditional release, although they highlight specific factors that should be considered when developing community-based release programming. Conditional release programs should consider empirical factors in the development of risk assessment and risk management approaches to improve successful maintenance of community-based forensic treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Symptomatic Dengue infection during pregnancy and infant outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that is common in many tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue infections can occur at any age and time in the lifespan, including during pregnancy. Few large scale studies have been conducted to determine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) and low birthweight (LBW) for infants born to women who had symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy.
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Endobronchial Ultrasound-Transbronchial Needle Aspiration of Mediastinal and Hilar Lymphadenopathy Learning Curve.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has become a widely available tool that allows sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes with comparable accuracy as compared with the gold standard procedure, mediastinoscopy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the competence accuracy of this technique in academic medical center in patients with and without malignant disease. This was a retrospective chart review of the first 150 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our institution with an operator not previously trained or supervised while performing the procedure. All nondiagnostic results were confirmed with mediastinoscopy. The cumulative sum analysis is a method used to continuously monitor performance against an established standard to attain competence in the procedure performed. Learning curve was assessed using cumulative sum method. Procedures were divided into sextiles (1-25, 26-50, 51-75, 76-100, 101-125, and 126-150). The technique's diagnostic accuracy was calculated for each of the 6 categories and trend toward improved accuracy was assessed using Cochran-Armitage trend test. Operator competency was achieved between 55th and 60th procedures. The diagnostic accuracy increased from 72% to 88% (from the first to third sextile) but remained stable afterwards at 88% (C-A trend test P = 0.091). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 84%. Trainees' learning rate varies while acquiring adequate knowledge. We suggest that a learning curve for each operator be used to assess competence in EBUS-TBNA procedure before physicians perform it without supervision.
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Impact of infusion rates of fresh frozen plasma and platelets during the first 180 minutes of resuscitation.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Whether high-ratio resuscitation (HRR) provides patients with survival advantage remains controversial. We hypothesized a direct correlation between HRR infusion rates in the first 180 minutes of resuscitation and survival.
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Interleukin-17 promotes development of castration-resistant prostate cancer potentially through creating an immunotolerant and pro-angiogenic tumor microenvironment.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been demonstrated to promote formation and growth of hormone-naïve prostate adenocarcinoma in mice. IL-17's role in development of castration-resistant prostate cancer is unknown. In the present study, we investigated IL-17's role in castration-resistant prostate cancer in a mouse model.
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Extensive variation and rapid shift of the MG192 sequence in Mycoplasma genitalium strains from patients with chronic infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Mycoplasma genitalium causes persistent urogenital tract infection in humans. Antigenic variation of the protein encoded by the MG192 gene has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for persistence. The aims of this study were to determine MG192 sequence variation in patients with chronic M. genitalium infection and to analyze the sequence structural features of the MG192 gene and its encoded protein. Urogenital specimens were obtained from 13 patients who were followed for 10 days to 14 months. The variable region of the MG192 gene was PCR amplified, subcloned into plasmids, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 220 plasmid clones yielded 97 unique MG192 variant sequences. MG192 sequence shift was identified between sequential specimens from all but one patient. Despite great variation of the MG192 gene among and within clinical specimens from different patients, MG192 sequences were more related within M. genitalium specimens from an individual patient than between patients. The MG192 variable region consisted of 11 discrete subvariable regions with different degrees of variability. Analysis of the two most variable regions (V4 and V6) in five sequential specimens from one patient showed that sequence changes increased over time and that most sequences were present at only one time point, suggesting immune selection. Topology analysis of the deduced MG192 protein predicted a surface-exposed membrane protein. Extensive variation of the MG192 sequence may not only change the antigenicity of the protein to allow immune evasion but also alter the mobility and adhesion ability of the organism to adapt to diverse host microenvironments, thus facilitating persistent infection.
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An Elevation of Resting Metabolic Rate With Declining Health in Nonagenarians May Be Associated With Decreased Muscle Mass and Function in Women and Men, Respectively.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Previously, we showed that FI34, a frailty index based on 34 health and function ability variables, is heritable and a reliable phenotypic indicator of healthy aging. We have now examined the relationship between major components of energy expenditure and the FI34 in participants of the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Resting metabolic rate was associated with FI34, even after adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, sex, thyroid hormones, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, in multiple regression analyses. In contrast, there was no association between total daily energy expenditure and FI34. Circulating creatine phosphokinase, a clinical marker of muscle damage, was also significantly associated with FI34. However, these associations of resting metabolic rate with FI34 were restricted to the oldest old (?90 years) and absent in younger age groups. In oldest old men, the association of FI34 with creatine phosphokinase persisted, whereas in the oldest old women, only the association with resting metabolic rate pertained with the appearance of an effect of body size and composition. These results point toward an increasing metabolic burden for the maintenance of homeodynamics as health declines in nonagenarians, and this has implications for contraction of metabolic reserve that may potentially accelerate the path to disability.
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The Effect of Flow Trigger on Rapid Shallow Breathing Index Measured Through the Ventilator.
J Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has the best predictive value to assess readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. At many institutions, this index is conveniently measured without disconnecting the patient from the ventilator, but this method may be inaccurate. Because modern ventilators have a base flow in the flow trigger mode that may provide a substantial help to the patient, we hypothesized that the RSBI is significantly decreased when measured through the ventilator with flow trigger even without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and pressure support (PS).
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Insulin and IGF1 enhance IL-17-induced chemokine expression through a GSK3B-dependent mechanism: a new target for melatonins anti-inflammatory action.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Obesity is a chronic inflammation with increased serum levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and interleukin-17 (IL-17). The objective of this study was to test a hypothesis that insulin and IGF1 enhance IL-17-induced expression of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines through a glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3B)-dependent mechanism, which can be inhibited by melatonin. We found that insulin/IGF1 and lithium chloride enhanced IL-17-induced expression of C-X-C motif ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and C-C motif ligand 20 (Ccl20) in the Gsk3b(+/+) , but not in Gsk3b(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. IL-17 induced higher levels of Cxcl1 and Ccl20 in the Gsk3b(-/-) MEF cells, compared with the Gsk3b(+/+) MEF cells. Insulin and IGF1 activated Akt to phosphorylate GSK3B at serine 9, thus inhibiting GSK3B activity. Melatonin inhibited Akt activation, thus decreasing P-GSK3B at serine 9 (i.e., increasing GSK3B activity) and subsequently inhibiting expression of Cxcl1 and Ccl20 that was induced either by IL-17 alone or by a combination of insulin and IL-17. Melatonins inhibitory effects were only observed in the Gsk3b(+/+) , but in not Gsk3b(-/-) MEF cells. Melatonin also inhibited expression of Cxcl1, Ccl20, and Il-6 that was induced by a combination of insulin and IL-17 in the mouse prostatic tissues. Further, nighttime human blood, which contained high physiologic levels of melatonin, decreased expression of Cxcl1, Ccl20, and Il-6 in the PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft tumors. Our data support our hypothesis and suggest that melatonin may be used to dampen IL-17-mediated inflammation that is enhanced by the increased levels of insulin and IGF1 in obesity.
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Unique vaginal microbiota that includes an unknown Mycoplasma-like organism is associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis-uninfected women.
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Acute decrease in serum magnesium level after ischemic stroke may not predict decrease in neurologic function.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Higher serum levels of magnesium (Mg(2+)) may contribute to improved outcome following ischemic stroke, and this may be related to vessel recanalization. Patients with low or normal serum magnesium levels during the acute phase of ischemic stroke may be more susceptible to neurologic deterioration (ND) and worse outcomes.
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Effect of bacterial pneumonia on lung simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in alcohol consuming SIV-infected rhesus macaques.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have been shown to increase the rate of HIV replication. In populations where prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia is utilized, bacterial pneumonia is now the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in HIV+ patients. Our prior studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption in demarcated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques increases plasma viral load set point and accelerates progression to end-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome. While chronic alcohol abuse is well known to increase the incidence and severity of bacterial pneumonia, the impact of alcohol consumption on local and systemic SIV/HIV burden during lung infection is unknown. Therefore, we utilized the macaque SIV infection model to examine the effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding on SIV burden during the course of pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified etiology of bacterial pneumonia in HIV+ and HIV- persons in developed countries.
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Environmental distribution and seasonal prevalence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Southern Louisiana.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Mycobacterium ulcerans is an emerging environmental pathogen that causes debilitating, ulcerative disease in humans and other vertebrates. The majority of human cases occur in tropical and temperate regions of Africa and Australia, and outbreaks of piscine mycobacteriosis caused by M. ulcerans have been reported in disparate geographic locations spanning the globe. While exposure to a natural body of water is the most common risk factor for human infection, the environmental distribution of M. ulcerans in aquatic habitats has not been extensively studied. Although no human cases have been reported in the United States, a strain of M. ulcerans has been identified as the cause of a piscine mycobacteriosis in Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) within the Chesapeake Bay. Infected fish exhibit bright red ventral and lateral dermal lesions. We observed a possible outbreak causing similar lesions on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in wetlands of southern Louisiana and detected M. ulcerans-specific genetic markers in lesion samples from these fish. Based on these findings, we studied the geographic and seasonal prevalence of these markers across southern Louisiana. M. ulcerans was detected in each of the nine areas sampled across the state. M. ulcerans prevalence was significantly lower in the fall samples, and the low prevalence coincided with decreased nutrient levels and an increase in water temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first study of M. ulcerans biomarkers in the southern United States.
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Multipotent stromal cells alleviate inflammation, neuropathology, and symptoms associated with globoid cell leukodystrophy in the twitcher mouse.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), an enzyme that cleaves galactocerebroside during myelination. Bone marrow transplantation has shown promise when administered to late-onset GLD patients. However, the side effects (e.g., graft vs. host disease), harsh conditioning regimens (e.g., myelosuppression), and variable therapeutic effects make this an unsuitable option for infantile GLD patients. We previously reported modest improvements in the twitcher mouse model of GLD after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of a low-dose of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). Goals of this study were to improve bone marrow-derived MSC (BMSC) therapy for GLD by increasing the cell dosage and comparing cell type (e.g., transduced vs. native), treatment timing (e.g., single vs. weekly), and administration route (e.g., ICV vs. intraperitoneal [IP]). Neonatal twitcher mice received (a) 2 × 10(5) BMSCs by ICV injection, (b) 1 × 10(6) BMSCs by IP injection, (c) weekly IP injections of 1 × 10(6) BMSCs, or (d) 1 × 10(6) lentiviral-transduced BMSCs overexpressing GALC (GALC-BMSC) by IP injection. All treated mice lived longer than untreated mice. However, the mice receiving peripheral MSC therapy had improved motor function (e.g., hind limb strength and rearing ability), twitching symptoms, and weight compared to both the untreated and ICV-treated mice. Inflammatory cell, globoid cell, and apoptotic cell levels in the sciatic nerves were significantly decreased as a result of the GALC-BMSC or weekly IP injections. The results of this study indicate a promising future for peripheral MSC therapy as a noninvasive, adjunct therapy for patients affected with GLD.
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Telomere maintenance genes SIRT1 and XRCC6 impact age-related decline in telomere length but only SIRT1 is associated with human longevity.
Biogerontology
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Leukocyte telomere length is widely considered a biomarker of human age and in many studies indicative of health or disease. We have obtained quantitative estimates of telomere length from blood leukocytes in a population sample, confirming results of previous studies that telomere length significantly decreases with age. Telomere length was also positively associated with several measures of healthy aging, but this relationship was dependent on age. We screened two genes known to be involved in telomere maintenance for association with the age-related decline in telomere length observed in our population to identify candidate longevity-associated genes. A single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the SIRT1 gene and another in the 3 flanking region of XRCC6 had significant effects on telomere length. At each bi-allelic locus, the minor variant was associated with longer telomeres, though the mode of inheritance fitting best differed between the two genes. No statistical interaction was detected for telomere length between the SIRT1 and XRCC6 variants or between these polymorphisms and age. The SIRT1 locus was significantly associated with longevity (P < 0.003). The frequency of the minor allele was higher in long-lived cases than in young controls, which coincides with the protective role of the minor variant for telomere length. In contrast, the XRCC6 variant was not associated with longevity. Furthermore, it did not affect the association of SIRT1 with exceptional survival. The association of the same variant of SIRT1 with longevity was near significant (P < 0.07) in a second population. These results suggest a potential role of SIRT1 in linking telomere length and longevity. Given the differences between this gene and XRCC6, they point to the distinct impact that alternate pathways of telomere maintenance may have on aging and exceptional survival.
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Effect of dietary protein supplementation on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Observational studies have reported an inverse association between dietary protein intake and blood pressure (BP). We compared the effect of soy protein, milk protein, and carbohydrate supplementation on BP among healthy adults.
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Application of the diagnostic evaluation for alopecia in traditional veterinary species to laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although nonbehavioral causes of alopecia in nonhuman primates are described in the literature, few prospective hypothesis-based studies have investigated medical and behavioral etiologies concurrently. We therefore undertook such a study with the aim of designing a clinical diagnostic guide for approaching cases of nonhuman primate alopecia. Because most cases of alopecia in nonhuman primates in the literature and at our facility are not associated with a definitive diagnosis, the hypothesis we tested was that the well-established diagnostic evaluation for alopecia used for traditional veterinary species is not applicable to nonhuman primates. Discounting differences in histopathology and behavioral assessment, the current study revealed few clinically relevant significant differences between nonhuman primates with and without alopecia. As a result, our hypothesis was confirmed, and we conclude that the standard dermatologic diagnostic plan typically described for alopecia diagnosis in traditional veterinary species and used as the basis for assessment of alopecia in nonhuman primates should be reassessed.
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Comparison of 3 different methods used to measure the rapid shallow breathing index.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is conveniently measured through the ventilator. If continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used, it may change the RSBI value. We measured the RSBI with a handheld spirometer and through the ventilator, with and without CPAP, to assess differences.
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Utility of urine, vaginal, cervical, and rectal specimens for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in women.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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This study assessed the utility of urine, vaginal, cervical, and rectal specimens for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in women by using our laboratory-developed PCR assay. The relative sensitivity was 85.7% for the vaginal swab specimen, 74.3% for the endocervical swab specimen, 61.4% for the urine specimen, and 24.3% for the rectal swab specimen.
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Adolescent mothers relationships with their own mothers: impact on parenting outcomes.
J Fam Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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This study examined the relationship between mother-grandmother relationship quality and adolescent mothers parenting behaviors using longitudinal multimethod, multi-informant data. Participants were 181 urban, African American adolescent mothers. Self-report data on mother-grandmother relationship conflict and depressive symptoms were collected after delivery and at 6-, 13-, and 24-month follow-up visits. Videotaped observations were used to measure mother-grandmother relationship quality at baseline. Mother-child interactions were videotaped at 6, 13, and 24 months to operationalize parenting. Mixed-model regression methods were used to investigate the relation between mother-grandmother relationships and mother-child interactions. Mother-grandmother relationship quality predicted both negative control and nurturing parenting. Mothers whose own mothers were more direct (both demanding and clear) and who reported low relationship conflict demonstrated low negative control in their parenting. Mothers who demonstrated high levels of individuation (a balance of autonomy and mutuality) and reported low relationship conflict showed high nurturing parenting. The implications of these findings for adolescent health and emotional development are discussed.
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Higher body mass index may induce asthma among adolescents with pre-asthmatic symptoms: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Limited studies have prospectively examined the role of body mass index (BMI) as a major risk factor for asthma during adolescence. This study investigates whether BMI is associated with increased risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma during 12-month follow-up among adolescents with undiagnosed asthma-like symptoms at baseline.
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HRAS1 and LASS1 with APOE are associated with human longevity and healthy aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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The search for longevity-determining genes in human has largely neglected the operation of genetic interactions. We have identified a novel combination of common variants of three genes that has a marked association with human lifespan and healthy aging. Subjects were recruited and stratified according to their genetically inferred ethnic affiliation to account for population structure. Haplotype analysis was performed in three candidate genes, and the haplotype combinations were tested for association with exceptional longevity. An HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude. These results were replicated in a second population. A profile of healthy aging was developed using a deficit accumulation index, which showed that this combination of gene variants is associated with healthy aging. The variation in LASS1 is functional, causing enhanced expression of the gene, and it contributes to healthy aging and greater survival in the tenth decade of life. Thus, rare gene variants need not be invoked to explain complex traits such as aging; instead rare congruence of common gene variants readily fulfills this role. The interaction between the three genes described here suggests new models for cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying exceptional survival and healthy aging that involve lipotoxicity.
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Factors influencing inappropriate use of ED visits among type 2 diabetics in an evidence-based management programme.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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This study analyses inappropriate use of emergency department (ED) services among type 2 diabetics under an evidence-based management programme.
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A randomized treatment trial: single versus 7-day dose of metronidazole for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2-gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7-day 500 mg twice a day dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women.
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Co-use of alcohol and tobacco among ninth-graders in Louisiana.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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The co-use of alcohol and tobacco by adolescents is a public health problem that continues well into adulthood and results in negative behavioral, social, and health consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine the co-use of alcohol and tobacco among ninth-graders in south-central Louisiana.
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Targeting school tobacco policy: lessons from the Acadiana Coalition of Teens Against Tobacco (ACTT).
Health Promot Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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This case study examines the comparative effect of no-use school tobacco policies and restricted-use tobacco policies on teacher and student smoking behaviors and attitudes. Data from teachers (n = 1,041) and ninth-grade students (n = 4,763) at 20 schools in five districts in southern Louisiana were available. No significant difference was observed between teacher smoking (11% vs. 13%, p = .42) or student smoking (24.6% vs. 25.2%, p = .75) at no-use versus restricted-use policy schools. The proportion of teachers smoking on campus at no-use or restricted-use schools was not significantly different. Teachers at restricted-use schools were however less concerned about students seeing teachers smoke and less supportive of a no-use policy than teachers at no-use schools. Tobacco use policies are often not promoted, and enforcement of policies impacting teachers is complex. Changing social norms for smoking at high schools through policy promotion and enforcement is understudied.
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A school-based environmental intervention to reduce smoking among high school students: the Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT).
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys and girls smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs.
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Risks, advantages, and complications of intercostal vs subcostal approach for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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To establish the efficacy of nephrolithotripsy via intercostal access route vs subcostal access route with respect to attained stone-free status, operating time, and complications.
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Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Vaginal HIV-1 shedding has been associated with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and could play a role in HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine if effective TV treatment reduces the presence of vaginal HIV-1 RNA.
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Use of the emergency department for less-urgent care among type 2 diabetics under a disease management program.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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This study analyzed the likelihood of less-urgent emergency department (ED) visits among type 2 diabetic patients receiving care under a diabetes disease management (DM) program offered by the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division (LSU HCSD).
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Risks and benefits of the intercostal approach for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.
Int Braz J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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The objective of our retrospective study was to provide evidence on the efficacy of the intercostal versus subcostal access route for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.
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Usefulness of heart rate as an independent predictor for survival after heart transplantation.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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It was unclear whether increased heart rate (HR) increased long-term mortality after heart transplantation (HT). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HR predicted survival after HT. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent HT at our institution was performed. Ethnicity, gender, date of birth, age at transplantation, length of follow-up after transplantation, cardiac rhythm within 3 months after transplantation, age at death, reason for transplantation, cause of death, and baseline medications after transplantation were recorded. Continuous variables, such as HR, blood pressure, cardiac ejection fraction, presence of allograft vasculopathy, and serum creatinine, were recorded at <3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after HT, then annually to 10 years after HT. Seventy-eight patients with a mean age of 50 +/- 13 years were identified. Mean survival was 8.5 +/- 6.5 years. Of 78 patients, 32 patients had an HR 90 beats/min within 3 months after HT. There was a mean decrease in HR of 6 beats/min during 10 years (p <0.03). Multivariate survival analysis showed that HR >90 beats/min was a significant predictor of early mortality (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.1, p <0.0013). Patients with a net increase in HR during 10 years had an increased risk of death compared with patients with no change or a net decrease in HR (hazard ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 12.0, p <0.002). No significant differences in cause of death between patients with an HR 90 beats/min existed. In conclusion, HT patients with an HR >90 beats/min within the first 3 months after HT were 2.8 times more likely to die than patients with an HR
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Left atrial enlargement and reduced physical function during aging.
J Aging Phys Act
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Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62-101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (? = -0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals.
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The major CD8 T cell effector memory subset in the normal and Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human endocervix is low in perforin.
BMC Immunol.
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The local tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the induction, homing, maintenance and development of effector functions of T cells. Thus, site-specific differences in phenotypes of mucosal and systemic T cell populations have been observed. Chlamydia trachomatis most commonly infects the endocervix in women, yet little is known about Chlamydia-specific effector T cell immunity at this unique mucosal site. Our previous flow-cytometry-based study of cervical-cytobrush retrieved cells indicated that CD8 T cells are significantly increased in the C. trachomatis-infected human endocervix. The cytolytic function of CD8 T cells is important in the protective immunity against many intracellular pathogens, and requires the cytolytic granule perforin to facilitate the entry of other molecules that mediate the lysis of target cells. Determination of perforin expression of the CD8 T cell population in the endocervix would therefore provide insights on the granule-mediated cytolytic potential of these cells at this site.
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Association of healthy aging with parental longevity.
Age (Dordr)
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Various measures incorporated in geriatric assessment have found their way into frailty indices (FIs), which have been used as indicators of survival/mortality and longevity. Our goal is to understand the genetic basis of healthy aging to enhance its evidence base and utility. We constructed a FI as a quantitative measure of healthy aging and examined its characteristics and potential for genetic analyses. Two groups were selected from two separate studies. One group (OLLP for offspring of long-lived parents) consisted of unrelated participants at least one of whose parents was age 90 or older, and the other group of unrelated participants (OSLP for offspring of short-lived parents), both of whose parents died before age 76. FI34 scores were computed from 34 common health variables and compared between the two groups. The FI34 was better correlated than chronological age with mortality. The mean FI34 value of the OSLP was 31 % higher than that of the OLLP (P = 0.0034). The FI34 increased exponentially, at an instantaneous rate that accelerated 2.0 % annually in the OLLP (P = 0.024) and 2.7 % in the OSLP (P < < 0.0001) consequently yielding a 63 % larger accumulation in the latter group (P = 0.0002). The results suggest that accumulation of health deficiencies over the life course is not the same in the two groups, likely due to inheritance related to parental longevity. Consistent with this, sib pairs were significantly correlated regarding FI34 scores, and heritability of the FI34 was estimated to be 0.39. Finally, hierarchical clustering suggests that the OLLP and OSLP differ in their aging patterns. Variation in the FI34 is, in part, due to genetic variation; thus, the FI34 can be a phenotypic measure suitable for genetic analyses of healthy aging.
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High-throughput screening of stem cell therapy for globoid cell leukodystrophy using automated neurophenotyping of twitcher mice.
Behav. Brain Res.
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Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbes disease) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that results from the deficiency of galactosylceramidase, a lysosomal enzyme involved in active myelination. Due to the progressive, lethal nature of this disease and the limited treatment options available, multiple laboratories are currently exploring novel therapies using the mouse model of globoid cell leukodystrophy. In order to establish a protocol for motor function assessment of the twitcher mouse, this study tested the capability of an automated system to detect phenotypic differences across mouse genotypes and/or treatment groups. The sensitivity of this system as a screening tool for the assessment of therapeutic interventions was determined by the administration of murine bone marrow-derived stem cells into twitcher mice via intraperitoneal injection. Animal behavior was analyzed using the Noldus EthoVision XT7 software. Novel biomarkers, including abnormal locomotion (e.g., velocity, moving duration, distance traveled, turn angle) and observed behaviors (e.g., rearing activity, number of defecation boli), were established for the twitcher mouse. These parameters were monitored across all mouse groups, and the automated system detected improved locomotion in the treated twitcher mice based on the correction of angular velocity, turn angle, moving duration, and exploratory behavior, such as thigmotaxis. Further supporting these findings, the treated mice showed improved lifespan, gait, wire hang ability, twitching severity and frequency, and sciatic nerve histopathology. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of computer-based neurophenotyping for motor function assessment of twitcher mice and support its utility for detecting the efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative disorders.
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Diagnosing PTSD in early childhood: an empirical assessment of four approaches.
J Trauma Stress
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Prior studies have argued that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria were insensitive for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young children. Four diagnostic criteria sets were examined in 284 3- to 6-year-old trauma-exposed children. The DSM-IV criteria resulted in significantly fewer cases (13%) compared to an alternative algorithm for young children (PTSD-AA, 45%), the proposed DSM-5 posttraumatic stress in preschool children (44%), and the DSM-5 criteria with 2 symptoms that are under consideration by the committee (DSM-5-UC, 49%). Using DSM-IV as the standard, the misclassification rate was 32% for PTSD-AA, 32% for DSM-5, and 37% for DSM-5-UC. The proposed criteria sets showed high agreement on the presence (100%), but low agreement on the absence (58-64%) of diagnoses. The misclassified cases were highly symptomatic, M = 7 or more symptoms, and functionally impaired, median = 2 domains impaired. The additional symptoms had little impact. Evidence for convergent validation for the proposed diagnoses was shown with elevations on comorbid disorders and Child Behavior Checklist Total scores compared to a control group (n = 46). When stratified by age (3-4 years and 5-6 years), diagnoses were still significantly elevated compared to controls. These findings lend support to a developmental subtype for PTSD.
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Interleukin-17 promotes formation and growth of prostate adenocarcinoma in mouse models.
Cancer Res.
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The contributions of interleukin (IL)-17 to cancer remain unclear and somewhat controversial. We took a genetic approach to explore its role in prostate cancers by interbreeding IL-17 receptor C (IL-17RC)-deficient mice with mice that are conditionally mutant for PTEN, one established preclinical model for prostate cancer. Mice that were IL-17RC-deficient (IL-17RC(-)) displayed prostates that were smaller than mice that maintained IL-17RC expression (IL-17RC(+)). In addition, IL-17RC(-) mice developed a reduced number of invasive prostate adenocarcinomas with lower rates of cellular proliferation and higher apoptosis than IL-17RC(+) mice. Moreover, the fibromuscular stroma surrounding prostatic glands was relatively thicker in IL-17RC(-) mice and was associated with decreased matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)7 expression and increased Timp1, 2, and 4 expression, whereas administration of recombinant mouse IL-17 induced prostatic expression of Mmp7. Taken together, our results suggested that IL-17 promotes the formation and growth of prostate adenocarcinoma, and that an IL-17-MMP7 signaling axis is required for the transition of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to frank adenocarcinoma.
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The fate of small renal masses, less then 1 cm size: outcome study.
Int Braz J Urol
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We evaluated the outcome and etiologies of small renal masses (less than 1 cm in size) discovered incidentally on 2 consecutive CTs that investigated nonurologic abdominal complaints.
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A Retrospective Study to Assess the Utility of Frequent Laboratory Monitoring of Pediatric Patients With Sickle Cell Disease on Hydroxyurea.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
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Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide, HU) is currently the only FDA-approved disease-modifying agent for individuals with sickle cell disease. Despite its efficacy in multicentered, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, HU remains highly underutilized among the sickle cell population. Several barriers to the use of HU have been identified including the need for frequent laboratory monitoring and physician visits. This study aimed to better assess the stability of patients hematologic parameters when compliant with HU therapy to better determine the necessity of frequent routine laboratory monitoring. We conducted a retrospective review of 20 patients taking HU with record of good compliance. The within-subject coefficient of variation was computed as a measure of subject variability to better assess the stability of individual patients blood counts to evaluate potential hematologic toxicity in subjects taking HU. Results demonstrated that during routine laboratory appointments, individuals variability was very consistent; therefore assessment of significant change may be more accurately detected by individual symptomatology. Decreasing the stringency of the requirements for routine laboratory monitoring for patients on HU is unlikely to cause physicians to miss critical nadirs in absolute neutrophil count (or other laboratory values) and may lead to improved acceptance and use of this disease-modifying therapy in sickle cell disease.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.