There is accumulating evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have their origin as perivascular cells (PVCs) in vivo, but precisely identifying them has been a challenge, as they have no single definitive marker and are rare. We have developed a fluorescent transgenic vertebrate model in which PVC can be visualized in vivo based upon sdf1 expression in the zebrafish. Prospective isolation and culture of sdf1(DsRed) PVC demonstrated properties consistent with MSC including prototypical cell surface marker expression; mesodermal differentiation into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages; and the ability to support hematopoietic cells. Global proteomic studies performed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry revealed a high degree of similarity to human MSC (hMSC) and discovery of novel markers (CD99, CD151, and MYOF) that were previously unknown to be expressed by hMSC. Dynamic in vivo imaging during fin regeneration showed that PVC may arise from undifferentiated mesenchyme providing evidence of a PVC-MSC relationship. This is the first model, established in zebrafish, in which MSC can be visualized in vivo and will allow us to better understand their function in a native environment.
Protein kinases are potential targets for the prevention and control of UV-induced skin cancer. T-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is highly expressed in skin cancer cells, but its specific function is still unknown. We investigated the role of TOPK in UVB-induced apoptosis in RPMI7951 human melanoma cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify proteins that bind with TOPK. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and flow cytometry were used to assess the effect of UVB on TOPK, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), and apoptosis in RPMI7951 cells. TOPK binds with Prx1 and its phosphorylation of Prx1 at Ser-32 is important for regulation of H(2)O(2)-mediated signal transduction. Analysis of the CD spectra of Prx1 and mutant Prx1 (S32A) proteins showed that the secondary structure of Prx1 was significantly altered by phosphorylation of Prx1 at Ser-32. UVB irradiation induced phosphorylation of TOPK in RPMI7951 human melanoma cells and phosphorylated TOPK co-localized with Prx1 in the nucleus. UVB induced the peroxidase activity of Prx1 in vitro and ex vivo. Following treatment with UVB, H(2)O(2) levels and apoptosis were increased in RPMI7951 cells stably expressing TOPK siRNA or stably mutant Prx1 (S32A). Phosphorylation of Prx1 (Ser-32) by TOPK prevents UVB-induced apoptosis in RPMI7951 melanoma cells through regulation of Prx1 peroxidase activity and blockade of intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.