Human TPH2 (hTPH2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in CNS serotonin biosynthesis. We characterized a single-nucleotide polymorphism (C2755A) in the hTPH2 gene that substitutes tyrosine for serine at position 41 in the regulatory domain of the enzyme. This polymorphism is associated with bipolar disorder and peripartum depression in a Chinese population. Recombinant h TPH2 human proteins were expressed in bacteria and also stably expressed in PC12 cells. Following bacterial expression and purification, the tyrosine for serine substitution at position 41 (S41Y) polymorphic enzyme displayed increased Vmax with unchanged Km values. By contrast, enzyme stability was decreased in vitro from 32 min to 4 min (37 °C) for the S41Y enzyme (as compared to the wild-type enzyme). The S41Y polymorphism decreased cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation ~ 50% relative to wild-type hTPH2, suggesting that the S41Y mutation may disrupt the post-translational regulation of this enzyme. Transfected PC12 cells expressed hTPH2 mRNA, active protein, and synthesized and released serotonin. Paradoxically, while S41Y-transfected PC12 cells expressed higher levels of hTPH2 than wild type, they synthesized less serotonin. These findings suggest a modified regulation of the S41Y gene variant leading to altered regulation and reduced neurotransmitter synthesis that may contribute to association of the polymorphism with bipolar disorder and depression. We report the functional implications of a polymorphic human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene associated with depression and bipolar disorder. The polymorphic enzyme (serine-41 converted to tyrosine) has increased activity, but decreased enzyme stability and serotonin production. Moreover, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the mutant enzyme is decreased suggesting modified regulation of the S41Y variant leading to altered serotonin.
HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers.
The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA levels <48 copies per mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add maraviroc vs placebo to their regimen for 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks on ART alone. Compared with placebo-treated subjects, maraviroc-treated subjects unexpectedly experienced a greater median increase in % CD38+HLA-DR+ peripheral blood CD8+ T cells at week 24 (+2.2% vs -0.7%, P = .014), and less of a decline in activated CD4+ T cells (P < .001). The % CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased nearly twofold in rectal tissue (both P < .001), and plasma CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) ligand (macrophage-inflammatory protein 1?) levels increased 2.4-fold during maraviroc intensification (P < .001). During maraviroc intensification, plasma lipopolysaccharide declined, whereas sCD14 levels and neutrophils tended to increase in blood and rectal tissue. Although the mechanisms explaining these findings remain unclear, CCR5 ligand-mediated activation of T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils via alternative chemokine receptors should be explored. These results may have relevance for trials of maraviroc for HIV preexposure prophylaxis and graft-versus-host disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00735072.
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