There is accumulating evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have their origin as perivascular cells (PVCs) in vivo, but precisely identifying them has been a challenge, as they have no single definitive marker and are rare. We have developed a fluorescent transgenic vertebrate model in which PVC can be visualized in vivo based upon sdf1 expression in the zebrafish. Prospective isolation and culture of sdf1(DsRed) PVC demonstrated properties consistent with MSC including prototypical cell surface marker expression; mesodermal differentiation into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages; and the ability to support hematopoietic cells. Global proteomic studies performed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry revealed a high degree of similarity to human MSC (hMSC) and discovery of novel markers (CD99, CD151, and MYOF) that were previously unknown to be expressed by hMSC. Dynamic in vivo imaging during fin regeneration showed that PVC may arise from undifferentiated mesenchyme providing evidence of a PVC-MSC relationship. This is the first model, established in zebrafish, in which MSC can be visualized in vivo and will allow us to better understand their function in a native environment.
Protein kinases are potential targets for the prevention and control of UV-induced skin cancer. T-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is highly expressed in skin cancer cells, but its specific function is still unknown. We investigated the role of TOPK in UVB-induced apoptosis in RPMI7951 human melanoma cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify proteins that bind with TOPK. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and flow cytometry were used to assess the effect of UVB on TOPK, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), and apoptosis in RPMI7951 cells. TOPK binds with Prx1 and its phosphorylation of Prx1 at Ser-32 is important for regulation of H(2)O(2)-mediated signal transduction. Analysis of the CD spectra of Prx1 and mutant Prx1 (S32A) proteins showed that the secondary structure of Prx1 was significantly altered by phosphorylation of Prx1 at Ser-32. UVB irradiation induced phosphorylation of TOPK in RPMI7951 human melanoma cells and phosphorylated TOPK co-localized with Prx1 in the nucleus. UVB induced the peroxidase activity of Prx1 in vitro and ex vivo. Following treatment with UVB, H(2)O(2) levels and apoptosis were increased in RPMI7951 cells stably expressing TOPK siRNA or stably mutant Prx1 (S32A). Phosphorylation of Prx1 (Ser-32) by TOPK prevents UVB-induced apoptosis in RPMI7951 melanoma cells through regulation of Prx1 peroxidase activity and blockade of intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation.
As part of a multi-endpoint systems approach to develop comprehensive methods for assessing endocrine stressors in vertebrates, differential protein profiling was used to investigate expression patterns in the brain of the amphibian model (Xenopus laevis) following in vivo exposure to a suite of T4 synthesis inhibitors. We specifically address the application of Two Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D PAGE), Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and LC-MS/MS to assess changes in relative protein expression levels. 2D PAGE and iTRAQ proved to be effective complementary techniques for distinguishing protein changes in the developing amphibian brain in response to T4 synthesis inhibition. This information served to evaluate the use of distinctive protein profiles as a potential mechanism to screen chemicals for endocrine activity in anurans. Regulatory pathways associated with proteins expressed as a result of chemical effect are reported. To our knowledge, this is also the first account of the anuran larvae brain proteome characterization using proteomic technologies. Correlation of protein changes to other cellular and organism-level responses will aid in the development of a more rapid and cost-effective, non-mammalian screening assay for thyroid axis-disrupting chemicals.
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