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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of liver tissue damage and grasp stability using finite element analysis.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Minimizing tissue damage and maintaining grasp stability are essential considerations in surgical grasper design. Most past and current research analyzing graspers used for tissue manipulation in minimally invasive surgery is based on in vitro experiments. Most previous work assessed tissue injury and grasp security by visual inspection; only a few studies have quantified it. The goal of the present work is to develop a methodology with which to compute tissue damage magnitude and grasp quality that is appropriate for a wide range of grasper-tissue interaction. Using finite element analysis (FEA), four graspers with varying radii of curvature and four graspers with different tooth sizes were analyzed while squeezing and pulling liver tissue. All graspers were treated as surgical steel with linear elastic material properties. Nonlinear material properties of tissue used in the FEA as well as damage evaluation were derived from previously reported in vivo experiments. Computed peak stress, integrated stress, and tissue damage were compared. Applied displacement is vertical and then horizontal to the tissue surface to represent grasp and retraction. A close examination of the contact status of each node within the grasper-tissue interaction surface was carried out to investigate grasp stability. The results indicate less tissue damage with increasing radius of curvature. A smooth wave pattern reduced tissue damage at the cost of inducing higher percentage of slipping area. This methodology may be useful for researchers to develop and test various designs of graspers. Also it could improve surgical simulator performance by reflecting more realistic tissue material properties and predicting tissue damage for the student.
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[Effects of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objective To investigate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling monoclonal antibody (mAb). Methods The pH value of colloidal gold was adjusted by K2CO3 solution. Then colloidal gold with a range of pH 5.0-9.0 labeled enterovirus 71 (EV71)-VP1 mAb respectively, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to block the unreacted sites on the gold colloids for further experiments. The changes in the properties of colloidal gold in the progress of colloidal gold labeling mAb were monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Finally, Mey's test was adopted to identify the stability of immunogold, and the sensitivity of the strip was evaluated by detecting gradual dilution of serum. Results EV71-VP1 mAb could be conjugated with colloidal gold at pH7.0-8.5, and at this optimal pH, the test strip presented a good sensitivity. Conclusion pH is an important factor to ensure the stability of immunogold and to determine the conjugation effect between colloidal gold and mAb. The study confirmed that UV/Vis spectroscopy can evaluate the influence of pH on the properties of colloidal gold labeling mAb and set up an optimal pH for colloidal gold labeling using UV/Vis spectroscopy.
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[Meta-analysis of leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast in the treatment of allergic rhinitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To evaluate the treatment outcomes of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) as monotherapy or combined with the second-generation oral H1-histamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), and to provide a basis for optimizing clinical therapeutic strategies.
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[Characteristics of water-soluble organic nitrogen of PM2.5 in Xi'an during wintertime non-haze and haze periods].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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High-volume PM2.5 samples were collected hourly from 4 December to 13 December 2012 at an urban site in Xi'an and analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN), water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) and inorganic ions to investigate the sources and formation mechanism of WSON. The results showed that during the sampling period the averaged hourly concentration of WSON was (12 +/- 9.4) microg x m(-3) and maximized at 31 microg x m(-3), accounting for 47% +/- 9.8% of WSTN with NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N being 29% +/- 8.5% and 23% +/- 8.1%, respectively. WSON: WSOC (N: C) mass ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.65 with an average of 0.31 +/- 0.13 during the observation period. WSON was (1.6 +/- 0.9) microg x m(-3), (6.5 +/- 3.9) microg x m(-3) and (23 +/- 4.7) microg x m(-3) in non-haze days (visibility > 10 km), light haze days (5 km < visibility < 10 km) and heavy haze days (visibility < 5 km), respectively. WSOC/OC mass ratio throughout the observation period showed no significant change, but WSON/WSOC(N: C) mass ratio increased significantly from a lower value of 0.2 +/- 0.1 in non-haze days to 0.3 +/- 0.1 on light haze days and 0.4 +/- 0.1 on heavy haze days, in consistence with the enhanced acidity of the fine particles. In addition, during the whole sampling period, WSON was strongly correlated with NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) (R2 > 0.80), and negatively correlated with cation-anion equivalent ratio (R2 = 0.53). These phenomena can be mainly ascribed to a gas-particle conversion of gaseous water-soluble nitrogen-containing organic compounds like amines via acid-base reactions, which was sharply increased under the favorable meteorological conditions (e.g., low temperature and high humidity) during the heavy haze days.
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Volatile organic compound and formaldehyde emissions from Populus davidiana wood treated with low molecular weight urea-formaldehyde resin.
J Environ Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Populus davidiana wood was usually impregnated with low molecular weight thermosetting resins to improve its physical and mechanical properties. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde emitted from treated wood have lead to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). The trends of VOC and formaldehyde emissions as a function of the weight percent gain (WPG) factor were mainly investigated in this work. Aldehydes and alkanes were the predominant compositions indentified in the VOC emissions, although low amount of ketones, terpenes and alcohols were also found. With the increase in WPG, VOC and formaldehyde concentrations improved. However, their concentration began to decrease when WPG was over 44.06% (VOC) and 36.35% (formaldehyde), respectively. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of untreated and treated wood at different WPG levels was detected. It showed that treatment of wood with UF resin significantly improved the mechanical properties. Therefore, it is probably helpful to comprehensively analyze correlations among environmental performance, mechanical performance and processing costs.
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High expression of SGTA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma correlates with proliferation and poor prognosis.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) expression and the growth factor such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and their receptors have been considered relevant in the process of angiogenesis and dissemination in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) downstream of RTK signaling was a critical regulator of PDGF receptors (PDGFR) stability. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of SGTA and to elucidate its clinicopathologic significance in ESCC. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed for SGTA in ESCC samples. SGTA was up-regulated in ESCC as compared with the adjacent normal tissue. High expression of SGTA was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.01), and SGTA was positively correlated with proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that SGTA expression did has a remarkable prediction for poor prognosis (P = 0.016). Knockdown or overexpression of SGTA affected ESCC cells proliferation and cell cycle. Additionally, after ESCC cells silenced for SGTA were treated with cisplatin (an anti-ESCC agent), the cell growth was down-regulated. These findings suggested that SGTA was involved in the pathogenesis of ESCC and might indicate a poor prognosis for ESCC patients.
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Cisplatin and paclitaxel target significant long noncoding RNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The objectives of this study were to identify specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to clarify the function of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the confirmed laryngeal cancer lncRNAs. Fifty-four pairs of laryngeal tumor and adjacent normal tissue were collected. Candidate lncRNAs were searched in authorized databases. The significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed through high-output real-time PCR. Chemotherapy assay evaluated the influences of cisplatin and paclitaxel on the significant lncRNAs. Thirty-seven cancer-related candidate lncRNAs were selected. Three up-expressed and two down-expressed significant lncRNAs were identified and confirmed. The expressions of lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1, HOTAIR and MALAT1 were dramatically reduced with the increasing concentration of cisplatin and paclitaxel and also lengthening of the treatment duration. Cisplatin and paclitaxel have target function on significant lncRNAs in LSCC, which presents novel molecular targets to cure LSCC patients and also leads an orientation for developing new drugs.
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Effects of simulated microgravity on Streptococcus mutans physiology and biofilm structure.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Long-term spaceflights will eventually become an inevitable occurrence. Previous studies have indicated that oral infectious diseases, including dental caries, were more prevalent in astronauts due to the effect of microgravity. However, the impact of the space environment, especially the microgravity environment, on the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, a major caries-associated bacterium, is yet to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of simulated microgravity on the physiology and biofilm structure of S. mutans. We also explored the dual-species interaction between S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis under a simulated microgravity condition. Results indicated that the simulated microgravity condition can enhance the acid tolerance ability, modify the biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution of S. mutans, and increase the proportion of S. mutans within a dual-species biofilm, probably through the regulation of various gene expressions. We hypothesize that the enhanced competitiveness of S. mutans under simulated microgravity may cause a multispecies micro-ecological imbalance, which would result in the initiation of dental caries. Our current findings are consistent with previous studies, which revealed a higher astronaut-associated incidence of caries. Further research is required to explore the detailed mechanisms.
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Alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat brain following gamma knife surgery.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is used for the treatment of various brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying brain injury following irradiation remain to be elucidated. Given that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely associated with pathological angiogenesis and the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), the present study was designed to analyze temporal alterations in VEGF expression in the cerebral cortex and the effect of VEGF on cerebral edema in rats following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at maximum doses of 60 Gy. Animals were sacrificed between 4 and 24 weeks after GKS. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction (RT?PCR) were employed for detecting VEGF expression. The vessel density was measured by CD31+ cell count and vascular structures were examined using electron microscopy. Brain water content and BBB permeability were measured in the present study. VEGF expression in the irradiated cortex progressively increased until 16 weeks after GKS when the maximal expression was reached, and then gradually decreased to the control level 24 weeks after GKS. These findings were confirmed by RT?PCR. A mild decrease in vessel density was observed 4 weeks after GKS, followed by an increase in vessel density between 8 and 20 weeks later. Furthermore, previous studies also demonstrated vascular damage, opening of the BBB and an increase in brain water content occurring simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, these data demonstrated for the first time dynamic changes in VEGF expression following GKS and also suggest the importance of VEGF expression in pathological angiogenesis and edema formation following GKS.
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Involvement of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) in the formation and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) has been related to several malignancies. The predictive value of CRM1 in the malignance and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, is not clear yet. In this study, we displayed that CRM1 expression was up-regulated in ESCC using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Statistical analysis demonstrated that patients with high CRM1 levels indicated shorter survival period. We further found that silencing CRM1 caused apoptosis in ESCC cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of CRM1 disturbed the expression of tumor suppressor proteins and inhibited NF-?B activity in ESCC cell lines, especially if the cell line was treated with 5-fluorouracil. In consequence, our results for the first time indicated that CRM1 was dysregulated in ESCC, and suppression of CRM1 expression which resulted in inhibiting of NF-?B signaling might be developed into a new strategy in ESCC therapy.
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Detection and attribution of vegetation greening trend in China over the last 30 years.
Glob Chang Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation growth is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This is an extraordinary challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively detect and attribute a greening trend in China over the last three decades. We use three different satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) datasets for detection as well as five different process-based ecosystem models for attribution. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition are identified as the most likely causes of the greening trend in China, explaining 85% and 41% of the average growing-season LAI trend (LAIGS ) estimated by satellite datasets (average trend of 0.0070 yr(-1) , ranging from 0.0035 yr(-1) to 0.0127 yr(-1) ), respectively. The contribution of nitrogen deposition is more clearly seen in southern China than in the north of the country. Models disagree about the contribution of climate change alone to the trend in LAIGS at the country scale (one model shows a significant increasing trend, whereas two others show significant decreasing trends). However, the models generally agree on the negative impacts of climate change in north China and Inner Mongolia and the positive impact in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Provincial forest area change tends to be significantly correlated with the trend of LAIGS (P<0.05), and marginally significantly (P=0.07) correlated with the residual of LAIGS trend, calculated as the trend observed by satellite minus that estimated by models through considering the effects of climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition, across different provinces. This result highlights the important role of China's afforestation program in explaining the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Attenuation of neuropathic pain by saikosaponin a in a rat model of chronic constriction injury.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, the effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Saikosaponin a possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of saikosaponin a in neuropathic pain is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of saikosaponin a on neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After CCI, rats were administered saikosaponin a (6.25, 12.50 and 25.00 mg/kg intraperitoneal, once daily) for 14 days. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were assessed before surgery and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after CCI. Our results showed that CCI significantly decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency on days 1, 3, 7 and 14, as compared with sham groups, however, saikosaponin a reversed this effects. In addition, saikosaponin a inhibited CCI-induced the levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 in spinal cord. Western blot analysis demonstrated that saikosaponin a reduced the elevated expression of p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-?B in the spinal cord induced by CCI. These results suggest that saikosaponin a could effectively attenuate neuropathic pain in CCI rats by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in spinal cord.
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The origin of high electrolyte-electrode interfacial resistances in lithium cells containing garnet type solid electrolytes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Dense LLZO (Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12) pellets were processed in controlled atmospheres to investigate the relationships between the surface chemistry and interfacial behavior in lithium cells. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies revealed that Li2CO3 was formed on the surface when LLZO pellets were exposed to air. The distribution and thickness of the Li2CO3 layer were estimated by a combination of bulk and surface sensitive techniques with various probing depths. First-principles thermodynamic calculations confirmed that LLZO has an energetic preference to form Li2CO3 in air. Exposure to air and the subsequent formation of Li2CO3 at the LLZO surface is the source of the high interfacial impedances observed in cells with lithium electrodes. Surface polishing can effectively remove Li2CO3 and dramatically improve the interfacial properties. Polished samples in lithium cells had an area specific resistance (ASR) of only 109 ? cm(2) for the LLZO/Li interface, the lowest reported value for Al-substituted LLZO. Galvanostatic cycling results obtained from lithium symmetrical cells also suggest that the quality of the LLZO/lithium interface has a significant impact on the device lifetime.
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A prospective, randomised, controlled multicentre study comparing cervical disc replacement with anterior cervical decompression and fusion.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Total cervical artificial disc replacement (TDR) simulates normal disc structure, thus avoiding the drawbacks of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). This prospective, randomized, controlled and multicentre study aimed to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes by comparing cervical disc replacement using Mobi-C disc prostheses with ACDF.
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Prognostic significance of ?-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma after surgery.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The clinical significance of ?-H2AX in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not yet been established. This study was performed to assess the expression of nuclear ?-H2AX in benign and malignant laryngeal lesions and to assess its clinicopathological significance.
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Duodenal CCK cells from male mice express multiple hormones including ghrelin.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Enteroendocrine (EEC) cells have a pivotal role in intestinal nutrient sensing and release hormones that orchestrate food digestion and regulate appetite. EEC cells are found scattered throughout the intestine and have typically been classified based on the primary hormone they contain. I cells represent a subset of EEC cells that secrete cholecystokinin (CCK) and are mainly localized to the duodenum. Recent studies have shown that I cells express mRNAs encoding several gut hormones. In this study, we investigated the hormonal profile of murine fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted duodenal I cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and immunostaining methods. We report that I cells are enriched in mRNA transcripts encoding CCK and also other key gut hormones, including neurotensin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), secretin, peptide YY, proglucagon, and ghrelin (Ghrl). Furthermore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified I cells and immunostaining confirmed the presence of these gut hormones in duodenal I cells. Immunostaining highlighted that subsets of I cells in both crypts and villi coexpress differential amounts of CCK, Ghrl, GIP, or peptide YY, indicating that a proportion of I cells contain several hormones during maturation and when fully differentiated. Our results reveal that although I cells express several key gut hormones, including GIP or proglucagon, and thus have a considerable overlap with classically defined K and L cells, approximately half express Ghrl, suggesting a potentially important subset of duodenal EEC cells that require further consideration.
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Isolation, Stereochemical Study, and Cytotoxic Activity of Isobenzofuran Derivatives From a Marine Streptomyces sp.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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A new 1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran derivative (), together with its epimer (), was isolated from marine Streptomyces sp. W007. The structure of the two compounds was established by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations of and were determined by a combination of experimental and computational means, including J-coupling analysis and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) calculations, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and optical rotation (OR) calculations. Compound had no cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, while compound exhibited weak activity, suggesting that the biological activity depends on the configuration of a single chirality center. Chirality 00: 000-000, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 concentration correlate with pre- and postoperative pain sensation in patients with intervertebral disk degeneration.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Numerous studies have revealed the presence of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in pathologic intervertebral disk (IVD) tissues and the contribution of Th17-associated cytokines to the development of this disease. However, the pre- and postoperative changes in the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with IVD degeneration are not clear. The levels of Th17 frequency and the interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentration in peripheral blood from patients and volunteers were examined by flow cytometry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The clinical results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). These results were subjected to a correlation analysis. Compared with the normal controls, the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 were significantly increased preoperatively in patients with IVD degeneration. Postoperatively, the levels of Th17 cells and the expression of IL-17 were dramatically decreased. The correlation analysis of the VAS pain scores, Th17 cell frequency, and IL-17 concentration, including the pre- and postoperative levels and the changes induced by the surgery, revealed a positive correlation. The authors' results explain the contribution of Th17 cells and IL-17 to the pain sensation experienced by patients with IVD degeneration. These 2 factors may be good indicators for the evaluation of the surgical outcome of patients with lumbar disk herniation.
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Multi-level cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) versus single-level CDA for the treatment of cervical disc diseases: a meta-analysis.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) was developed to treat cervical degenerated disc diseases with the advantages of preserving the kinematics of the functional spinal unit. However, the safety and reliability of multi-level CDA are still controverted when comparing to the single-level CDA. It has shown unclear benefits in terms of clinical results, functional recovery, heterotopic ossification, and the need for secondary surgical procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of multi-level cervical arthroplasty over single-level CDA for the treatment of cervical spondylosis and disc diseases.
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Optical serial coherent analyzer of radio-frequency (OSCAR).
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Optical serial coherent analyzer of radio-frequency is a novel scheme that enables fast-scanning microwave signal measurements in a large bandwidth. The measurements are performed based on serial channelization realized by using a fast scanning laser source as the local oscillator to down-convert the to-be-measured radio-frequency (RF) signals. Optical coherent detection effectively removes interferences induced by RF's self-beating and guarantees the accuracy of measurements. In the experimental demonstration, instantaneous multi-frequency measurements and vector information acquisition of RF signals can be achieved by this scheme within 2.8 ?s over 14 GHz bandwidth.
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Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.
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Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
J. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism.
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Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles.
Dent Mater
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties.
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[Clinical analysis of the correlation factors of chronic sinusitis osteitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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To analyse the severity of chronic sinusitis osteitis and the correlation factors by global osteitis scoring scale(GOSS).
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Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches.
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[Situation of distribution and utilization of crop straw resources in seven western provinces, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Based on agricultural statistical and investigating data on farmers, amount, distribution density and amount per capita of crop straw resources of seven western provinces of China were estimated, the trends of amount dynamics from 1997 to 2011 and distribution and utilization of crop straw resources were analyzed, and the constraints of comprehensive utilizing straw resources and possible ways to improve straw utilization were discussed. Results showed that theoretical amount of crop straw resources in seven western provinces was 8.82 x 10(7) t in 2009, in which straw of cereals accounted for 63.1% of the total, and straw nutrients returned back to fields was 1.20 x 10(6) t, accounting for 50.5% of the total. The distribution density of straw resources of the seven western provinces was less than the national mean, while the amount per capita of straw resources was higher. According to the survey, the straw was mainly used as fuel, feed, industrial materials, matrix and returned field directly, accounting for 33.8%, 29.3%, 5.2%, 1.8% and 13.5% of the total amount, respectively. In addition, the amounts of straw burned and abandoned were 11.1% and 5.3% of the total, respectively.
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An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of clearhead icefish Protosalanx hyalocranius (Salmoniformes: Salangidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Abstract In this study, we sequenced and determined the complete mitochondrial genome of clearhead icefish (Protosalanx hyalocranius). The circular mitochondrial genome (16,693?bp) contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. All genes were encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes.
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Anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer: limitations, controversies, and contradictories.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Anti-epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment for chemotherapy refractory or metastatic colorectal cancer has obtained great achievement. However, not every colorectal patient responds to such molecular-targeted agent well. Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR resistance are not limited to KRAS mutation up to now. It was recently reported that cross-talking molecular effectors interacted with EGFR-related pathway were also negative predictor for anti-EGFR treatment. However, the limited data, controversial results, and contradictories between in vitro and clinical studies restrict the clinical application of these new biomarkers. Although the current theory of tumor microenvironment supported the application of multi-target treatment, the results from the clinical studies were less than expected. Moreover, WHO or RECIST guideline for response assessment in anti-EGFR MoAb treatment was also queried by recent AIO KRK-0306 trial. This review focuses on these controversies, contradictories, and limitations, in order to uncover the unmet needs in current status of anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer.
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[Effect of arginine dentifrice on remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To evaluate remineralization efficacy of an arginine containing dentifrice on initial enamel carious lesions in vitro.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Endangered fish Huso dauricus (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Abstract In this study, we sequenced and obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kaluga (Huso dauricus) for the first time. The circular genome (16,691?bp in length) contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the novel mitogenome is 30.39% for A, 24.18% for T, 29.27% for C, 16.15% for G. AT content (54.57%) is higher than the GC content.
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Clinical and radiographic evaluation of cervical disk replacement: a retrospective study.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Studies have shown the effectiveness of cervical disk replacement. However, clinical outcomes, particularly by radiographic assessment during the 36-month follow-up visit, have not been reported for cervical disk replacement with Mobi-C (LDR, Austin, Texas) disk prostheses. A retrospective study was conducted at 10 centers across China and included 65 patients who underwent single-level Mobi-C disk prosthesis replacement from October 2009 to July 2010. Clinical and radiographic data were collected before replacement, 7 days postoperatively, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Clinical and neurologic outcomes were assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom's criteria. Static and dynamic radiographs were measured to determine intervertebral height and range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine, the functional spinal unit, the treated segment, and adjacent segments. JOA, VAS, and NDI scores showed statistically significant improvement 36 months after replacement (P<.05). The ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments did not show a significant difference before and after replacement (P>.05). The intervertebral height of the treated segment increased significantly, and the intervertebral height of adjacent segments showed no statistical significance between time points and at follow-up. Clinical outcomes indicated that Mobi-C artificial cervical disk replacement is reliable. Radiographic data showed that it plays a role in reconstruction or maintenance of intervertebral height and ROM of the cervical spine, functional spinal unit, treated segment, and adjacent segments after Mobi-C cervical disk replacement.
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Trends in Specific Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis: A Survey of Chinese ENT Specialists.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a suitable but uncommon treatment option for allergic rhinitis (AR) in China. The current understanding and attitude of Chinese ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialists in regards to SIT is unclear. This study investigates current trends in the awareness and application status of SIT among Chinese ENT specialists.
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Effect of the size-selective silver clusters on lithium peroxide morphology in lithium-oxygen batteries.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Lithium-oxygen batteries have the potential needed for long-range electric vehicles, but the charge and discharge chemistries are complex and not well understood. The active sites on cathode surfaces and their role in electrochemical reactions in aprotic lithium-oxygen cells are difficult to ascertain because the exact nature of the sites is unknown. Here we report the deposition of subnanometre silver clusters of exact size and number of atoms on passivated carbon to study the discharge process in lithium-oxygen cells. The results reveal dramatically different morphologies of the electrochemically grown lithium peroxide dependent on the size of the clusters. This dependence is found to be due to the influence of the cluster size on the formation mechanism, which also affects the charge process. The results of this study suggest that precise control of subnanometre surface structure on cathodes can be used as a means to improve the performance of lithium-oxygen cells.
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Reconstitution of coronary vasculature by an active fraction of Geum japonicum in ischemic hearts.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Chronic coronary heart disease (cCHD) is characterized by atherosclerosis, which progressively narrows the coronary artery lumen and impairs myocardial blood flow. Restoration of occluded coronary vessels with newly formed collaterals remains an ideal therapeutic approach due to the need for redirecting blood flow into the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of an active fraction isolated from Geum joponicum (AFGJ) on angiogenesis in cCHD hearts. Our results demonstrated that AFGJ not only enhanced capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, but also promoted the growth of new coronary collaterals (at the diameter 0.021-0.21?mm) in the ischemic region of hearts in rat cCHD model. Our study also indicated that the growth of new collaterals in ischemic hearts resulted in improved functional recovery of the cCHD hearts as demonstrated by ECG and echocardiography analyses. These data suggest that AFGJ may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of cCHD.
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UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms are correlated with irinotecan-induced toxicity: a system review and meta-analysis in Asians.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Previous studies confirmed that genotyping uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1*28 polymorphisms could predict the side effects in cancer patients using irinotecan (IRI) and then reduce IRI-induced toxicity by preventative treatment or decrease in dose. However, the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms and IRI-induced severe toxicity in Asian patients is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms and IRI-induced severe neutropenia as well as diarrhea in Asian patients.
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Work environment for Chinese nurses in different types of ICUs: a multisite cross-sectional survey.
J Nurs Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To investigate the current nurse work environment, levels of job satisfaction and quality of patient care, and to identify intensive care units with a healthier work environment in mainland China.
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Progressive Degradation of Crude Oil n-Alkanes Coupled to Methane Production under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded. In this study, we assessed the methanogenic crude oil degradation capacity of oily sludge microbes enriched from the Shengli oilfield under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes combined with cloning and sequencing. Enrichment incubation demonstrated the microbial oxidation of crude oil coupled to methane production at 35 and 55°C, which generated 3.7±0.3 and 2.8±0.3 mmol of methane per gram oil, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the concurrence of acetoclastic Methanosaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens but different methanogenic community structures under the two temperature conditions. Candidate divisions of JS1 and WWE 1, Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdus) and Firmicutes (mainly consisting of Desulfotomaculum) were supposed to be involved with n-alkane degradation in the mesophilic conditions. By contrast, the different bacterial phylotypes affiliated with Caldisericales, "Shengli Cluster" and Synergistetes dominated the thermophilic consortium, which was most likely to be associated with thermophilic crude oil degradation. This study revealed that the oily sludge in Shengli oilfield harbors diverse uncultured microbes with great potential in methanogenic crude oil degradation over a wide temperature range, which extend our previous understanding of methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.
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Conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor-transduced mesenchymal stem cells promote axon regeneration and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes.
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Oral microbiota distinguishes acute lymphoblastic leukemia pediatric hosts from healthy populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In leukemia, oral manifestations indicate aberrations in oral microbiota. Microbiota structure is determined by both host and environmental factors. In human hosts, how health status shapes the composition of oral microbiota is largely unknown. Taking advantage of advances in high-throughput sequencing, we compared the composition of supragingival plaque microbiota of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) pediatric patients with healthy controls. The oral microbiota of leukemia patients had lower richness and less diversity compared to healthy controls. Microbial samples clustered into two major groups, one of ALL patients and another of healthy children, with different structure and composition. Abundance changes of certain taxa including the Phylum Firmicutes, the Class Bacilli, the Order Lactobacillales, the Family Aerococcaceae and Carnobacteriaceae, as well as the Genus Abiotrophia and Granulicatella were associated with leukemia status. ALL patients demonstrated a structural imbalance of the oral microbiota, characterized by reduced diversity and abundance alterations, possibly involved in systemic infections, indicating the importance of immune status in shaping the structure of oral microbiota.
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Berberine-induced apoptotic and autophagic death of HepG2 cells requires AMPK activation.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the primary liver cancer, is one of the most malignant human tumors with extremely poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of berberine in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and to study the underlying mechanisms by focusing on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling cascade.
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miR-18a downregulates DICER1 and promotes proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, common in Southeast Asia and the southern provinces of China, often has metastasized by the time of diagnosis; thus there exists the need for improved diagnosis and treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs), which post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression, contribute to the processes of tumorigenesis, including metastasis and cellular invasion. Here, we studied the effect of one miRNA, miR-18a-which is believed to target the miRNA-processing enzyme DICERl-on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In situ hybridization revealed that miR-18a was more highly expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues than in control tissues (P < 0.05), and the overexpression correlated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with age and gender (P > 0.05). In vitro analysis of HK1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with miR-18a exhibited significantly decreased expression of DICER1 mRNA and protein but significantly increased proliferation and invasion properties compared to control cells (P < 0.05). Finally, nude mice injected with miR-18a transfected-HK1 cells displayed significantly increased tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that miR-18a expression can promote proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and that these activities may occur through its regulation of DICER1.
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Association study on ADAM33 polymorphisms in mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ADAM33 gene has been identified as a potentially important asthma candidate gene and polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to be associated with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
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Reversal effect of ST6GAL 1 on multidrug resistance in human leukemia by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and the expression of P-gp and MRP1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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?-Galactoside ?2, 6-sialyltransferse gene (ST6GAL) family has two members, which encode corresponding enzymes ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II. The present atudy was to investigate whether and how ST6GAL family involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in human leukemia cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of leukemia patients. Real-time PCR showed a high expression level of ST6GAL1 gene in both MDR cells and BMMCs (*P<0.05). Alternation of ST6GAL1 levels had a significant impact on drug-resistant phenotype changing of K562 and K562/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, no significant changes were observed of ST6GAL2 gene. Further data revealed that manipulation of ST6GAL1 modulated the activity of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and consequently regulated the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, *P<0.05) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1, *P<0.05), which are both known to be associated with MDR. Therefore we postulate that ST6GAL1 is responsible for the development of MDR in human leukemia cells probably through medicating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp and MRP1.
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The combination of RAD001 and MK-2206 exerts synergistic cytotoxic effects against PTEN mutant gastric cancer cells: involvement of MAPK-dependent autophagic, but not apoptotic cell death pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the current study, we showed that the combination of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) and Akt inhibitor MK-2206 exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against low-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gastric cancer cells (HGC-27 and SNU-601 lines). In HGC-27 cells, RAD001 and MK-2206 synergistically induced G1/S cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, cell death but not apoptosis. RAD001 and MK-2206 synergistically induced light chain 3B (LC3B) and beclin-1 expression, two important autophagy indicators. Meanwhile, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited the cytotoxic effects by RAD001 and MK-2206, suggesting that autophagic, but not apoptotic cell death was important for the cytotoxic effects by the co-administration. We observed that the combination of RAD001 and MK-2206 exerted enhanced effects on Akt/mTOR inhibition, cyclin D1 down-regulation and ERK/MAPK(extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinases) activation. Intriguingly, MEK/ERK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 suppressed RAD001 plus MK-2206-induced beclin-1 expression, autophagy induction and cytotoxicity in HGC-27 cells. In conclusion, these results suggested that the synergistic anti-gastric cancer cells ability by RAD001 and MK-2206 involves ERK-dependent autophagic cell death pathway.
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Soil microbial community responses to a decade of warming as revealed by comparative metagenomics.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Soil microbial communities are extremely complex, composed of thousands of low-abundance species (<0.1% of total). How such complex communities respond to natural or human-induced fluctuations, including major perturbations such as global climate change, remains poorly understood, severely limiting our predictive ability of soil ecosystem functioning and resilience. In this study, we compared twelve whole-community shotgun metagenomic datasets from a grassland soil in Midwest USA; half representing soil that was undergoing infrared warming by 2°C for 10 years, which simulated the effects of climate change, and the other half representing the adjacent soil that received no warming and thus, served as control. Our analyses revealed that the heated communities showed significant shifts in composition and predicted metabolism, and these shifts were community-wide as opposed to being attributable to a few taxa. Key metabolic pathways related to carbon turnover, e.g., cellulose degradation (?13%) and CO2 production (?10%), and nitrogen, e.g., denitrification (?12%), were enriched under warming, which was consistent with independent physicochemical measurements. These community shifts were interlinked, in part, with higher primary productivity of the aboveground plant communities stimulated by warming, revealing that most of the additional, plant-derived soil carbon was likely respired by microbial activity. Warming also enriched for a higher abundance of sporulation genes and genomes with higher G+C% content. Collectively, our results indicate that the microbial communities of the temperate grassland soils play important roles in mediating the feedback responses to climate change and advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms of community adaptation to environmental perturbations.
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[The effect of middle ear effusion on enzymatic digestion of DNA in middle ear effusions of chronic otitis media with effusion].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To determine whether or not the bacterial DNA which was detected by PCR comes from viable bacteria.
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[Anti-allergic effects of the probiotic preparations of enterococcus on experimental allergic rhinitis in mice].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of lysozyme/heat-treated Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK) and heat-treated Enterococcus faecium sp. TN-3 (TN) on experimental allergic rhinitis (AR).
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Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of melanocortin 1 receptor-Akt-mTOR signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Patients with age related macular degeneration (AMD) will develop vision loss in the center of the visual field. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell apoptosis is an important contributor of AMD. In this study, we explored the pro-survival effect of ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) on oxidative stressed RPE cells. We found that ?-MSH receptor melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was functionally expressed in primary and transformed RPE cells. RPE cells were response to ?-MSH stimulation. ?-MSH activated Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Erk1/2 signalings in RPE cells, which were inhibited by MC1R siRNA knockdown. ?-MSH protected RPE cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis, an effect that was almost abolished when MC1R was depleted by siRNA. ?-MSH-mediated S6K1 activation and pro-survival effect against H2O2 was inhibited by Akt inhibitors (perifosine, MK-2206 and LY294002). Further, mTOR inhibition by rapamycin, or by mTOR siRNA knockdown, diminished ?-MSHs pro-survival effect in RPE cells. Thus, Akt and its downstream mTOR signaling mediates ?-MSH-induced survival in RPE cells. In summary, we have identified a new ?-MSH-MC1R physiologic pathway that reduces H2O2-induced RPE cell damage, and might minimize the risk of developing AMD.
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Photonic-assisted multi-channel compressive sampling based on effective time delay pattern.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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In this paper, a photonic-assisted multi-channel compressive sampling scheme is proposed with one pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) source and Wavelength Division Multiplexing-based time delay. Meanwhile, the restricted isometry property of sensing matrix determined by the optimized time delay pattern is analyzed. In experiment, a four-channel photonic-assisted system with 5-GHz bandwidth was set up, where four-channel PRBS signals were generated by adding fiber-induced constant time delays to four-wavelength modulated PRBS signal, and a signal composed of twenty tones was recovered faithfully with four analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with only 120-MHz-bandwidth.
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[Influence of levocarnitine on heart function and endocrine among patients with heart faliure].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To observe the efficacy of levocarnitine in treating elderly patients with chronic heart failure and to explore its impact on cardiac function and endocrine.
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A simple photonic generation of linearly chirped microwave pulse with large time-bandwidth product and high compression ratio.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Based on the heterodyne beating between the pre-chirped optical pulse and the continuous wave (CW) light in a wideband photodetector (PD), linearly chirped microwave pulse with time duration of 3.2ns and bandwidth of 33GHz, which yields a large time-bandwidth product (TBWP) of 106 and high compression ratio of 160, is generated in our experiment. Dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) with uniform response across broad bandwidth is used for providing the original linear chirp in our method, which shows the promise to generate linearly chirped microwave pulse with bandwidth of up to THz. The flexibility of the center frequency and the stability of the time-frequency performance are demonstrated by generating different types of linearly chirped microwave pulses. The range resolution of our generated microwave pulse is also verified by off-line processing.
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Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,790?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the putative origin of the light strand replication) with a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.26% for A, 29.00% for C, 16.23% for G and 24.51% for T, with a slight AT bias of 54.77%.
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[The effect of plasma radiofrequency ablation on nasal mucosa provocative tests for allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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In order to explore the effect of plasma radiofrequency ablation on nasal mucosa provocative tests for allergic rhinitis.
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Esthetic comparison of white-spot lesion treatment modalities using spectrometry and fluorescence.
Angle Orthod
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Abstract Objective: To compare the esthetic improvements of white-spot lesions (WSLs) treated by fluoride, casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or resin infiltration. Materials and Methods: WSLs were created on human enamel and randomly assigned to four groups: NaF (500 ppm), CPP-ACP, resin infiltration (Icon), or distilled deionized water (DDW; control group). The color change (?E) of each specimen was measured with a Crystaleye spectrophotometer, and fluorescence loss (?Q) was measured by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), at different time points after treatment: baseline (0 weeks), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks. Results: The ?E and ?Q baseline values for the four groups before the treatments did not differ significantly. Icon treatment improved the WSL color significantly and gave the lowest ?E (2.9 ± 1.2 on average) compared with other treatments (P < .01). The Icon treatment also resulted in a significant change in the ?Q of WSLs compared with baseline (P < .01). In the NaF and CPP-ACP treatment groups, ?Q showed significant recovery compared with the baseline values only after 4 weeks after treatment (P < .05). Conclusions: Resin infiltration is more effective than NaF or CPP-ACP in providing esthetic improvement of WSLs.
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Confined nanospace pyrolysis for the fabrication of coaxial fe3 o4 @c hollow particles with a penetrated mesochannel as a superior anode for li-ion batteries.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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In this study, a method is developed to fabricate Fe3 O4 @C particles with a coaxial and penetrated hollow mesochannel based on the concept of "confined nanospace pyrolysis". The synthesis involves the production of a polydopamine coating followed by a silica coating on a rod-shaped ?-FeOOH nanoparticle, and subsequent treatment by using confined nanospace pyrolysis and silica removal procedures. Typical coaxial hollow Fe3 O4 @C possesses a rice-grain morphology and mesoporous structure with a large specific surface area, as well as a continuous and flexible carbon shell. Electrochemical tests reveal that the hollow Fe3 O4 @C with an open-ended nanostructure delivers a high specific capacity (ca. 864?mA?h?g(-1) at 1?A?g(-1) ), excellent rate capability with a capacity of about 582?mA?h?g(-1) at 2?A?g(-1) , and a high Coulombic efficiency (>97?%). The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from the hollow cavity with an inner diameter of 18?nm and a flexible carbon shell that can accommodate the volume change of the Fe3 O4 during the lithium insertion/extraction processes as well as the large specific surface area and open inner cavity to facilitate the rapid diffusion of lithium ions from electrolyte to active material. This fabrication strategy can be used to generate a hollow or porous metal oxide structure for high-performance Li-ion batteries.
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Hyperosmotic response of streptococcus mutans: from microscopic physiology to transcriptomic profile.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Oral streptococci metabolize carbohydrate to produce organic acids, which not only decrease the environmental pH, but also increase osmolality of dental plaque fluid due to tooth demineralization and consequent calcium and phosphate accumulation. Despite these unfavorable environmental changes, the bacteria continue to thrive. The aim of this study was to obtain a global view on strategies taken by Streptococcus mutans to deal with physiologically relevant elevated osmolality, and perseveres within a cariogenic dental plaque.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,684?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the putative origin of the light strand replication) with a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.07% for A, 29.36% for C, 16.44% for G and 24.13% for T, with a slight AT bias of 54.20%.
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A Method for Creating Microporous Carbon Materials with Excellent CO2 -Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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A new synthetic approach for the fabrication of microporous carbon materials (HCMs) by using discrete chelating zinc species as dynamic molecular porogens to create extra micropores that enhance their CO2 -adsorption capacity and selectivity is reported. During the carbonization process, the evaporation of the in?situ-formed Zn species would create additional nanochannels that contribute to the additional micropore volume for CO2 adsorption. The resultant HCMs show an increased number of micropores, with sizes in the range 0.7-1.0?nm and a high CO2 -adsorption capacity of 5.4?mmol?g(-1) (23.8?wt?%) at 273?K and 3.8?mmol?g(-1) (16.7?wt?%) at 298?K and 1?bar, which are superior to those of most carbon-based adsorbents with N-doping or high specific surface areas. Dynamic gas-separation measurements, by using 16?% CO2 in N2 (v/v) as a feedstock, demonstrated that CO2 could be effectively separated from N2 under ambient conditions and shows a high separation factor (S?CO?2/N?2=110) for CO2 over N2 , thereby reflecting a strongly competitive CO2 -adsorption capacity. If the feedstock contained water vapor, the dynamic capacity of CO2 was almost identical to that measured under dry conditions, thus indicating that the carbon material had excellent tolerance to humidity. Easy CO2 release could be realized by purging an argon flow through the fixed-bed adsorber at 298?K, thus indicating good regeneration ability.
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Including fluid shear viscosity in a structural acoustic finite element model using a scalar fluid representation.
J Comput Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
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[Clinical implication of global osteitis score system and its role in evaluation of osteitis of chronic rhinosinusitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To investigate the clinical application of Global Osteitis Score System (GOSS). To determine the association between GOSS, Lund-Mackay scores and Lund-Kennedy scores and to investigate the incidence of osteitis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
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Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell damage and inflammation by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat primary astrocytes.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Astrocyte inflammation plays important roles both in physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Ischemic injury in the CNS causes damage to astrocytes and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6. This current study investigates whether mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) inhibits oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat primary astrocytes. We found that MANF alleviated OGD-induced astrocyte damage and rescued the cell viability, and the upregulation of GRP78 (endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker) and NF-?B p65 (one of the central mediators of proinflammatory pathways) induced by OGD were significantly reduced by preincubation of MANF. In addition, the increases of secretion and mRNA expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? in astrocytes induced by OGD were significantly suppressed by MANF. These findings demonstrate that MANF shows the potential to alleviate cell damage and inflammation in rat primary astrocytes by suppressing ER stress, indicating that MANF plays an important role in astrocyte inflammation and functioning and may suggest a promising strategy for neuroprotection in the CNS.
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Fast onset of action of sublingual immunotherapy in house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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To investigate how quickly an allergic rhinitis (AR) patients symptoms will improve with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).
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Novel bacterial groups dominate in a thermophilic methanogenic hexadecane-degrading consortium.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A methanogenic hexadecane-degrading consortium designated SK originating from the Shengli oil field was cultured at 55 °C. The structure and dynamics of the microbial community during successive transfers were examined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The archaeal community was mainly composed of hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with Methanothermobacter crinale and acetoclastic methanogens related to Methanosaeta thermophila. Over four-fifths of the bacterial clones in the hexadecane-degrading subcultures exhibited < 90% similarity to sequences of known type strains, and clones were mainly grouped into unclassified bacteria (66.3-66.7%), Firmicutes (9.6-10.6%), Thermotogae (7.0-7.7%), and Nitrospira (5.3-5.8%). The dominant operating taxonomic unit (OTU) (41.3-43.0% of all clones) representing terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) 125 bp exhibited only 82.6% sequence similarity to Thermotoga maritime and clustered in a monophyletic, deep-branching lineage (designated Shengli cluster). Two other OTUs (T-RFs 66 and 67 bp) were assigned to uncultured members of the candidate phylum OP8 and Firmicutes, respectively. These novel bacterial assemblages are likely to be involved in the process of hexadecane degradation because of their high abundance in the enrichments. These result substantially expand the knowledge of the extent of bacterial diversity associated with the anaerobic degradation of alkanes under thermophilic conditions.
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Effect of water-ageing on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm activity of bonding agent containing new monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate.
J Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent containing a new antibacterial monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) as well as nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and to investigate the effects of water-ageing for 6 months on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm properties for the first time.
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A 4-gene panel as a marker at chromosome 8q in Asian gastric cancer patients.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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A widely held viewpoint is that the use of multiple markers, combined in some type of algorithm, will be necessary to provide high enough discrimination between diseased cases and non-diseased. We applied stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify the best combination of the 32 biomarkers at chromosome 8q on an independent public microarray test set of 80 paired gastric samples. A combination of SULF1, INTS8, ATP6V1C1, and GPR172A was identified with a prediction accuracy of 98.0% for discriminating carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues in our previous 25 paired samples. Interestingly, the overexpression of SULF1 was associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Function prediction analysis revealed that the 4-marker panel was mainly associated with acidification of intracellular compartments. Taken together, we found a 4-gene panel that accurately discriminated gastric carcinomas from adjacent noncancerous tissues and these results had potential clinical significance in the early diagnosis and targeted treatment of gastric cancer.
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Overexpression of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) in astrocytes alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Astrocyte damage and the disorders of cytokine secretion induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are crucial pathological processes in ischemic injury of the central nervous system (CNS), (e.g., ischemic reperfusion injury of the brain and spinal cord). ERS stimulates damage to astrocytes and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which deteriorates CNS injury. This current study investigates whether the overexpression of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) alleviates ER stress-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion. We found that primary astrocytes showed both a successful transduction and a significant overexpression of CDNF protein following lentivirus application. Our results show that the percentage of LDH released as a result of ER stress was significantly lower in astrocytes with an overexpression of CDNF than in the control groups without CDNF overexpression, indicating that CDNF alleviates ER stress-induced astrocyte damage. The secretion and mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased by tunicamycin, and this stimulation was significantly suppressed by an overexpression of CDNF, demonstrating that CDNF plays an important role in astrocyte inflammation and functioning by resisting ER stress. These findings suggest that primary astrocytes can be efficiently transduced with CDNF lentiviral vectors and that the overexpression of CDNF in astrocytes shows the potential to alleviate cell damage and proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which may represent a promising strategy for neuroprotection in the CNS.
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Malignant meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle in a 2-year-old girl: a case report and literature review.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor in adults. Pediatric cases account for approximately 1.5% of all intracranial meningiomas, and very few cases show malignant histological features. Primary pediatric malignant meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a 2-year-old girl with malignant meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle. The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment protocol are discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.